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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957162

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Metabolic reprogramming in immune cells is diverse and distinctive in terms of complexity and flexibility in response to heterogeneous pathogenic stimuli. We studied the carbohydrate metabolic changes in immune cells in different types of infectious diseases. This could help build reasonable strategies when understanding the diagnostics, prognostics, and biological relevance of immune cells under alternative metabolic burdens. Methods: Search and analysis were conducted on published peer-reviewed papers on immune cell metabolism of a single pathogen infection from the four known types (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses). Out of the 131 selected papers based on the PIC algorithm (pathogen type/immune cell/carbohydrate metabolism), 30 explored immune cell metabolic changes in well-studied bacterial infections, 17 were on fungal infections of known medical importance, and 12 and 57 were on parasitic and viral infections, respectively. Results and Discussion: While carbohydrate metabolism in immune cells is signaled by glycolytic shift during a bacterial or viral infection, it is widely evident that effector surface proteins are expressed on the surface of parasites and fungi to modulate metabolism in these cells. Conclusions: Carbohydrate metabolism in immune cells can be categorized according to the pathogen or the disease type. Accordingly, this classification can be used to adopt new strategies in disease diagnosis and treatment.

2.
Int J Intercult Relat ; 90: 38-56, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926534

ABSTRACT

According to the parasite-stress theory of sociality and the behavioral immune system theory, heightened religiosity serves an anti-pathogen function by promoting in-group assortative sociality. Thus, highly religious countries/territories could have better control of the COVID-19 (proactively avoids disease-threat), and heightened COVID-19 threat could increase religiosity (reactively responds to disease-threat). As expected, country-level religiosity (religion-related online searches (Allah, Buddhism, Jesus, etc.) and number of total religions/ethnoreligions) negatively and significantly predicted COVID-19 severity (a composite index of COVID-19 susceptibility, reproductive rate, morbidity, and mortality rates) (Study 1a), after accounting for covariates (e.g., socioeconomic factors, ecological factors, collectivism index, cultural tightness-looseness index, COVID-19 policy response, test-to-case ratio). Moreover, multilevel analysis accounting for daily- (e.g., time-trend effect, season) and macro-level (same as in Study 1a) covariates showed that country-level religious searches, compared with the number of total religions/ethnoreligions, were more robust in negatively and significantly predicting daily-level COVID-19 severity during early pandemic stages (Study 1b). At weekly level, perceived coronavirus threat measured with coronavirus-related searches (corona, covid, covid-19, etc.), compared with actual COVID-19 threat measured with epidemiological data, showed larger effects in positively predicting religious searches (Study 2), after accounting for weekly- (e.g., autocorrelation, time-trend effect, season, religious holidays, major-illness-related searches) and macro-level (e.g., Christian-majority country/territory and all country-level variables in Study 1) covariates. Accordingly, heightened religiosity could proactively and reactively respond to the COVID-19 pandemic across the globe.

