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1.
Cells ; 11(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822414

ABSTRACT

The p53-dependent ubiquitin ligase Pirh2 regulates a number of proteins involved in different cancer-associated processes. Targeting the p53 family proteins, Chk2, p27Kip1, Twist1 and others, Pirh2 participates in such cellular processes as proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and cellular migration. Thus, it is not surprising that Pirh2 takes part in the initiation and progression of different diseases and pathologies including but not limited to cancer. In this review, we aimed to summarize the available data on Pirh2 regulation, its protein targets and its role in various diseases and pathological processes, thus making the Pirh2 protein a promising therapeutic target.

2.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):3525, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770434

ABSTRACT

Background - The WINDOW-1 regimen introduced first-line ibrutinib with rituximab (IR) followed by 4 cycles of R-HCVAD for younger mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients (pts) demonstrating 90% CR on IR alone and we aimed to improve the CR rate with the addition of venetoclax. We therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of IR and venetoclax (IRV) followed by risk-stratified observation or short course R-HCVAD/MTX-ARA-C as consolidation in previously untreated young patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Our aim was to use a triplet chemotherapy-free induction to reduce the toxicity, complications and minimize chemotherapy exposure in MCL pts. Methods - We enrolled 50 previously untreated pts in this single institution, single arm, phase II clinical trial - NCT03710772. Pts received IR induction (Part-1) for initial 4 cycles. Pts were restaged at cycle 4 and received IRV for up to eight cycles (Cycle 5 to Cycle 12) starting with ramp up venetoclax dosing in Cycle 5. All pts who achieved CR prior to cycle 12 continued to receive IRV for 4 cycles (maximum 12 cycles) and then moved to part 2. Pts were stratified into three disease risk groups: high, moderate and low risk categories from the baseline data for assignment to R-HCVAD/MTX-ARA-C as consolidation in part 2 (4 cycles, 2 cycles, or no chemotherapy for high, medium and low risk pts respectively). Briefly, low risk pts were those with Ki-67 ≤30%, largest tumor mass <3 cm, low MIPI score and no features of high risk disease (Ki-67 ≥50%, mutations in the TP53, NSD2 or in NOTCH genes, complex karyotype or del17p, MYC positive, or largest tumor diameter >5 cm or blastoid/pleomorphic histology or if they remain in PR after 12 cycles of part 1. Medium risk are pts which did not belong to low or high-risk category. Those who experienced progression on part 1 went to part 2 and get 4 cycles of part 2. Patient were taken off protocol but not off study, if they remained in PR after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, these patients were followed up for time to next treatment and progression free survival on subsequent therapies. After part 2 consolidation, all pts received 2 years of IRV maintenance. The primary objective was to assess CR rates after IRV induction. Adverse events were coded as per CTCAE version 4. Molecular studies are being performed. Results - Among the 50 pts, the median age was 57 years (range - 35-65). There were 20 pts in high-risk group, 20 pts in intermediate-risk group and 10 pts in low-risk group. High Ki-67 (≥30%) in 18/50 (36%) pts. Eighteen (36%) had high and intermediate risk simplified MIPI scores. Six (12%) pts had aggressive MCL (blastoid/pleomorphic). Among the 24 TP53 evaluable pts, eight pts (33%) had TP53 aberrations (mutated and/or TP53 deletion by FISH). Forty-eight pts received IRV. Best response to IRV was 96% and CR of 92%. After part 2, the best ORR remained unaltered, 96% (92% CR and 4% PR). The median number of cycles of triplet IRV to reach best response was 8 cycles (range 2-12). Fifteen pts (30%) did not receive part 2 chemotherapy, two pts (4%) received 1 cycle, 16 pts (32%) 2 cycles and 13 pts (26%) got 4 cycles of chemotherapy. With a median follow up of 24 months, the median PFS and OS were not reached (2 year 92% and 90% respectively). The median PFS and OS was not reached and not significantly different in pts with high and low Ki-67% or with/without TP53 aberrations or among pts with low, medium or high-risk categories. The median PFS and OS was inferior in blastoid/pleomorphic MCL pts compared to classic MCL pts (p=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Thirteen pts (26%) came off study - 5 for adverse events, 3 for on study deaths, and 2 for patient choice, 2 patients lost to follow up and one for disease progression. Overall, 5 pts died (3 on trial and 2 pts died off study, one due to progressive disease and another due to COVID pneumonia). Grade 3-4 toxicities on part 1 were 10% myelosuppression and 10% each with fatigue, myalgia and rashes and 3% mucositis. One pt developed grade 3 atrial flutter on part 1. None had grade 3-4 bleeding/bruising. Conclusions - Chemotherapy-free induction with IRV induced durable and deep responses in young MCL pts in the frontline setting. WINDOW-2 approach suggests that pts with low risk MCL do not need chemotherapy but further follow up is warranted. This combined modality treatment approach significantly improves outcomes of young MCL pts across all risk groups. Detailed molecular analyses will be reported. (Figure Presented).

3.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):1549, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770204

ABSTRACT

Introduction: TG-1701 is an irreversible, selective, novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) administered once daily (QD). BTK inhibitors, as well as the U2 combination (anti-CD20 mAb ublituximab + the PI3Kδ-CK1ϵ inhibitor umbralisib), are highly efficacious in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), each of which have been previously demonstrated to be superior over standard chemoimmunotherapy. Treatment with a more selective BTK inhibitor could result in improved efficacy and safety outcomes compared with ibrutinib (ALPINE study, EHA 2021), and we hypothesized that dual blockade of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway through combination of TG-1701 with U2 may confer greater depth of response compared to either regimen alone. Methods: Patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were enrolled in an ongoing Phase 1 study. After characterizing the safety profile of TG-1701 monotherapy, a parallel dose escalation arm of TG-1701+U2 was implemented. Select dose levels of TG-1701 monotherapy and TG-1701+U2 were also expanded. All patients were treated until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or investigator/patient decision to withdraw. Safety was evaluated in all treated patients, and efficacy was evaluated in all treated patients who had at least 1 post-baseline assessment. TG-1701 monotherapy data were previously presented;herein we present data from the TG-1701+U2 dose escalation/expansion and the TG-1701 monotherapy CLL expansion cohorts Results: As of July 2021, 142 patients were treated with TG-1701, 36 of whom were enrolled in the TG-1701+U2 arm. The median # of prior therapies across all treated patients was 1 (range, 0-10) and all patients were BTKi-naïve. Among the 36 patients treated with U2+1701, 19 were evaluable for efficacy and safety (17 too early to evaluate). The median age was 69 years (range 47-81), and 56% were male. TG-1701+U2 was well tolerated at 4 different dose levels without dose-limiting toxicities. The most common (>30%) all-causality, all grade treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were diarrhea (53%) contusion (42%), nausea (37%), hypertension, ALT/AST increase, and fatigue (all 32% each) with TG-1701+U2. Grade 3/4 AEs >15% were limited to ALT/AST increase (21%). Dose reduction occurred in 1 patient due to an AE, and 4 patients discontinued at least 1 study drug due to an AE: 2 discontinued umbralisib, 1 discontinued umbralisib and TG-1701, and 1 discontinued all 3 agents. At the data cut-off, overall response rate (ORR) was 84% (4 CR and 12 PR) among 19 evaluable patients, with remaining patients awaiting post-baseline assessment. In the monotherapy CLL-specific cohorts (200 mg QD, n=20;and 300 mg QD, n=20), 40 pts were evaluable for safety, and 39 for efficacy (1 pt withdrew due to COVID prior to first response assessment). The median age was 71 (range 49-86), and 43% were male. The most common TEAEs were increased ALT/AST (all grades: 18%;grade ≥3: 3%), followed by diarrhea (all grades: 15%;grade ≥3: none), and neutropenia (all grades: 13%;grades ≥3: 13%). There were no cases of atrial fibrillation, major bleeding, or ventricular tachyarrhythmia in the CLL cohorts at a median follow-up of 12.8 months (range 2.5 - 20.8). TEAEs leading to TG-1701 dose reduction occurred in 1 (3%) patient. No patients in the 200 mg or 300 mg CLL cohorts have discontinued due to AEs. In patients with anemia and thrombocytopenia at baseline, sustained improvement in hematologic variables was observed. The ORR among 39 patients was 97% (all PR/PR-L). Lymphocytosis resolved to normal value or <50% of baseline in 69% (24 of 35 of patients with lymphocytosis). Consistent response rates were observed across all subgroups, including the following high-risk genomic features: del17p/TP53 mutations, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (IGHV), and complex karyotype (defined as 3 ≤cytogenetic abnormalities). The median duration of response has not been reached in either cohort. Best change in tumor burden from baseline in patients with CLL is presented in Figure 1. C nclusions: TG-1701 exhibits an encouraging safety and efficacy profile as monotherapy in patients with CLL and additionally shows promising activity and a manageable tolerability profile in combination with U2. Future registration trials are being planned in CLL with TG-1701. Recruitment to this study (NCT03671590) continues. (Figure Presented).

