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1.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6664-6669, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly people in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are at higher risk for (severe) COVID-19, yet evidence of vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this population is scarce. In November 2021 (Delta period), a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at a LTCF in the Netherlands, continuing despite measures and booster vaccination campaign. We investigated the outbreak to assess VE of primary COVID-19 vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality, and to describe the impact of the booster vaccination. METHODS: We calculated attack rate (AR) and case fatality (CF) per vaccination status (unvaccinated, primarily vaccinated and boostered). We calculated VE - at on average 6 months after vaccination - as 1- risk ratio (RR) using the crude risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between vaccination status (primary vaccination versus unvaccinated) and outcomes (SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality < 30 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: The overall AR was 67% (70/105). CF was 33% (2/6) among unvaccinated cases, 12% among primarily vaccinated (7/58) and 0% (0/5) among boostered. The VE of primary vaccination was 17% (95% CI -28%; 46%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 70% (95% CI -44%; 96%) against mortality. Among boostered residents (N = 55), there were 25 cases in the first week after receiving the booster dose, declining to 5 in the second and none in the third week. CONCLUSION: VE of primary vaccination in residents of LTCF was very low against SARS-CoV-2 infection and moderate against mortality. There were few cases at 2 weeks after the booster dose and no deaths, despite the presence of susceptible residents. These data are consistent with the positive impact of the booster vaccination in curbing transmission. Timely booster vaccination in residents of LTCF is therefore important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization Programs , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
2.
Microbes Infect ; : 105076, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105590

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the importance of zoonotic diseases. Psittacosis, a human disease resulting from infection spill-over from Chlamydia psittaci-infected birds, is a lesser-known example of a zoonosis. Psittacosis was responsible for numerous outbreaks in the 1930s, characterised by significant human mortality and disruption to the global trade in parrots. This paper describes the epidemiological and clinical details of one family group impacted by the purchase of an infected, imported parrot. Findings are discussed in the context of a growing awareness of the health risks of global disease outbreaks, as well as social and economic impacts. Health information recorded for cases of psittacosis associated with the 1930s cluster was reviewed using contemporary knowledge of disease symptoms and epidemiology. Case details and autopsy reports were examined. Public health investigation deduced that the cluster of infections was chronologically and physically connected to the purchase and subsequent death of an imported parrot. Disease symptoms were consistent with C. psittaci infection. Epidemiological data supported the diagnoses and causes of death, despite the presenting symptoms sharing significant overlap with other common respiratory diseases. There is growing awareness of the risks of epidemiological bridges in transmitting animal diseases to humans. Historical cases are a strong reminder of the fundamental role of scientific and public health responses in the face of such contagion.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We sought to assess the clinical impact of Covid-19 infection on mortality in patients with Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) admitted during the national outbreak in Italy. METHODS: We analysed a nationwide, comprehensive, and universal administrative database of consecutive NSTEMI patients admitted during lockdown for Covid-19 infection (March,11st - May 3rd, 2020) and the equivalent periods of the previous 5 years in Italy. The observed rate of 30-day and 6-month all-cause mortality of NSTEMI patients with and without Covid-19 infection during the lockdown was compared with the expected rate of death according to the trend of the previous 5 years. RESULTS: During the period of observation, 48.447 NSTEMI hospitalizations occurred in Italy. Among these, 4981 NSTEMI patients were admitted during the 2020 outbreak: 173 (3.5%) with and 4808 (96.5%) without a Covid-19 diagnosis. According to the 5-year trend, the 2020 expected rate of 30-day and 6-month all-cause mortality was 6.5% and 12.2%, while the observed incidence of death was 8.3% (p = 0.001) and 13.6% (p = 0.041), respectively. Excluding NSTEMI patients with a Covid-19 diagnosis, the 6-month mortality rate resulted in accordance with the prior 5-year trend. After multiple corrections, the presence of Covid-19 diagnosis resulted one of the independent predictors of all-cause mortality at 30 days [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.90-6.23; p < 0.0001] and 6 months (adjusted OR 3.5; 95% CI: 2.43-5.03; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: During the 2020 national outbreak in Italy, a concomitant diagnosis of Covid-19 in NSTEMI was associated with a significantly higher rate of mortality.