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764337

ABSTRACT

It is reasonable to think that cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or immunotherapy may have a more aggressive course if they are positive for the novel coronavirus disease. Their compulsive condition requires investigation into effective drugs. We applied computational techniques to a series of compounds known for restoring the function of p53 cancer mutant p53R175H and p53G245S. Two potent inhibitors, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(1, 3 -thiazol-2-yl) urea (CTU, PubChem NSC321792) with the highest binding affinity -6.92 kcal/mol followed by a thiosemicarbazone compound N'-(1-(Pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene) azetidine - 1 -carbothiohydrazide (NPC, PubChem NSC319726) with -6.75 kcal/mol were subjected to Molecular Dynamics simulation with receptor binding domain (RBD) and compared with control ligand dexamethasone. In particular, CTU adheres to pocket 1 with an average free energy of binding -21.65 ± 2.89 kcal/mol at the RBD - angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding region with the highest frequency of amino acid residues after reaching a local equilibrium in 100 ns MD simulation trajectory. A significant enthalpy contribution from the independent simulations unfolds the possibility of dual binding sites for NPC as shifted pocket 1 (-15.59 ± 5.98 kcal/mol) and pocket 2 (-18.90 ± 5.02 kcal/mol). The obtained results for these two compounds are in good agreement with dexamethasone (-18.45 ± 2.42 kcal/mol). Taken together our findings could facilitate the discovery of small molecules that restore the function of p53 cancer mutants newly against COVID-19 in cancer patients.

5.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S40-S42, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: TG-1701 is a selective, covalent BTK inhibitor administered once daily (QD). Both the 'U2' combination (anti-CD20 mAb ublituximab+the PI3Kd-CK1e inhibitor umbralisib) and BTK inhibitors are highly efficacious in treatment- naïve (TN) and relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL, each having previously demonstrated superiority over standard chemoimmunotherapy. Here, we report results for patients treated with TG-1701 alone or in combination with U2 from an ongoing Phase 1 study, with a focus on patients with CLL. Methods: Patients with R/R CLL and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled in an ongoing Phase 1 study initially evaluating dose escalation (DE) of oral TG-1701 QD continuously administered in 28-day cycles (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg). After characterizing the safety profile of TG-1701 monotherapy, we implemented a parallel DE arm of TG-1701+U2. Select dose levels of TG-1701 monotherapy were also expanded. All patients were treated until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or investigator/patient decision to withdraw. Safety was evaluated in all treated patients, and efficacy was evaluated in all treated patients with CLL who had at least 1 post-baseline assessment. Results: As of 30 April 2021, 125 patients were treated with TG-1701, 49 of whom had CLL. Enrollment was: 25 patients in the monotherapy DE arm (6 with CLL), 61 in the 200-mg disease-specific cohorts (20 CLL [5 TN], 21 mantle cell lymphoma [MCL, 4 TN], 20 Waldenström's macroglobulinemia [WM, 8 TN]), 20 in the 300-mg CLL cohort (4 TN), and 19 in the 1701+U2 DE arm (3 with CLL). Patients with MCL or WM in the 200-mg disease-specific cohorts were excluded from this analysis. The median # of prior therapies among CLL patients was 1 (range, 0-5) and all patients were BTKi-naïve. TG-1701 was well-tolerated and the maximum tolerated dose for monotherapy was not reached up to 400mg (near 100% saturation of the BTK at all dose levels studied). In the DE arms, the most common all-causality treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) were constipation (32%), increased ALT (28%), bruising (28%), and upper respiratory tract infection (28% of patients) with TG-1701 monotherapy;diarrhea (53%) and bruising (42%) with TG-1701+U2. Grade 3/4 AEs were limited. In the CLL-specific cohorts, the most common TEAE was increased ALT/AST (all grades, 17.5%;grade 3, 2.5%;grade ≥4, none), followed by diarrhea (all grades, 12.5%;grade ≥3, none), and COVID-19 (all grades, 12.5%;grade 3-4, none;grade 5, 7.5%). There were no cases of atrial fibrillation, major bleeding, or ventricular tachyarrhythmia in the CLL cohorts at a median follow-up of 10.5 months. TEAEs leading to TG-1701 dose reduction occurred in 7.5% of patients. TEAEs leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 7.5% of patients (all COVID-19). At the data cut-off, 48 patients with CLL were evaluable for response, including nine in DE. ORR was 95.6% for TG-1701 monotherapy (all PR/PR-L) and 100% for TG-1701+U2 (all PR). The median duration of response has not been reached in either cohort. The best change from baseline in tumor burden in patients with CLL is presented in Figure 1, and treatment exposure and response duration data are presented in Figure 2 below. In patients with anemia and thrombocytopenia at baseline, sustained improvement in hematologic variables was observed in the 200- and 300-mg cohorts. Lymphocytosis was observed in 70% of the monotherapy patients, with a resolution to normal or <50% of baseline in 57.1%. Consistent response rates were observed across all subgroups, including age and high-risk genomic features, such as del17p/TP53, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (IGHV), and complex karyotype (defined as three or more cytogenetic abnormalities). Time to event data will be reported at the time of presentation. Conclusions: TG-1701 exhibits an encouraging safety and efficacy profile in patients with CLL, with promising activity and a manageable tolerability profile as monotherapy and in combination with U2 (Figure 1). Future registration trials ar being planned in CLL with TG-1701. Recruitment to this study (NCT03671590) continues.

6.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S70-S72, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747047

ABSTRACT

The BCL2-specific inhibitor, venetoclax, has demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), either alone or in combination with CD20 antibodies. Nevertheless, patients who fail to attain a complete remission relapse, and require further therapy. Data on retreatment with venetoclax at disease progression are currently limited. Here, we report patterns of clonal evolution in an R/R CLL patient that has demonstrated successful retreatment. A 57 year-old lady with chemotherapy- refractory (FCR, RCHOP, high dose methyl prednisolone) TP53 mutant CLL was treated for 21 months with single-agent venetoclax in 2014 (NCT01889186). She attained an MRD positive CR with the resolution of massive lymphadenopathy and with only low-level (0.01%) disease in the bone marrow. However, she subsequently progressed rapidly with a lymphocyte doubling time of only 4 weeks and was treated with tirabrutinib and idelalisib in combination (NCT02968563) from December 2015 for 37 months before progressing December 2019. She was retreated with venetoclax and rituximab but died of COVID-19-induced respiratory failure in March 2020. To study the clonal evolution underlying these events, in vitro drug sensitivity assays and whole exome sequencing (WES) were used to study peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) and bone marrow samples. WES of sample 1 showed multiple mutations in CLL driver genes: SF3B1 R625C, KMT2C R4434Q, and TP53 R110L at VAFs of 37, 17, 35%, respectively. Mutations in other genes associated with CLL included FANCA L217F (47%) and SPEN P3402S (46%). At disease progression (sample 2), following venetoclax, there was the loss of detectable (WES at 100× coverage) TP53 R110L (with loss of 17p deletion on interphase FISH and analysis of copy number) but maintenance of SF3B1 R625C (44%), KMT2C R4434Q 30%), FANCA L217F (47%), and SPEN P3402S (55%). These data, therefore, suggest the TP53 mutant subclone was largely lost during therapy. No other mutations were identified as possible resistance mediators. There were no detectable BCL2 mutations. In vitro drug sensitivity testing to venetoclax showed an EC50 of 228nM (CLL EC50 usually 3-5 nM). The patient was then treated with the BTK inhibitor tirabrutinib in combination with idelalisib, with an excellent clinical response. After 10 months (sample 3, during the lymphocytosis induced by BTKi/PI3Kdi) SF3B1, KMT2C, FANCA, and SPEN mutations were detected at VAFs of 26, 30, 54, and 56%, respectively. At this point the TP53 R110L mutation was detected again at a VAF of 4%, indicating that stopping venetoclax allowed the clone to re-emerge. At this time, there were no detectable BTK or PLCG2 mutations. The patient then responded for a further 37 months before disease progression. At progression (sample 4), SF3B1, KMT2C, FANCA, and SPEN mutations were still detected in the peripheral blood at VAFs of 43, 31, 48, and 50%, respectively. The VAF of the TP53 R110L mutation had increased to 33%. Additionally, a BTK mutation (T474I) was identified with a VAF of 16%. Identical results were obtained using a bone marrow sample. Now, however, in vitro analysis demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity to venetoclax (EC50 0.72 nM). The patient was, therefore, retreated with venetoclax and rituximab. At the point of re-treatment, VAFs were maintained, with the emergence of a new subclonal NOTCH1 G1001D mutation at a VAF of 3%. The patient, unfortunately, died 4 months after commencing therapy due to COVID-19 associated pneumonitis. A full disease reassessment was not made but the patient's blood count had normalized, with rapid clearance of CLL cells from the peripheral blood, recovery of normal hematological indices, resolution of splenomegaly, and partial resolution of lymphadenopathy on CT scan. These data, therefore, suggest that re-treatment with venetoclax in CLL can be successful. Regaining sensitivity to venetoclax may largely depend on shifting clonal dynamics. The molecular basis of venetoclax resistance in this case is currently being investigated. A so in this particular case, it appears that the TP53 mutant subclone was more sensitive to BCL2 inhibition than TP53 wild-type subclone(s), and was largely eliminated by initial venetoclax treatment, contrasting with recently published data suggesting resistance of TP53 mutant hematological malignancies to BCL2 inhibition due to increased thresholds for BAX/BAK activation (Thijssen et al., 2021).

7.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S50, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747044

ABSTRACT

Ibrutinib is used continuously in CLL. This phase 1b trial (n=22) explored on-off-repeat dosing to reduce toxicity and costs. After 12 months, 73% remained in the first off-phase irrespective if initial CR/PR or TP53 aberration. Reduced/eliminated hematomas, nail/skin changes, and notably, grade 3-4 infections (from 55% in the year before to 5% during similarly long off-phase) were observed (all p<0.01). Increased Treg and exhausted T-cells (p=0.01) were observed. Six patients restarted ibrutinib at early progression and all remain drug-sensitive. Conclusion: Withholding ibrutinib appears safe and switching on BTK-signaling should be explored to improve covid-19 vaccine efficacy while reducing infections and side effects.

8.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S86-S87, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747043

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of targeted therapies, defining the best strategy for the treatment of previously untreated CLL patients remains challenging. The aim of this phase 2 study was to compare the efficacy of an association with ibrutinib and venetoclax (IV) to the standard FCR regimen in fit patients with intermediate-risk CLL defined by either unmutated IGHV status, 11q deletion, or complex karyotype in the absence of TP53 abnormality. Patients were randomized 1:1 between two treatment arms, i.e. FCR 6 cycles or IV. After a lead-in phase of ibrutinib as a single agent from the month (M)1 to M3, the total duration of treatment with IV was based on the response achieved at M9;if bone marrow (BM) MRD was <0.01% using flow cytometry, the treatment was continued for 6 additional months until M15 and then stopped;if BM MRD at M9 was ≥0.01%, the treatment with IV was continued for 18 additional months until M27. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with BM MRD <0.01% at M27 in both arms. We present here the preliminary results on the first evaluation done at M9 including CT-scan, BM biopsy, and MRD assessment in PB and BM after the inclusion of all the 120 patients as initially planned. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2021. The median age was 59 [34-72] and 61 [34-74] years in the FCR and IV arms, respectively. The characteristics of the patients were well-balanced between the 2 arms in terms of gender (male 72% FCR, 74% IV), PS ECOG 0-1 (59% FCR, 68% IV), and Binet stage (A, B, and C 15, 64, 21% for FCR;8.5, 59, and 32% for IV). No major difference in terms of cytogenetic features was noted, all patients but one had unmutated IGHV. At the time of data cut-off for this interim analysis, the median follow-up for all cohort was 12.7 [4.5.9-21.4] months. The frequency of patients presenting all grades adverse events (AE) so far was 90% (grade ≥3: 45%) in the FCR arm and 80% (grade ≥3: 45%) in the IV arm. The rate of infusion-related reactions (IRR) in the FCR arm was 35% on cycle 1-day 1 (14% grade 3-4);for the IV arm, 5% of patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) (grade 3 for 1 patient). Ibrutinib doses were reduced for seven patients (four permanently stopped and three resumed at a lower dose because of toxicities (digestive, hepatic, or hematological). Venetoclax was permanently discontinued before M9 in four patients (digestive toxicities and grade 4 neutropenia). Fifty-two serious adverse events were reported of which 22 were in the IV arm (among them one sudden death, one ischemic stroke, one acute coronary syndrome, two atrial fibrillations, two TLS, two acute renal failures, one hepatitis, one neutropenia, two COVID pneumonitis, and one osteoporotic fracture) and 30 in the FCR arm (among them five febrile neutropenia, one hemolytic anemia, one thrombocytopenia, three IRR, three TLS, three COVID pneumonitis, one acute myeloid leukemia, one myelodysplasic syndrome). All patients with COVID pneumonitis had a favorable evolution with the need for intensive care and convalescent plasma for three of them. The first 85 patients included in the study have reached M9 and among them, nine prematurely discontinued the study, (one active hemolysis, one ischemic stroke, one TLS, one hepatitis, and one sudden death in the IV arm;three hematologic toxicities and one early progression in the FCR arm). In the evaluated patients (n=74), 69% of patients in the FCR arm and 43% of patients in the IV arm achieved bone BM MRD <0.01%. The complete (CR, CRi) and partial response rates were 56 and 44% in the FCR arm and 74 and 26% in the IV arm, respectively. In conclusion, preliminary results show a lower BM MRD rate in the IV arm compared to the FCR arm at M9, with toxicity that remains significant and relatively similar between the two arms. However, BM MRD rate may improve after longer exposure to the IV combination and the analysis of the primary endpoint at M27 will be decisive in determining the best therapeutic strategy.

9.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S23-S24, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747042

ABSTRACT

Ibrutinib is the only once-daily Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor with significant survival benefit vs. chemo- and/or immunotherapy in multiple phase 3 studies of patients (pts) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It has profoundly changed the treatment landscape of CLL with the longest follow-up. However, seven years (yrs) after ibrutinib was approved in Italy by regulatory agencies for CLL treatment, available data on the patterns of care of such pts in the setting of clinical practice is limited. Herein we present the first interim analysis (IA) of EVIdeNCE (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03720561), a multicenter, observational clinical study designed to describe the current management of pts receiving ibrutinib in a real-world setting in Italy in terms of retention rate: the study's primary end point. Methods EVIDENCE 312 treatment-naïve (TN) 38% and relapsed/refractory (R/R) 62% pts with CLL according to the iwCLL diagnosis criteria observed at 39 Italian hematological institutions in the period between November 2018 and October 2019. Inclusion criteria were treatment with ibrutinib according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics as per routine clinical practice started within the previous 3 months. The purpose of this IA is to provide demographics and disease characteristics at baseline and a preliminary evaluation of ibrutinib retention rate after one year of follow-up, along with its safety profile. The median age of pts at the time of ibrutinib initiation was 71.0 yrs (range 41.0-89.0), with 60% ≥70 yrs, 63.2% male, and 90% with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance 0-1. Baseline Rai stage 0-I, II, and III-IV accounted for 18.3, 29.7, and 52.1% pts, respectively. Patients in stage IV were observed in 40% of the R/R and 27% in the TN subgroup. Considering 120 pts with known mutational status, del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation were present in 50.0% of pts (TN =52.1%, R/R = 48.6%), while IGHV was unmutated in 35.0% (TN =33.3% and R/R = 36.15) and mutated in 15.0% (TN =14.6%, R/R = 15.3%). At baseline, 62.9% of pts had comorbidities and 30.6% presented with a history of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A CIRS score ≥6 was observed in 28.5% of pts. The median time from CLL diagnosis to the start of ibrutinib was 5.1 yrs (TN 1.75 yrs vs. R/R 7.27 yrs). At least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) of any grade was experienced by 70.7% of pts. Frequencies were as follows: infections (30.8%;COVID-19 infections 3.2%), arthralgia (10.8%), neutropenia (9.3%), fatigue (8.4%), diarrhea (7.7%), atrial fibrillation (7.4%;grade 3-4, 4.2%), fever (7.1%), rash (6.4%), anemia (6.1%), and hypertension (4.2%). Mild bleeding TEAEs were reported in 16.1% of pts with no major bleeding event. TEAEs were more frequent in the elderly (≥65 yrs) while no significant differences in the rate of TEAEs were recorded in TN and R/R pts (69.7 vs. 71.4%, respectively). Serious TEAEs were reported in 21.9% of pts. Overall in intention to treat (ITT), 32 deaths (10%) were observed (TN =8, R/R = 24). The most common causes of death were infections (3.5%) and progressive disease (PD) (1.9%). Permanent discontinuation was observed in 56 (18%) of the pts (TN =17.2%, R/R = 18.7%) and it mostly occurred within the first 6 months. The main causes of discontinuation were toxicity (6.1%), PD (3.8%), and death (3.5%). Temporary interruptions (≤3 months without therapy and/or dose modifications) during the whole observation period occurred in 30.3% (TN =35.3%, R/R = 27.2%) and 37.7% (TN =37.5%, R/R = 37.8%) of pts, respectively, mainly determined by toxicity and clinical judgment. Finally, in this first IA after 17.3 months (range 1.1-27.0) median follow-up, the ibrutinib retention rate (calculated as the ratio between the number of patients who retained ibrutinib treatment over the total number of patients at risk) at 1-year was 81.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 77.2-86.1%] with no difference between TN 83.2% (95% CI, 75.2-89.4%) and R/R 81.2% pts (95% CI, 74.9-86.4%). EVIDENCE is the first realw rld study of ibrutinib use in CLL clinical practice in Italy. Ibrutinib retention rate at one-year suggests a better knowledge and expertise of hematologists in the management of ibrutinib-related toxicities that may result in an improved long-term outcome of pts with CLL.