4.
Turkish Journal of Oncology ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100243

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-19) was the name given to a novel pneumonia outbreak that occurred in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) in December 2019. For patients undergoing or scheduled for radiation therapy, radiation oncology (RO) departments were required to adjust their management protocols to maintain their ability to provide optimal care. The present survey study assesses the change in the daily practices of Turkish radiation oncologists. METHODS An online questionnaire was developed in Google Forms and sent out to oncologists registered with the Turkish society for RO. A total of 98 radiation oncologists completed the online questionnaire after three reminders were sent to the recipients over the course of 1 week. RESULTS After the pandemic has started, 65% of radiation oncologists moved their wards and outpatient clinics to different hospital units, resulting in an approximate 70% decline in the delivery of patient services in RO. Since the beginning of the pandemic in Turkiye, 52% of radiation oncologists have not been assigned to services related to COVID-19. Around half of the radiation oncologists surveyed stated that they were shunned by the society due to fear of transmitting the COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION Further studies are needed to steer the creation of new regulations related to radiation oncologists, to be applied in the event of such emergencies as the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Sleep Res ; : e13767, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097841

ABSTRACT

Since the first lockdown of Spring 2020, the COVID-19 contagion waves pervasively disrupted the sleep and mental health of the worldwide population. Notwithstanding the largest vaccination campaign in human history, the pandemic has continued to impact the everyday life of the general population for 2 years now. The present study provides the first evidence of the longitudinal trajectories of sleep disturbances and mental health throughout the pandemic in Italy, also describing the differential time course of age groups, genders and chronotypes. A total of 1062 Italians participated in a three-time-point longitudinal study covering two critical stages of the emergency (the first lockdown in April 2020 and the second partial lockdown in December 2020) and providing a long-term overview 2 years after the pandemic outbreak (April 2022). We administered validated questionnaires to evaluate sleep quality/habits, insomnia, depression, stress and anxiety symptoms. Analyses showed a gradual improvement in sleep disturbances, depression and anxiety. Conversely, sleep duration progressively decreased, particularly in evening-type and younger people. Participants reported substantial earlier bedtime and get-up time. Stress levels increased during December 2020 and then stabilised. This effect was stronger in the population groups apparently more resilient during the first lockdown (older people, men and morning-types). Our results describe a promising scenario 2 years after the pandemic onset. However, the improvements were relatively small, the perceived stress increased, and the re-establishment of pre-existing social/working dynamics led to general sleep curtailment. Further long-term monitoring is required to claim the end of the COVID-19 emergency on Italians' sleep and mental health.

6.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(3): 192-207, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic. Adolescence and early adulthood are peak times for the onset of mental health difficulties. Exposure to a pandemic during this vulnerable developmental period places young people at significant risk of negative psychological experiences. The objective of this research was to summarise existing evidence on the potential impact of a pandemic on the mental health of 12-25 year olds. METHODS: A rapid review of the published peer-reviewed literature, published between 1985 and 2020, using PsycINFO (Proquest) and Medline (Proquest) was conducted. Narrative synthesis was used across studies to identify key themes and concepts. RESULTS: This review found 3,359 papers, which was reduced to 12 papers for data extraction. Results regarding the prevalence of psychological difficulties in youth were mixed, with some studies finding this group experience heightened distress during an infectious disease outbreak, and others finding no age differences or higher distress among adults. Gender, coping, self-reported physical health and adoption of precautionary measures appear to play a role in moderating the psychological impact of an infectious disease outbreak. Most studies were conducted after the peak of an epidemic/pandemic or in the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: More longitudinal research with young people, particularly adolescents in the general population, before and during the early stages of an infectious disease outbreak is needed to obtain a clear understanding of how best to support young people during these events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clean Prod ; 380: 135068, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095590

ABSTRACT

Existing literature reports that COVID-19 outbreak may affect people's risk perceptions, with disturbances ranging from mild negative emotional reactions to overall mental health. At the same time, the pneumonia pandemic reveals all the vulnerabilities and weaknesses of our ecosystem and makes people reflect on traditional ecologically harmful production practices. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the existing scientific literature on these variables, through a survey and empirical analysis, in order to present and comment on the effects and mechanisms of influence between them. The results showed that: (1) Increasing farmers'cognition of COVID-19 outbreak could significantly enhance the green production willingness. Specifically, the probability of "Very willing"to participate in green production increased by 29.9% for each unit of increase in cognition. (2) Farmers'cognition of COVID-19 outbreak can significantly enhance the level of risk perception and thus enhance their green production willingness, that is, risk perception is an important transmission medium of this effect. (3)The analysis of inter-generational difference showed that the impact of cognition of COVID-19 outbreak on green production willingness was significant for both the new generation and the old generation. On the basis of this, some policy suggestions are put forward, such as strengthening the propaganda and education of natural ecological environment protection, establishing the propaganda mechanism of green agricultural products market in the later period of epidemic situation, raising farmers'risk perception level through multi-channels and so on.

8.
Lancet Digital Health ; JOUR(8):E573-E583, 4.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092794

ABSTRACT

Background Real-time prediction is key to prevention and control of infections associated with health-care settings. Contacts enable spread of many infections, yet most risk prediction frameworks fail to account for their dynamics. We developed, tested, and internationally validated a real-time machine-learning framework, incorporating dynamic patient-contact networks to predict hospital-onset COVID-19 infections (HOCIs) at the individual level. Methods We report an international retrospective cohort study of our framework, which extracted patient-contact networks from routine hospital data and combined network-derived variables with clinical and contextual information to predict individual infection risk. We trained and tested the framework on HOCIs using the data from 51 157 hospital inpatients admitted to a UK National Health Service hospital group (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust) between April 1, 2020, and April 1, 2021, intersecting the first two COVID-19 surges. We validated the framework using data from a Swiss hospital group (Department of Rehabilitation, Geneva University Hospitals) during a COVID-19 surge (from March 1 to May 31, 2020;40 057 inpatients) and from the same UK group after COVID-19 surges (from April 2 to Aug 13, 2021;43 375 inpatients). All inpatients with a bed allocation during the study periods were included in the computation of network-derived and contextual variables. In predicting patient-level HOCI risk, only inpatients spending 3 or more days in hospital during the study period were examined for HOCI acquisition risk. Findings The framework was highly predictive across test data with all variable types (area under the curve [AUC]-receiver operating characteristic curve [ROC] 0.89 [95% CI 0.88-0.90]) and similarly predictive using only contact-network variables (0.88 [0.86-0.90]). Prediction was reduced when using only hospital contextual (AUC-ROC 0.82 [95% CI 0.80-0.84]) or patient clinical (0.64 [0.62-0.66]) variables. A model with only three variables (ie, network closeness, direct contacts with infectious patients [network derived], and hospital COVID-19 prevalence [hospital contextual]) achieved AUC-ROC 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88). Incorporating contact-network variables improved performance across both validation datasets (AUC-ROC in the Geneva dataset increased from 0.84 [95% CI 0.82-0.86] to 0.88 [0.86-0.90];AUC-ROC in the UK post-surge dataset increased from 0.49 [0.46-0.52] to 0.68 [0.64-0.70]). Interpretation Dynamic contact networks are robust predictors of individual patient risk of HOCIs. Their integration in clinical care could enhance individualised infection prevention and early diagnosis of COVID-19 and other nosocomial infections. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