10.
Acta Haematologica Polonica ; 52(5):455-482, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744723

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of the elderly, with a median age at diagnosis of approximately 70 years. The natural course of the disease varies greatly, and patients with non-progressive and asymptomatic leukemia do not require treatment. The results of CLL treatment have improved significantly in recent years, mainly due to the introduction of new, more effective drugs, including BCR inhibitors and BCL2 inhibitors. The new drugs are used continuously, while venetoclax in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies is used for 24 (rituximab) or 12 (obinutuzumab) months, depending on the type of antibody and line of therapy. The choice of treatment protocol should largely depend on the assessment of 17p deletion/TP53 mutation and immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IGVH) mutation status, which correlate with a worse response to immunochemotherapy. The role of immunochemotherapy, which until recently was the mainstay of CLL treatment, has now significantly decreased. In the first-line, it is recommended only in patients without 17p deletion/TP53 mutation, with mutated IGVH. Other patients should receive novel targeted therapies. However, at the time of the preparation of these recommendations, these therapies are not available in the firs-line of treatment in Poland. Novel targeted therapies play a major role in the treatment of refractory/relapsed CLL, and immunochemotherapy is recommended primarily in patients with a long-term response to first-line therapy. In this article, we present an update of the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of CLL, including the treatment of autoimmune complications, as well as the prophylaxis and treatment of infections, developed by the Polish Society of Haematologists and Transfusiologists and PALG-CLL Working Group.

11.
Blood ; 138:4423, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736311

ABSTRACT

Background: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. As precision therapy in AML expanded with the addition of venetoclax among others in the therapeutic armamentarium of AML, efficacy and safety reports in ethnic minorities are limited, with a background of well recognized inter-ethnic differences in drug response. Phase III data from VIALE-A, as well as VIALE-C, was limited for the Arab population as no site opened in the Arab world. We herein report our experience on the use of venetoclax with azacitidine in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory AML in the Arab population. Methods: Retrospective-single center review on the use of Azacitidine with venetoclax in older patients (aged ≥60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy;secondary AML and relapsed or refractory AML. All patients self-identified of Arabic ethnicity. Patients who received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients who received at least one dose of treatment (Azacitidine ≥3 days, >14 days of venetoclax) were included in the intention to treat analysis. Patients typically received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 intravenously for 7 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, with appropriate dose adjustment for concomitant use of azoles. This is followed by the same regimen in consolidation, with adjustment according to response and side effects at the treating physician's discretion. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints include response rate, safety, and relapse-free survival. Results: Between July 2019, and July 2021, we identified 19 patients;13 (68%) had newly diagnosed AML (ND-AML), and 6 (32%) had relapsed or refractory AML (R/R AML). The median age was 70 years (17-82). In the ND-AML, most patients had an adverse ELN 2017 AML (69%) with 23% having either intermediate or adverse AML (Negative for CBF, NPM1, FLT3-ITD and biCEBPA, but missing NGS data for adverse mutations Tp53/ASXL1 and RUNX1). Only one patient was classified as intermediate-risk AML. The overall response rate in the ND-AML was 77%, with 46% achieving complete remission (CR), and 23% CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) [Table]. One patient achieved PR after the first cycle (blast 7% by morphology and 1.5% by flow cytometry) and did not have a subsequent bone marrow evaluation, however had a full count recovery. Among the responders in the ND-AML cohort, 4 deaths were noted. One death was related to COVID-19 associated pneumonia, one due to graft failure (at day 42 post Haplo-SCT), one due to septic shock, and one was related to relapse disease. The overall survival and relapse-free survival for ND-AML were 5.6 months for both [Figure]. In the R/R AML, 66% had prior HMA exposure, and all patients did receive high-intensity chemotherapy. The median number of prior treatments was 3 (1-5). the response rate was 80% (4/5), with 60% achieving CR. All patients are still alive with a median follow-up of 7.6 months. One patient had progressive disease. One patient is early to evaluate and was not included in the response analysis [Table]. The 30-day mortality was zero in both ND-AML and R/R AML cohorts. Conclusions: In a majority of adverse risk ND-AML, and in heavily pretreated R/R AML, the response rate and overall survival is comparable to what has been previously reported. Our data support the use of this regimen in older patients with newly diagnosed AML, patients with relapsed or refractory disease, and those with adverse-risk features. This analysis is limited by the small number of patients, and by the lack of ELN 2017 favorable-risk AML. Future prospective and randomized studies are needed to clarify activity and safety in the Arab population, as well as in the high-risk AML subset. [Formula presented] Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

12.
Blood ; 138:2640, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623627

ABSTRACT

Background: Continuous Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition represents an effective and easily administered oral therapy for patients with CLL;however, it is not curative, can have serious side effects, and is expensive. Novel combinations may provide deep remissions allowing fixed duration therapy. The second generation BTK inhibitor acalabrutinib (ACALA) has demonstrated an improved safety profile compared to ibrutinib. Importantly, unlike ibrutinib, ACALA does not inhibit anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (VanDerMeid et al, Cancer Immuno Res 2018). Using standard doses, rituximab (RTX) rapidly exhausts the finite innate immune system cytotoxic capacity (Pinney, et al Blood 2020) and also causes loss of cell membrane CD20 from CLL cells by trogocytosis. Previous studies have shown that high frequency low dose (HFLD) IV RTX (20mg/m 2 three times per week) was effective and limited loss of CD20 (Zent, et al Am J Hematol, 2014). Subcutaneous (SQ) RTX is FDA approved in CLL, has similar efficacy and pharmacokinetics, and can be self-administered. This phase II study tested the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of ACALA and HFLD RTX as initial treatment for patients with treatment-naïve CLL. Methods: Eligible patients were treated with 50mg RTX on day 1 and 3 of each week for six 28-day cycles. The first dose was administered IV over 2 hours. If tolerated, subsequent doses were SQ and could be self-administered at home by trained patients. ACALA 100mg BID therapy was initiated on cycle 1 day 8 for a minimum of 12 cycles. Treatment response was assessed during cycles 12 and 24. Patients achieving an iwCLL complete response (CR) with undetectable minimal residual disease (uMRD) by 6-color flow cytometry (£ 1:10 -4)at either time point could stop therapy. The primary objective was to determine the rate of iwCLL CR with a secondary endpoint of rate of uMRD. Results: 37 patients have been treated with a median follow-up of 14 months. Baseline demographics were male/female (22/15) and median age 67 years (range 40-78). High-risk genetic features included TP53 mutation (21.6%), del17p (13.5%), del 11q (16.2%), unmutated IGHV (62.2%), NOTCH1 mutation (21.6%) and SF3B1 mutation (10.8%). Grade 3/4 AEs occurring in ≥5% of patients were infections (13.5%), neutropenia (8.1%) and anemia (8.1%). No patients discontinued therapy due to AEs and there were no deaths on treatment. The most common (≥20%) AEs (all grades and all causality) were infusion-related reactions (62.1%), infections (56.8%) (upper respiratory infections in 29.7% of patients, urinary tract infections in 18.9%, COVID-19 pneumonia in 8.1%), fatigue (51.3%), anemia (51.3%), headache (43.2%), rash or other skin changes (32.4%), thrombocytopenia (29.7%), bruising (27.0%), and diarrhea (21.6%). Injection site reactions (8.1%) from SQ RTX were grade 1. Three patients contracted COVID-19 while on study during times of high community transmission prior to the availability of vaccines. Two required hospitalization, one contracted the virus following cycle 1 requiring a delay in RTX, and all patients remained on ACALA while COVID-19 positive. 27 patients have completed 12 cycles and been evaluated for response. All patients responded with 1 MRD+ CR, 20 partial responses (PR), and 6 PR with sustained lymphocytosis. 10 of these patients have completed 24 cycles and had a sustained PR. One patient with del17p and TP53 mutation had progressive disease after 25 cycles of therapy. All other patients remain on treatment per protocol. Conclusion: HFLD RTX and ACALA is a tolerable, effective and convenient therapy that could be the basis for regimens incorporating other novel agents. It is notable that three patients have contracted COVID-19 during the trial;however, none required intubation, and all remained on ACALA during their infection. This at-home combination markedly decreased patient infection risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. This regimen has the potential to enable RTX to be administered at facilities with limited medica IV infusion capacity which could be very useful in rural and economically disadvantaged areas. While all patients have responded to therapy, no patients to date have achieved an uMRD CR, suggesting that additional agents are required to allow for time-limited treatment. Disclosures: Baran: AstraZeneca/Acerta: Research Funding. Friedberg: Novartis: Other: DSMC;Acerta: Other: DSMC;Bayer: Other: DSMC. Reagan: Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy;Genentech: Research Funding;Seagen: Research Funding;Curis: Consultancy. Casulo: Verastem: Research Funding;Genentech: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Gilead: Research Funding. Zent: TG Therapeutics: Research Funding;Acerta/AstraZeneca: Research Funding. Barr: Morphosys: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Bristol Meyers Squibb: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Genentech: Consultancy;TG Therapeutics: Consultancy;Beigene: Consultancy;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy;Abbvie/Pharmacyclics: Consultancy;Gilead: Consultancy.

13.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 157(1): 119-129, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated MYC and p53 expression, TP53 aberration, their relationship, and their impact on overall survival (OS) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL). METHODS: We identified 173 patients with ALL and LBL, including 12 cases of mixed-phenotype acute leukemia, 8 cases of therapy-related B-cell ALL (B-ALL), 119 cases of B-ALL, and 34 cases of T-cell ALL/LBL diagnosed from 2003 to 2019. We retrospectively assessed p53 and MYC expression by immunohistochemistry of bone marrow and correlated MYC expression with p53 expression and TP53 aberration. RESULTS: Expression of p53 and MYC was present in 11.5% and 27.7% of ALL/LBL cases (n = 20 and n = 48), respectively. MYC expression was significantly correlated with p53 expression and TP53 aberration (P = .002 and P = .03), and p53 expression and MYC expression had an adverse impact on OS in patients with ALL/LBL (P < .05). MYC and p53 dual expression as well as combined MYC expression and TP53 aberration had a negative impact on OS in patients with ALL/LBL. CONCLUSIONS: MYC expression is correlated with p53 overexpression, TP53 aberration, and poor OS in patients with ALL/LBL.


Subject(s)
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Humans , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
14.
Blood ; 138:641, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582424

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of targeted therapies, defining the best strategy for the treatment of previously untreated CLL patients remains challenging. The aim of this phase 2 study was to compare the efficacy of an association with ibrutinib and venetoclax (IV) to the standard FCR regimen in fit patients with intermediate risk CLL defined by either unmutated IGHV status, 11q deletion or complex karyotype in the absence of TP53 abnormality. Patients were randomized 1:1 between two treatment arms, ie FCR 6 cycles or IV. After a lead-in phase of ibrutinib as a single agent from month (M)1 to M3, the total duration of treatment with IV was based on the response achieved at M9;if bone marrow (BM) MRD was < 0.01% using flow cytometry, the treatment was continued for 6 additional months until M15 and then stopped;if BM MRD at M9 was ≥ 0.01%, the treatment with IV was continued for 18 additional months until M27. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with BM MRD < 0.01% at M27 in both arms. We present here the preliminary results on the first evaluation done at M9 including CT-scan, BM biopsy and MRD assessment in PB and BM after the inclusion of all the 120 patients as initially planned. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2021. The median age was 59 [34-72] and 61 [34-74] years in the FCR and IV arms, respectively. The characteristics of the patients were well balanced between the 2 arms in terms of gender (male 72% FCR, 74% IV), PS ECOG 0-1 (59% FCR, 68% IV) and Binet stage (A, B and C 15%, 64%, 21% for FCR;8.5%, 59% and 32% for IV). No major difference in terms of cytogenetic features was noted, all patients but one had unmutated IGHV. At the time of data cut-off for this interim analysis, the median follow-up for the all cohort was 11 [2.9 - 19.8] months. The frequency of all grades adverse events (AE) observed so far was 53% (grade 3-4, 24%) in the FCR arm and 47% (grade 3-4, 17%) in the IV arm. The rate of infusion-related reactions (IRR) in the FCR arm was 35% on cycle 1-day 1 (14% grade 3-4);for the IV arm, 6% of patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) (grade 4 for 4 patients). ibrutinib doses were reduced for 7 patients (4 permanently stopped and 3 resumed at a lower dose because of toxicities (digestive, hepatic or haematological)). Venetoclax was permanently discontinued before M9 in 4 patients (digestive toxicities and grade 4 neutropenia). Forty serious adverse events were reported of which 15 in the IV arm (1 sudden death, 1 ischemic stroke, 2 atrial fibrillations, 2 clinical TLS, 1 hepatitis, 1 neutropenia, 4 COVID pneumonitis and one osteoporotic fracture) and 25 in the FCR arm (2 neutropenias, 1 anemia, 1 thrombocytopenia, 1 autoimmune haemolytic anemia, 3 IRR, 4 TLS, 2 COVID pneumonitis, 4 fever episodes of undetermined origin, 1 community-acquired pneumonia, 1 gastrointestinal toxicity, 1 confusion, 2 chest pains, 1 acute myeloid leukemia, 1 myelodysplasic syndrome). The patients with COVID pneumonitis had a favorable evolution with the need for intensive care and convalescent plasma for 3 of them. The first 60 patients included in the study have reached M9 and among them, 6 prematurely discontinued the study, 3 in each arm (active hemolysis, ischemic stroke and sudden death in the IV arm;2 grade 4 hematologic toxicities and 1 early progression in the FCR arm). In the evaluated patients (n=54), 71% of patients in the FCR arm and 48% of patients in the IV arm achieved bone BM MRD < 0.01%. The complete (CR, CRi) and partial response rates were 54% and 46% in the FCR arm and 76% and 24% in the IV arm respectively. In conclusion, the preliminary results show a lower BM MRD rate in the IV arm compared to the FCR arm at M9, with a toxicity that remains significant and relatively similar between the two arms. However, BM MRD rate should improve after longer exposure to the IV combination and the analysis of the primary endpoint at M27 will be decisive in determining the best therapeutic strategy. Disclosures: Quinquenel: Abbvie: Honoraria;Jansse : Honoraria;AstraZeneca: Honoraria. Laribi: Le Mans Hospital: Research Funding;Novartis: Other: Personal Fees, Research Funding;Takeda: Other: Personal Fees, Research Funding;BeiGene: Other: Personal Fees;IQONE: Other: Personal Fees;AbbVie: Other: Personal Fees, Research Funding;Astellas Phama, Inc.: Other: Personal Fees;AstraZeneca: Other: Personal Fees;Jansen: Research Funding. Cymbalista: Lilly-LOXO: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;ASTRA ZENECA: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Roche: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Leblond: AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Lilly: Consultancy;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support;Roche: Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria;Beigene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Dartigeas: Astra-Zeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel grants/Congress;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel grants/Congress;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel grants/Congress. Ferrant: Janssen: Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;AbbVie: Honoraria, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;AstraZeneca: Honoraria. de Guibert: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria. Feugier: Astrazeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria;Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria. Cartron: Roche, Celgene-BMS: Consultancy;Danofi, Gilead, Novartis, Jansen, Roche, Celgene-BMS, Abbvie, Takeda: Honoraria. Ysebaert: Abbvie, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Roche: Other: Advisory Board, Research Funding.