9.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088104

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cluster surveillance, identification, and containment are primary outbreak management techniques; however, adapting these for low- and middle-income countries is an ongoing challenge. We aimed to evaluate the utility of prehospital call center ambulance dispatch (CCAD) data for surveillance by examining the correlation between influenza-like illness (ILI)-related dispatch calls and COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of state-level CCAD and COVID-19 data recorded between January 1 and April 30, 2020, in Telangana, India. The primary outcome was a time series correlation between ILI calls in CCAD and COVID-19 case counts. Secondarily, we looked for a year-to-year correlation of ILI calls in the same period over 2018, 2019, and 2020. RESULTS: On average, ILI calls comprised 12.9% (95% CI 11.7%-14.1%) of total daily calls in 2020, compared to 7.8% (95% CI 7.6%-8.0%) in 2018, and 7.7% (95% CI 7.5%-7.7%) in 2019. ILI call counts from 2018, 2019, and 2020 aligned closely until March 19, when 2020 ILI calls increased, representing 16% of all calls by March 23 and 27.5% by April 7. In contrast to the significant correlation observed between 2020 and previous years' January-February calls (2020 and 2019-Durbin-Watson test statistic [DW] = 0.749, p < 0.001; 2020 and 2018-DW = 1.232, p < 0.001), no correlation was observed for March-April calls (2020 and 2019-DW = 2.012, p = 0.476; 2020 and 2018-DW = 1.820, p = 0.208). In March-April 2020, the daily reported COVID-19 cases by time series significantly correlated with the ILI calls (DW = 0.977, p < 0.001). The ILI calls on a specific day significantly correlated with the COVID-19 cases reported 6 days prior and up to 14 days after (cross-correlation > 0.251, the 95% upper confidence limit). CONCLUSIONS: The statistically significant time series correlation between ILI calls and COVID-19 cases suggests prehospital CCAD can be part of early warning systems aiding outbreak cluster surveillance, identification, and containment.

10.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(5): 787-794, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086460

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the monkeypox outbreak in early 2022 has posed a new global health threat. As of July 8, 2022, 9069 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported, and most of them are from non-endemic countries. The monkeypox virus is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, and preliminary genetic data suggest that the 2022 monkeypox virus belongs to the West African clade. In the current outbreak, human-to-human transmission has been the primary transmission mode. Although direct skin-to-skin contact with lesions during sexual activities can spread the virus, it remains unclear whether monkeypox can spread through sexual contact, specifically through contaminated body fluids. The typical presentation of monkeypox includes prodromal symptoms, followed by a rash that usually begins within 1-3 days of symptom onset, and the skin lesions can last for 2-4 weeks and then gradually resolve. However, the monkeypox outbreak in 2022 may exhibit atypical features. A definite diagnosis of monkeypox virus infection requires nucleic acid amplification testing via the polymerase chain reaction method. Supportive care is essential, and antiviral therapy is not considered for all affected patients, but recommended for those at highrisk for severe diseases. The mitigation of monkeypox outbreaks include enhanced case detection, case isolation, contact tracing, and post-exposure vaccination. In conclusion, the current monkeypox outbreak is a new threat during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinicians should be aware of this new situation, which presents a different scenario from those of prior outbreaks. Global health systems should develop effective strategies to mitigate the spread of monkeypox.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus/genetics , DNA , Antiviral Agents
11.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; JOUR(15):5574-5580, 26.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081706

ABSTRACT

- OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pan-demic has influenced regular medical proce-dures and health-seeking behaviors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) pa-tients in county-level stroke centers.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospec-tively collected AIS patients during the strict lockdown period (January 24, 2020, to March 27, 2020) and the corresponding "new normal" pe-riod (2021) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients seen during the same timeframe in 2019 were en-rolled as controls. Statistical analysis was con-ducted to compare the clinical characteristics of AIS patients who presented during the lockdown and new normal periods and those who present-ed during the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period.RESULTS: A total of 134 AIS patients present-ed during the lockdown period (the 2020 group), 207 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period (the 2019 group) and 201 patients in the "new normal" period (the 2021 group). Compared to the 2019 group, there was approximately 1/3 reduction in the number of patients who presented during the lockdown period, while the number of patients who received IVT or EVT was similar between the two groups. The number of patients, baseline characteristics, workflow intervals and clinical outcomes presented during the "new normal" period were similar between the 2019 and 2021 groups. Logistic regression showed that lock -down or new normal status were not risk factors associated with a poor outcome at 90 days.CONCLUSIONS: In county-level city stroke centers, the COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a reduction in the number of patients with AIS ad-mitted to the hospital but had no effect on pa-tients treated with IVT or EVT. Lockdown or new normal status did not influence the prognosis of AIS patients.