15.
Blood ; 138:4428, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582419

ABSTRACT

Decitabine (Dec) and Azacitidine (Aza) that target DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) are hypomethylating agents (HMAs) approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in combination with Venetoclax (Ven). The combination is also used to treat high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, especially TP53-mutated (TP53mut) cases in which responses to HMA alone are short-lived. In most patients (pts), however, myelosuppression from treatment leads to frequent Ven duration and/or dose-reductions, and/or cycle delays. An approach to decrease HMA-mediated myelosuppression but maintain S-phase dependent DNMT1-targeting, evaluated in a previous clinical trial (https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16281), is to administer noncytotoxic doses/concentrations of Dec (0.2 mg/kg;~5 mg/m 2) by a frequent-distributed schedule of 1X/week. An approach to decrease Ven mediated myelosuppression but maintain cooperation with HMA, shown in pre-clinical studies, is to administer a single-dose prior to HMA. Ven can depolarize mitochondrial membranes;mitochondrial membrane-potential is essential to function of the mitochondrial enzyme DHODH that produces cytidine/deoxycytidine that competes with HMA in cells. Thus, Ven prior to HMA dosing temporarily inhibits de novo pyrimidine synthesis, to counter a major mechanism of resistance to HMA in MDS/AML, without suppressing normal myelopoiesis (https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2020-143200). We conducted a retrospective analysis of all pts with TP53mut MDS or AML treated with weekly Ven and low-dose subcutaneous Dec at our institution. We analyzed the characteristics of these pts, response to therapy, and outcomes using standard descriptive statistics. Mutational testing was performed using a commercial next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. Five pts, 3 male and 2 female, with TP53mut MDS or AML were treated with weekly Ven 400 mg on D1 and subcutaneous Dec 0.2 mg/kg on D2, administered weekly in 28 day cycles. Two pts had MDS (1 de novo, 1 treatment related) and 3 pts had AML (1 de novo, 2 secondary from prior MDS). Four pts (80%) received the treatment in frontline, all with poor performance status (PS), and 1 pt (20%) had R/R disease. Median age at diagnosis was 79 years [41-82]. The only young pt had prolonged severe cytopenias after 1 cycle Dec standard dosing during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic so was switched to this regimen. Of the 4 frontline treated pts, 2 pts had high-risk MDS, and 2 pts had adverse risk AML. The R/R pt had high-risk MDS transformed to AML that was refractory to 2 prior lines of therapy: standard Aza/Ven x5 cycles, then standard Vyxeos. Disease cytogenetics were complex in all pts. 60% (3/5) pts had sole TP53mut on NGS, with median variant allelic frequency (VAF) 48% [28-79]. 80% (4/5) pts were transfusion dependent prior to treatment. Median time to initiating therapy was 7 days from initial or refractory diagnosis [3-59] and median follow-up was 7.8 months (mo) [2.9-11.4]. The overall response rate (ORR) was 100%: 4/4 frontline pts had complete remissions (CR), and the 1 R/R pt achieved morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS). Median time to best response was 2.9 mo. 50% (2/4) pts became transfusion independent. 40% (2/5) pts lost their TP53mut at best response, and another 40% (2/5) pts had significant reductions (83% and 38%) in TP53 mut VAF. The regimen was well tolerated with no pts stopping therapy due to adverse effects (AE). AE included G3/G4 neutropenia (80%), G1 thrombocytopenia (40%), nausea (20%), fatigue (20%), lower extremity edema (20%), pneumonia (60%), and neutropenic fever (20%) with a median of 1 unplanned hospitalization per pt during follow-up. 60% (3/5) pts remain in CR on continued therapy for a median of 7.8 mo [7.2-9.4] thus far. One pt underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, however, died 11.4 mo after conditioning due to transplant related mortality. The R/R pt died after being lost to follow-up 2.9 mo after therapy initiation. No pt had measurable relapse during follow-up. Combination weekly Ven with subcutaneous low-dose Dec is well tolerated yielding igh rates of clinical and molecular response in pts with TP53mut MDS/AML. Although small, this case-series extends previous clinical trial proof-of-activity of non-cytotoxic DNMT1-targeting to a high-risk, poor PS, historically chemorefractory patient population. The regimen allowed frequent, sustained exposure to therapy often not possible with standard HMA/Ven regimens. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Shastri: Kymera Therapeutics: Research Funding;Guidepoint: Consultancy;GLC: Consultancy;Onclive: Honoraria. Gritsman: iOnctura: Research Funding. Feldman: Glycomimetics: Current Employment, Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company. Verma: Celgene: Consultancy;Acceleron: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy;Stelexis: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company;Eli Lilly: Research Funding;Curis: Research Funding;Medpacto: Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding;GSK: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Stelexis: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company;Throws Exception: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Saunthararajah: EpiDestiny: Consultancy, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties.

16.
Blood ; 138:2249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582362

ABSTRACT

Background: De novo nucleotide synthesis is necessary to meet the enormous demand for nucleotides, other macromolecules associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression 1, 2, 34. Hence, we hypothesized that targeting de novo nucleotide synthesis would lead to the depletion of the nucleotide pool, pyrimidine starvation and increase oxidative stress preferentially in leukemic cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts, impacting proliferative and differentiation pathways. Emvododstat (PTC299) is an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis that is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of AML. Objectives: The goals of these studies were to understand the emvododstat-mediated effects on leukemia growth, differentiation and impact on Leukemia Stem Cells(LSCs). Comprehensive analyses of mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling in PI3K/AKT pathways, apoptotic signatures, and DNA damage responses were carried out. The rationale for clinical testing emvododstat was confirmed in an AML-PDX model. Results: Emvododstat treatment in cytarabine-resistant AML cells and primary AML blasts induced apoptosis, differentiation, and reduced proliferation, with corresponding decreased in cell number and increases in annexin V- and CD14-positive cells. Indeed, the inhibition of de novo nucleotide synthesis compromises the dynamic metabolic landscape and mitochondrial function, as indicated by alterations in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mitochondrial ROS/membrane potential and corresponding differentiation, apoptosis, and/or inhibition of proliferation of LSCs. These effects can be reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine and orotate. Further immunoblotting and mass cytometry (CyTOF) analyses demonstrated changes in apoptotic and cell signaling proteins (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3) and DNA damage responses (TP53, γH2AX) and PI3/AKT pathway downregulation in response to emvododstat. Importantly, emvododstat treatment reduced leukemic cell burden in a mouse model of AML PDX ( Complex karyotype, mutation in ASXL1, IDH2, NRAS), decreased levels of leukemia stem cells frequency (1 in 522,460 Vs 1 in 3,623,599 in vehicle vs emvododstat treated mice), and improved survival. The median survival 40 days vs. 30 days, P=0.0002 in primary transplantation and 36 days vs 53.5 days, P=0.005 in secondary transpantation in a PDX mouse model of human AML. This corresponded with a reduction in the bone marrow burden of leukemia and increased expression of differentiation markers in mice treated with emvododstat (Fig. 1). These data demonstrate effect of emvododstat on mitochondrial functions. Conclusion: Inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis triggers differentiation, apoptosis, and depletes LSCs in AML models. Emvododstat is a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor being tested in a clinical trial for the treatment of myeloid malignancies and COVID-19. Keywords: AML, emvododstat, DHODH, apoptosis, differentiation References: 1 Thomas, D. & Majeti, R. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells. Blood 129, 1577-1585, doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-696054 (2017). 2 Quek, L. et al. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage. The Journal of experimental medicine 213, 1513-1535, doi:10.1084/jem.20151775 (2016). 3 Villa, E., Ali, E. S., Sahu, U. & Ben-Sahra, I. Cancer Cells Tune the Signaling Pathways to Empower de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides. Cancers (Basel) 11, doi:10.3390/cancers11050688 (2019). 4 DeBerardinis, R. J. & Chandel, N. S. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism. Sci Adv 2, e1600200, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600200 (2016). [Formula presented] Disclosures: Weetall: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Sheedy: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Ray: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Andreeff: Karyopharm: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Oxford Biomedica UK: Research Funding;Aptose: Consultancy;Daiich -Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding;Syndax: Consultancy;Breast Cancer Research Foundation: Research Funding;Reata, Aptose, Eutropics, SentiBio;Chimerix, Oncolyze: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis, Cancer UK;Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS), German Research Council;NCI-RDCRN (Rare Disease Clin Network), CLL Foundation;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Senti-Bio: Consultancy;Medicxi: Consultancy;ONO Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Glycomimetics: Consultancy. Borthakur: ArgenX: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Protagonist: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Current Employment;Ryvu: Research Funding;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;GSK: Consultancy.

17.
Blood ; 138:4684, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582352

ABSTRACT

Introduction Ibrutinib is the only once-daily Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor with significant survival benefit vs chemo- and /or immunotherapy in multiple phase 3 studies of patients (pts) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It has profoundly changed the treatment landscape of CLL with the longest follow-up. However, seven years (yrs) after ibrutinib was approved in Italy by regulatory agencies for CLL treatment, available data on the patterns of care of such pts in the setting of clinical practice is limited. Herein we present the first interim analysis (IA) of EVIdeNCE (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03720561), a multicenter, observational clinical study designed to describe the current management of pts receiving ibrutinib in real-world setting in Italy in terms of retention rate: the study's primary end point. Methods EVIDENCE 312 treatment-naïve (TN) 38% and relapsed/refractory (R/R) 62% pts with CLL according to the iwCLL diagnosis criteria observed at 39 Italian hematological institutions in the period between November 2018 and October 2019. Inclusion criteria were treatment with ibrutinib according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics as per routine clinical practice started within the previous 3 months. The purpose of this IA is to provide demographics and disease characteristics at baseline and a preliminary evaluation of ibrutinib retention rate after one year of follow-up, along with its safety profile. Results The median age of pts at the time of ibrutinib initiation was 71.0 yrs (range 41.0-89.0), with 60% ≥70 yrs, 63.2% male, and 90% with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance 0-1. Baseline Rai stage 0-I, II, and III-IV accounted for 18.3%, 29.7% and 52.1% pts, respectively. Patients in stage IV were observed in 40% of the R/R and 27% in TN subgroup. Considering 120 pts with known mutational status, del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation were present in 50.0% of pts (TN=52.1%, R/R=48.6%), while IGHV was unmutated in 35.0% (TN=33.3% and R/R=36.15) and mutated in 15.0% (TN=14.6%, R/R=15.3%). At baseline, 62.9% of pts had comorbidities and 30.6% presented with a history of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A CIRS score ≥6 was observed in 28.5% of pts. The median time from CLL diagnosis to the start of ibrutinib was 5.1 yrs (TN 1.75 yrs vs R/R 7.27 yrs). At least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) of any grade was experienced by 70.7% of pts. Frequencies were as follows: infections (30.8%;COVID-19 infections 3.2%), arthralgia (10.8%), neutropenia (9.3%), fatigue (8.4%), diarrhea (7.7%), atrial fibrillation (7.4%;grade 3-4, 4.2%), fever (7.1%), rash (6.4%), anemia (6.1%) and hypertension (4.2%). Mild bleeding TEAEs were reported in 16.1% of pts with no major bleeding event. TEAEs were more frequent in the elderly (≥65 yrs) while no significant differences in the rate of TEAEs were recorded in TN and R/R pts (69.7% vs 71.4%, respectively). Serious TEAEs were reported in 21.9% of pts. Overall in intention to treat (ITT), 32 deaths (10%) were observed (TN=8, R/R=24). The most common causes of death were infections (3.5%) and progressive disease (PD) (1.9%). Permanent discontinuation was observed in 56 (18%) of the pts (TN=17.2%, R/R=18.7%) and it mostly occurred within the first 6 months. Main causes of discontinuation were toxicity (6.1%), PD (3.8%) or death (3.5%). Temporary interruptions (≤ 3 months without therapy and/or dose modifications) during the whole observation period occurred in 30.3% (TN=35.3%, R/R=27.2%) and 37.7% (TN=37.5%, R/R=37.8%) of pts, respectively, mainly determined by toxicity and clinical judgment. Finally, in this first IA after 17.3 months (range 1.1 - 27.0) median follow-up, the ibrutinib retention rate (calculated as the ratio between the number of patients who retained ibrutinib treatment over the total number of patients at risk) at 1-year was 81.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 77.2% - 86.1%] with no difference between TN 83.2% (95% CI, 75.2% - 89.4%) and R/R 81.2% pts (95% CI, 74.9% - 86.4%). Conclusions EVIDENCE is the irst real-world study of ibrutinib use in CLL clinical practice in Italy. Ibrutinib retention rate at one-year suggests a better knowledge and expertise of hematologists in the management of ibrutinib-related toxicities that may result in an improved long-term outcome of pts with CLL. Disclosures: Molica: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Astrazeneca: Honoraria. Scarfo: Astra Zeneca: Honoraria;Abbvie: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria, Other: Travel grants. Murru: Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel and accommodation;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria. Sportoletti: AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria. Frigeri: Celgene: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Speakers Bureau. Sanna: Janssen: Consultancy;Abbvie: Consultancy;Astra Zeneca: Consultancy. Coscia: Janssen: Honoraria, Other, Research Funding;AbbVie: Honoraria, Other;AstraZeneca: Honoraria;Gilead: Honoraria. Reda: Abbvie: Consultancy;Astra Zeneca: Consultancy;Beigene: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy. Tafuri: Novartis: Research Funding;Roche: Research Funding;Celgene: Research Funding. Grugnetti: Janssen: Current Employment. Magarotto: Janssen: Current Employment. Mauro: Tskeda: Consultancy, Honoraria;Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria;Astra Zeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau.

18.
Blood ; 138:2321, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582311

ABSTRACT

Background Based on early evidence of a high rate of coronavirus mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) undergoing intensive chemotherapy (IC), the national health service (NHS) in the United Kingdom temporarily made venetoclax available as an alternative therapy, with the aim of reducing both mortality and healthcare resource use. From late April 2020, venetoclax was available to patients aged >16y with NPM1 mutation without FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), patients aged >50y with NPM1, IDH1 or IDH2 mutations (regardless of FLT3 status) and patients aged >60y without favourable-risk cytogenetics. Venetoclax could be given with either azacitidine or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), with the latter recommended mainly for patients with NPM1 mutation. We report a health-system-wide real world data collection for toxicity and patient outcomes across 65 NHS Hospitals. Methods Each patient was registered on a central NHS database. Clinicians certified that their patient met the above criteria, had not received previous AML treatment, and was fit for induction chemotherapy. Anonymised data were retrospectively collected by treating physicians. Venetoclax dose, duration and toxicity information was requested for the first 4 cycles of therapy. Response definitions were as per European Leukaemia Network (ELN) guidelines. A total of 870 patients have been registered on the scheme, with outcomes reported here for those with follow-up information at a data cut on 1st August 2021. Results There were 301 patients, median age 72y (range 34 - 90) with 62% male. The majority (81%) had an ECOG performance status of 0-1. AML was secondary to a previous haematological disorder in 33%, therapy-related in 10% and de novo in the remaining 57%. MRC cytogenetic risk was intermediate in 70% and adverse in 27%. NPM1 mutations were detected in 28% and FLT3-ITD in 12%. Next-generation sequencing results were available in 86% of patients, which detected mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in 28%, ASXL1 in 20%, RUNX1 in 17% and TP53 in 12%. The ELN risk was favourable for 23%, intermediate for 30% and adverse for 44%. A majority received venetoclax in combination with azacitidine (85%), with the remaining 15% receiving LDAC. The LDAC cohort was enriched for de novo AML (76% vs 54%) and NPM1-mutated disease (56% vs 23%). Most patients (81%) followed the recommended initial schedule of venetoclax 100mg daily for 28 days in combination with posaconazole or voriconazole. Patients spent a median 14 days in hospital in cycle 1, then a median of 0 days for cycles 2-4. In cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4, the median number of days for recovery of neutrophils to >0.5x10 9/L was 33, 25, 24 and 14 respectively, and the median number of days to recovery of platelets to >50x10 9/L was 22, 3, 0 (no drop below 50) and 0. The composite complete remission (CR) / CR with incomplete haematological recovery (CRi) rate was 70%. MRD data is being collected. The best response was morphological leukaemia free state (MLFS) in 2%, partial remission in 7% and refractory disease in 11%. CR/CRi was higher in de novo (78%) compared to secondary AML (57%, p=0.02);NPM1 mutated (78% vs 67%, p=0.02) and IDH1/IDH2 mutated disease (85% vs 62%, p=0.02). ELN favourable risk patients had the highest CR/CRi rate (85%, intermediate 71%, adverse 60%, p=0.01). Median follow-up was 8.2 months (95%CI 7.8 - 9.0) with median overall survival (OS) 12.8 months (95%CI 10.9 - not reached). Mortality at day 30 was 5.7% and day 60 was 8.4%. 12-month overall survival was 51%, increasing to 71% in those who achieved CR/CRi. Survival was poorer in secondary (HR 1.9, p <0.01) and therapy-related AML (HR 2.1, p=0.02), better in NPM1 mutated (HR 0.6, p=0.02) and IDH mutated (HR 0.5, p=0.02) disease and poorer with TP53 mutation (HR 2.0, p=0.01). Overall survival did not differ for patients treated with LDAC compared to azacitidine (HR 1.1, p=0.7). Conclusion This large real-world study demonstrates CR/CRi and survival rates comparable to those reported in prospective clinical trials. Importantly, during t e COVID-19 pandemic, the adoption of venetoclax regimens permitted the great majority of treatment to be delivered as an outpatient with significant resource saving at a time of critically constrained inpatient resources. The data support prospective comparisons of venetoclax-based regimens to IC in fit adults with AML particularly in older patients with de novo AML, NPM1-mutated and IDH-mutated disease. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Belsham: Celgene: Other: meeting attendance;Abbvie: Other: meeting attendance. Khan: Abbvie: Honoraria;Astellas: Honoraria;Takeda: Honoraria;Jazz: Honoraria;Gilead: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria. Khwaja: Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Latif: Kite: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Consultancy, Honoraria;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria;Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Astellas: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda UK: Speakers Bureau. Loke: Pfizer: Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria;Novartis: Other: Travel;Daichi Sankyo: Other: Travel. Murthy: Abbvie: Other: support to attend educational conferences. Smith: ARIAD: Honoraria;Pfizer: Speakers Bureau;Daiichi Sankyo: Speakers Bureau. Whitmill: Daiichi-sankyo: Other: travel fees;EHA in stockholm: Other: conference support. Craddock: Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Other: Advisory Board;Celgene/BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Dillon: Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Jazz: Other: Education events;Pfizer: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: educational events;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Session chair (paid to institution), Speakers Bureau;Menarini: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Astellas: Consultancy, Other: Educational Events, Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Other: Research support (paid to institution);Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Research Support, Educational Events.