12.
J Biomed Inform ; : 104236, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Outbreaks of influenza-like diseases often cause spikes in the demand for hospital beds. Early detection of these outbreaks can enable improved management of hospital resources. The objective of this study was to test whether surveillance algorithms designed to be responsive to a wide range of anomalous decreases in the time between emergency department (ED) presentations with influenza-like illnesses provide efficient early detection of these outbreaks. METHODS: Our study used data on ED presentations to major public hospitals in Queensland, Australia across 2017-2020. We developed surveillance algorithms for each hospital that flag potential outbreaks when the average time between successive ED presentations with influenza-like illnesses becomes anomalously small. We designed one set of algorithms to be responsive to a wide range of anomalous decreases in the time between presentations. These algorithms concurrently monitor three exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMAs) of the time between presentations and flag an outbreak when at least one EWMA falls below its control limit. We designed another set of algorithms to be highly responsive to narrower ranges of anomalous decreases in the time between presentations. These algorithms monitor one EWMA of the time between presentations and flag an outbreak when the EWMA falls below its control limit. Our algorithms use dynamic control limits to reflect that the average time between presentations depends on the time of year, time of day, and day of the week. RESULTS: We compared the performance of the algorithms in detecting the start of two epidemic events at the hospital-level: the 2019 seasonal influenza outbreak and the early-2020 COVID-19 outbreak. The algorithm that concurrently monitors three EWMAs provided significantly earlier detection of these outbreaks than the algorithms that monitor one EWMA. CONCLUSION: Surveillance algorithms designed to be responsive to a wide range of anomalous decreases in the time between ED presentations are highly efficient at detecting outbreaks of influenza-like diseases at the hospital level.

13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 961198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080141

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak emerged of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organisation announced the outbreak a global health emergency on 30 January 2020 and by 11 March 2020 it was declared a pandemic. The spread and severity of the outbreak took a heavy toll and overburdening of the global health system, particularly since there were no available drugs against SARS-CoV-2. With an immediate worldwide effort, communication, and sharing of data, large amounts of funding, researchers and pharmaceutical companies immediately fast-tracked vaccine development in order to prevent severe disease, hospitalizations and death. A number of vaccines were quickly approved for emergency use, and worldwide vaccination rollouts were immediately put in place. However, due to several individuals being hesitant to vaccinations and many poorer countries not having access to vaccines, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants quickly emerged that were distinct from the original variant. Uncertainties related to the effectiveness of the various vaccines against the new variants as well as vaccine specific-side effects have remained a concern. Despite these uncertainties, fast-track vaccine approval, manufacturing at large scale, and the effective distribution of COVID-19 vaccines remain the topmost priorities around the world. Unprecedented efforts made by vaccine developers/researchers as well as healthcare staff, played a major role in distributing vaccine shots that provided protection and/or reduced disease severity, and deaths, even with the delta and omicron variants. Fortunately, even for those who become infected, vaccination appears to protect against major disease, hospitalisation, and fatality from COVID-19. Herein, we analyse ongoing vaccination studies and vaccine platforms that have saved many deaths from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40175, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 epidemic wave in Hong Kong peaked in the first quarter of 2022. Following the implementation of stringent public health measures, the daily number of reported cases fell from over 50,000 to below 2000. Although outbreaks steadily receded, the government rolled out a 3-day "voluntary universal rapid testing" campaign to invite all citizens to self-perform a rapid antigen test (RAT) daily to identify undetected prevalent infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the uptake and results of RAT mass screening to estimate the population's residual epidemic burden and assess the risk of further transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising an open web-based population-based survey was conducted a week after the RAT campaign. Participants were asked to report their COVID-19 vaccination and infection history and the RAT performance and test result during the period. They were also invited to report their coliving individuals' test performance and results. Reasons for nonuptake were enquired. Testing and positive rates were age-adjusted. Determinants of undergoing RAT were identified using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, particulars from 21,769 individuals were reported by 8338 participants. The overall age-adjusted testing rate was 74.94% (95% CI 73.71%-76.18%), with over 80% of participants in the age groups between 45-84 years having self-performed RAT during the campaign period. After age-adjustment, 1.03% (95% CI 0.86%-1.21%) of participants tested positive. The positive rates in the age groups between 20-29 years and >84 years exceeded 2%. Taking into account the positive rate and 5819 reported cases during the period, the cases identified in the campaign might account for 7.65% (95% CI 6.47%-9.14%) of all infections. Testers were more likely to be female, older, not previously diagnosed with COVID-19, and have received COVID-19 vaccination. Adjusting for the number of household members, those living with a child aged <12 years and whose household members were also tested were more likely to have self-performed an RAT. Main reasons for not performing an RAT included the absence of symptoms (598/1108, 53.97%), disbelief of the appropriateness of the campaign as an antiepidemic measure (355/1108, 32.04%), and a recent COVID-19 diagnosis (332/1108, 29.96%). CONCLUSIONS: The residual population burden remained substantial in spite of the clear evidence of a receding epidemic wave. Despite caution in generalization to the Hong Kong population, the high participation rate in mass screening indicated that the voluntary RAT was well accepted, making it a feasible option for implementation as a complementary means of public health surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mass Screening
15.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221128301, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079213

ABSTRACT

More than 500 single-room occupancy hotels (SROs), a type of low-cost congregate housing with shared bathrooms and kitchens, are available in San Francisco. SRO residents include essential workers, people with disabilities, and multigenerational immigrant families. In March 2020, with increasing concerns about the potential for rapid transmission of COVID-19 among a population with disproportionate rates of comorbidity, poor access to care, and inability to self-isolate, the San Francisco Department of Public Health formed an SRO outbreak response team to identify and contain COVID-19 clusters in this congregate residential setting. Using address-matching geocoding, the team conducted active surveillance to identify new cases and outbreaks of COVID-19 at SROs. An outbreak was defined as 3 separate households in the SRO with a positive test result for COVID-19. From March 2020 through February 2021, the SRO outbreak response team conducted on-site mass testing of all residents at 52 SROs with outbreaks identified through geocoding. The rate of positive COVID-19 tests was significantly higher at SROs with outbreaks than at SROs without outbreaks (12.7% vs 6.4%; P < .001). From March through May 2020, the rate of COVID-19 cases among SRO residents was higher than among residents of other settings (ie, non-SRO residents), before decreasing and remaining at an equal level to non-SRO residents during later periods of 2020. The annual case fatality rate for SRO residents and non-SRO residents was similar (1.8% vs 1.5%). This approach identified outbreaks in a setting at high risk of COVID-19 and facilitated rapid deployment of resources. The geocoding surveillance approach could be used for other diseases and in any setting for which a list of addresses is available.

16.
Coronavirus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak ; : 47-57, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075791

ABSTRACT

This chapter provides a comparison of the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with past pandemics: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and pandemic influenza viruses in terms of transmissibility, hospitalization, and mortality rates. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

17.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072412

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to COVID-19, a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (SARS-CoV-2) led to the social isolation globally as a precautionary step to save humans. There is concern regarding the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on dietary habits, screen time, sleep duration and physical activity of young children and adolescents. Accordingly, the present study analyzed the lifestyle behaviors of school going children residing in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The present study was conducted using an online survey platform and its designated link was distributed through social media. The study sample was com-posed of 432 (166 males and 266 females) school students. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The first section included general and anthropometric characteristics of the participants. The second section included the information related to dietary pattern and the third section included the information related to changes in the activity pattern among participants. Results: Some good habits such as slight increase in physi-cal activity and sleep duration, increase in the number of meals, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and red meat has been observed among all age groups, but at the same time increased consumption of unhealthy food, too much increased screen time has also been observed among all. Conclusion: Public health officials are suggested to increase their focus on lifestyle management of school students especially in tragic times like COVID-19 to enhance the wellbeing of population.