19.
Blood ; 138:2291, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582310

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted non-urgent and preventive medical care. During the early peak of the pandemic, an estimated 41% of US adults delayed or avoided medical care (Czeisler et al, CDC, 2020). While there were documented declines in the number of emergency department visits for myocardial infarction, stroke and hyperglycemia, similar data is not available related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (Lange et al, CDC, 2020). A delay in the diagnosis of AML could lead to presentation when patients are less able to withstand chemotherapy or have a higher disease burden which could compromise overall survival (OS). In this retrospective analysis, we aim to elucidate if there was a difference in clinical, cytogenetic, or molecular presentations and if there was an effect on early mortality as determined by overall survival at 1 and 6 months. Methods We compared the clinical, cytogenetic, and baseline molecular genetics of consecutive adult patients diagnosed with de novo AML at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's (DFCI/BWH) Hospital from March 23, 2020, the date of the Massachusetts COVID State of Emergency, to August 23, 2020 to a historical cohort of similar patients between presenting between March 23, 2017 and August 23, 2020. Data was obtained from the Hematological Malignancy Data Repository and via review of the medical record. Patients were excluded from this cohort if they were diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia, had known antecedent myeloid malignancy, or if they did not have DFCI/BWH 96-gene next-generation sequencing panel (RHP) performed at the time of diagnosis. Baseline clinical, laboratory, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics and outcomes were compared between the pre-pandemic and pandemic cohorts using chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum analyses (where appropriate) at a significance of p<0.05. Results Thirty-eight AML patients presented during the COVID-19 pandemic (PAN) and 308 in the pre-pandemic (PREPAN) period. There was no statistically significant difference in the monthly rate of new patients presenting in PREPAN and PAN cohorts (8 vs. 6 new patients/month, p=0.73). The median age at presentation (64 PREPAN vs. 65 PAN, p=0.77), sex, and therapeutic approach (intensive, non-intensive, supportive care, other) were not statistically different between cohorts. Presenting white blood cell count, platelet count, and fibrinogen were not different between cohorts, while hematocrit was significantly lower in the PAN cohort (23.8% vs. 26.0%, p=0.001). There was a trend for a higher median blast percentage (28.5% vs. 13%, p=0.09) in the PAN cohort. There were no differences between the cohorts in the median number of cytogenetic abnormalities, nor in the incidence of complex karyotype, (25.3% vs. 23.7%) across PREPAN and PAN respectively. There were also no significant differences in the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) risk classification scores across the PREPAN and PAN time periods, with 57.8% vs. 52.6% of total patients presenting with adverse risk disease respectively. When specific mutations of TP53, NPM1, and FLT3 were evaluated, only FLT3 demonstrated a statistical difference with a higher proportion in the pandemic group (p=0.04). OS at 1-month (97.4% and 93.2%, p=0.15) and 6-months (71.1% and 75.0%, p-0.87) were not statistically different in the PREPAN and PAN cohorts, respectively. Conclusion These data represent a novel analysis of the presenting clinical, cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of de novo AML during the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast to other diseases, we did not see fewer de novo AML presentations during the peak of the COVID pandemic. While the reasons are unknown and require validation in large cohorts, the symptoms of leukemia including symptomatic anemia (low hematocrit) and higher WBC and blast count possibly driven by FLT3 mutations may drive patients to seek emergent clinical evaluation despite COVID pandemic barriers. The lack of difference in cytogenetic or other prognostic entities may demonstrate a lack of ymptom correlation causing patients to present for care. The higher incidence of FLT3 mutations and lower hematocrit could reflect more symptomatic presentation of AML during the COVID pandemic. Since these differences may be a surrogate for a higher disease burden, it will be important to compare outcomes at longer time points. [Formula presented] Disclosures: DeAngelo: Pfizer: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding;Jazz: Consultancy;Incyte: Consultancy;Forty-Seven: Consultancy;Autolus: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy;Glycomimetrics: Research Funding;Blueprint: Research Funding;Abbvie: Research Funding;Servier: Consultancy. Stone: Bristol Meyers Squibb: Consultancy;Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BerGen Bio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Boston Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy;Innate: Consultancy;Foghorn Therapeutics: Consultancy;Gemoab: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Glaxo Smith Kline: Consultancy;Celgene: Consultancy;Elevate Bio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;OncoNova: Consultancy;Syntrix/ACI: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Syndax: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy, Research Funding;Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Aprea: Consultancy;Arog: Consultancy, Research Funding;Jazz: Consultancy;Macrogenics: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding;Actinium: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Consultancy;Syros: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Takeda: Consultancy. Garcia: AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Prelude: Research Funding;Pfizer: Research Funding;Genentech: Research Funding;Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Astellas: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;AbbVie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Winer: Abbvie: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy.

20.
Blood ; 138:1254, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582298

ABSTRACT

Background Early data suggest that patients undergoing salvage chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have poor outcomes if infected with SARS-CoV-2, and nosocomial transmission has been a major problem worldwide. Gilteritinib is effective in R/R FLT3 mutated AML, is significantly less immunosuppressive and does not require hospital admission, however at the start of the pandemic this was not yet approved for routine use in all countries. In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service (NHS) made gilteritinib available as an emergency measure from late April 2020 to patients aged >16y with R/R FLT3 mutated AML, with the aim of reducing both mortality and healthcare resource use. We report a health-system-wide real world data collection for toxicity and patient outcomes across 27 NHS Hospitals. Methods Each patient was registered on a central NHS database, with clinicians certifying that their patient met the above criteria. Anonymised data were retrospectively collected by treating physicians. Gilteritinib dose, duration and toxicity information was requested for the first 4 cycles of therapy. Response definitions were as per European Leukaemia Network (ELN) guidelines. A total of 81 patients have been registered on the scheme, with outcomes reported here for those with follow-up information at a data cut on 1st August 2021. Results Fifty patients were included with a median age of 59y (range 19 - 77) and 50% male. The majority (83%) had an ECOG performance status of 0-1. AML was secondary to a previous haematological disorder in 12%, therapy-related in 4% and de novo in the remaining 84%. The disease was refractory to the last therapy in 38%. Most patients had previously received 1 (65%) or 2 (33%) lines of therapy, including intensive chemotherapy in a majority (86%). A FLT3 inhibitor had previously been administered to 45% and 35% were post allogeneic transplant. The FLT3 mutation was an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in 80% and tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutation in 22%. NPM1 mutations were detected in 34%. Next-generation sequencing results were available for 94% of patients, with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in 12.5%, ASXL1 in 2%, RUNX1 in 21% and no TP53 mutations. Patients spent a median 3.5 days in hospital in cycle 1, 0 days in cycles 2 and 3 and 1 day in cycle 4. In cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4, the median number of days of grade 4 neutropenia was 18, 7, 7.5, and 6.5 respectively, and the grade 4 thrombocytopenia was 2, 7, 0.5 and 0.5. The composite complete remission (CR) / CR with incomplete haematological recovery (CRi) rate was 27%. MRD data is being collected. The best response was morphological leukaemia free state (MLFS) in 4%, partial remission (PR) in 25% and refractory disease in 38%. The rate of combined CR/CRi did not differ in those with previous exposure to FLT3 inhibitors (23% vs 32%, p=0.6) or with past allogeneic transplant (29% vs 27%, p=0.3). There were no CR/CRi in patients with adverse cytogenetic risk. Median follow-up was 10.5 months (95%CI 7.3 - 12.3) with median overall survival (OS) 6.7 months (95%CI 4.5 - not reached). Mortality at day 30 was 0% and day 60 was 14%. 12-month overall survival was 38%. Patients who achieved a CR/CRi had a 12-month OS of 83%, and for PR this was 35%. Survival did not differ in those with previous FLT3 inhibitor exposure (HR 1.0, p>0.9) or allogeneic transplant (HR 0.63, p=0.3). Seven patients (14%) so far have been bridged with gilteritinib to allogeneic transplant. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that gilteritinib is well tolerated and clinically active in adults with relapsed FLT3 mutated AML. Importantly, during the COVID-19 pandemic, its availability has permitted the great majority of treatment to be delivered as an outpatient with significant resource saving at a time of critically constrained inpatient resources. Patients who achieve CR/CRi have good short-term outcomes and are able to proceed to a potentially curative allogeneic stem cell transplant. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Belsham: Celgene: Other: meeting attendance;Abbvie: Other: meeting attendance. Byrne: Incyte: Honoraria. Khan: Abbvie: Honoraria;Astellas: Honoraria;Takeda: Honoraria;Jazz: Honoraria;Gilead: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria. Khwaja: Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Latif: Kite: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Consultancy, Honoraria;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria;Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Astellas: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda UK: Speakers Bureau. Loke: Amgen: Honoraria;Daichi Sankyo: Other: Travel Support;Janssen: Honoraria;Novartis: Other: Travel Support;Pfizer: Honoraria. Munisamy: Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Speakers Bureau;Roche: Speakers Bureau. Murthy: Abbvie: Other: support to attend educational conferences. Smith: Daiichi Sankyo: Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Speakers Bureau;ARIAD: Honoraria. Craddock: Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Other: Advisory Board;Celgene/BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Dillon: Amgen: Other: Research support (paid to institution);Astellas: Consultancy, Other: Educational Events, Speakers Bureau;Menarini: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Session chair (paid to institution), Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: educational events;Jazz: Other: Education events;Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Research Support, Educational Events.

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