18.
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ; 12(3):114-124, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072090

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, it is aimed to examine the psychiatric symptoms that occur as a result of exposure to social media during the Covid-19 pandemic.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted with the participation of individuals aged 18 and above living in Turkey and using social media. Individuals were invited electronically, and 532 individuals participated in the study.Results: 57.3% of the individuals participating in the study have increased their use of social media during the COVID-19 outbreak. Depression, negative self, somatization, hostility and symptom distress index scores of individuals who were negatively affected by reading and hearing reading information, news, and stories about COVID-19 were statistically significantly higher compared to individuals who were not affected by reading and hearing information, news, and stories about COVID-19.Conclusion: In our study, it was found that more than half of the individuals increased their use of social media during the COVID-19 outbreak. It was observed that, as the duration of social media use increased, psychiatric symptoms increased, and the increase in the use of social media during the COVID-19 outbreak, and reading and hearing information, news, and stories about COVID-19 affected the mental health of individuals negatively.

19.
Mathematical Control and Related Fields ; 0(0), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071968

ABSTRACT

We derive feedback control laws for isolation, contact regulation, and vaccination for infectious diseases, using a strict Lyapunov function. We use an SIQR epidemic model describing transmission, isolation via quarantine, and vaccination for diseases to which immunity is long-lasting. Assuming that mass vaccination is not available to completely eliminate the disease in a time horizon of interest, we provide feedback control laws that drive the disease to an endemic equilibrium. We prove the input-to-state stability (or ISS) robustness property on the entire state space, when the immigration perturbation is viewed as the uncertainty. We use an ISS Lyapunov function to derive the feedback control laws. A key ingredient in our analysis is that all compartment variables are present not only in the Lyapunov function, but also in a negative definite upper bound on its time derivative. We illustrate the efficacy of our method through simulations, and we discuss the usefulness of parameters in the controls. Since the control laws are feedback, their values are updated based on data acquired in real time. We also discuss the degradation caused by the delayed data acquisition occurring in practical implementations, and we derive bounds on the delays under which the ISS property is ensured when delays are present.

20.
Atmosphere ; 13(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071181

ABSTRACT

In this study, the levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM2.5 samples were determined from 2020 to 2021 in Singapore. For analysis convenience, the sampling period was classified according to two monsoon periods and the inter-monsoon period. Considering Singapore's typically tropical monsoon climate, the four seasons were divided into the northeast monsoon season (NE), southwest monsoon season (SW), presouthwest monsoon season (PSW) and prenortheast monsoon season (PNE)). The PM2.5 concentration reached 17.1 +/- 8.38 mu g/m(3), which was slightly higher than that in 2015, and the average PAH concentration continuously declined during the sampling period compared to that reported in previous studies in 2006 and 2015. This is the first report of NPAHs in Singapore indicating a concentration of 13.1 +/- 10.7 pg/m(3). The seasonal variation in the PAH and NPAH concentrations in PM2.5 did not obviously differ owing to the unique geographical location and almost uniform climate changes in Singapore. Diagnostic ratios revealed that PAHs and NPAHs mainly originated from local vehicle emissions during all seasons. 2-Nitropyrene (2-NP) and 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR) in Singapore were mainly formed under the daytime OH-initiated reaction pathway. Combined with airmass backward trajectory analysis, the Indonesia air mass could have influenced Singapore's air pollution levels in PSW. However, these survey results showed that no effect was found on the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs in PM2.5 in Indonesia during SW because of Indonesia's efforts in the environment. It is worth noting that air masses from southern China could impact the PAH and NPAH concentrations according to long-range transportation during the NE. The results of the total incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) via three exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption) for males and females during the four seasons indicated a low long-term potential carcinogenic risk, with values ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-7). This study systematically explains the latest pollution conditions, sources, and potential health risks in Singapore, and comprehensively analyses the impact of the tropical monsoon system on air pollution in Singapore, providing a new perspective on the transmission mechanism of global air pollution.

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