3.
Vox Sanguinis ; 117(SUPPL 1):264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916367

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 associated COVID-19 was declared as pandemic in March'20.It led to accelerated scientific development leading to production of several vaccines.In India,first vaccine used was ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.Reports of pro-thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications with it are there but isolated immune thrombocytopenia is rare.We are reporting secondary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) possibly attributed to COVID-19 vaccine. Aims: A 21-years female came to General Medicine with complaints of weakness,rashes all over body,bleeding from gums, menorrhagia and reddish discoloration of urine.She had history of COVID-19 vaccination 2 days back.On examination, she was mildly febrile, showed multiple pin-point petechial haemorrhages over face,abdomen,both limbs and sub-conjunctival haemorrhage with no complaints of headache/visual disturbances/pain abdomen/respiratory distress.Systemic examination showed no significant findings.She had no previous history of bleeding/drug intake/no family history of bleeding or any other significant conditions. Methods: Lab investigations showed Hb:8.6gm%,TLC:14,400/cmm, platelet counts:10,000/cmm.Peripheral blood smear showed normocytic normochromic RBC with leucocytosis and marked thrombocytopenia with absent hemoparasites.Urine examination showed numerous RBCs with no pus cells.S. electrolytes were normal, SGOT/ SGPT were mildly increased, total proteins were normal.S. bilirubin,urea,creatinine were normal.HIV,HCV,HBsAg,CMV IgM were negative.To rule out connective tissue disorders,ANA and dsDNA were performed which came negative.Her USG abdomen and CTchest were normal.COVID-19 RT-PCR was negative.ITP secondary to COVID-19 vaccination was suspected. Results: She was started with i.v. methylprednisolone pulse therapy for 3 days and IVIG for 2 days and also received trenexamic acid for menorrhagia.She received 6 units of random donor platelets which improved platelet count.After haematology consultation,oral prednisolone for 7 days with alternate day platelet count monitoring was started.She improved symptomatically with no new bleeding.She was discharged after 10 days with an advice to follow up. Summary/Conclusions: ITP is autoimmune disorder with autoantibodies against platelets,more common in females.It is usually idiopathic,but occasionally secondary to viral infections/vaccinations. Incidence of vaccine associated ITP is <1%.Previously reported with various vaccines like influenza,measles,mumps,rubella,etc.Vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with COVID-19 vaccine has been well documented,but ITP is rare.VITT is usually characterized by major thrombotic episodes at unusual locations like sagittal sinus,splanchnic circulation,etc. with visual, neurological and abdominal features.No such findings seen in our case.Although she had low platelet count,yet mild symptoms which improved with conservative management with steroid and IVIG.Although we could not establish a temporal link;yet based on findings,ITP secondary to COVID-19 vaccine could not be ruled out.It is important to be aware of this complication as although rare,it could lead to significant morbidity and fatal bleed if not managed promptly. Steroids and IVIG is highly effective in ITP irrespective of cause.However,more investigations need to be done to establish a temporal relationship with COVID-19 vaccine. Nevertheless,occurrence of ITP should not be a deterrent in vaccination,though caution should be exerted in history of thrombocytopenia.

4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911625

ABSTRACT

Cyclospora cayetanensis infections remain one of the most common protozoan opportunistic causes of gastrointestinal diseases and diarrhea among people living with HIV and/or AIDS (PLWHA). This study was conducted to provide a summary of the evidence on the global burden of C. cayetanensis infection and associated risk factors among PLWHA. Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, and EMBASE were searched up to February 2022. All original peer-reviewed original research articles were considered, including descriptive and cross-sectional studies describing C. cayetanensis in PLWHA. Incoherence and heterogeneity between studies were quantified by I index and Cochran's Q test. Publication and population bias were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's asymmetry regression test. All statistical analyses were performed using StatsDirect. The pooled prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection among PLWHA was 3.89% (95% CI, 2.62-5.40). The highest prevalence found in South America was 7.87% and the lowest in Asia 2.77%. In addition, the prevalence of C. cayetanensis was higher in PLWHA compared to healthy individuals. There was a relationship between a higher C. cayetanensis prevalence in PLWHA with a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mL and people with diarrhea. The results show that PLWHA are more vulnerable to C. cayetanensis infection and emphasizes the need to implement the screening and prophylaxis tailored to the local context. Owing to the serious and significant clinical manifestations of the parasite, an early identification of seropositivity is recommended to initiate prophylaxis between PLWHA with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/mL and PLWHA who do not receive antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cyclospora , Cyclosporiasis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclosporiasis/diagnosis , Cyclosporiasis/epidemiology , Cyclosporiasis/parasitology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors
5.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum ; 65(5):68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894289

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Background: Intestinal spirochetosis has been described as a rare source of colitis caused by the organism Brachyspira pilosicoli. It is more commonly associated with an immunocompromised host, such as those with HIV or post transplant. Spirochetosis can also afflict the immunocompetent host. Hypothesis/Aim: We describe in this case report the diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis via colonoscopy in an immunocompetent host. They presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea and tested positive for COVID-19. Methods/Interventions: A 60- year old man with history of unprotected intercourse with men but a negative infectious workup for HIV, HSV, gonorrhea and chlamydia presented after multiple weeks of abdominal pain and diarrhea. He reported no recent travels and had a negative colonoscopy 9 years prior. 6 weeks prior to his appointment in the colorectal office, he was in the ER with a CT scan demonstrating diffuse colitis and pulmonary changes consistent with COVID. He tested positive for the virus, despite a lack of symptoms. He followed up in the clinic with ongoing symptoms. An infections workup for GI pathogens, including ova and parasites, C diff, was negative. A colonoscopy was ordered. Results/Outcome(s): The colonoscopy did not reveal any evidence of colitis. Random biopsies of the entirety of the colon were taken. The pathology revealed spirochetes in the mucosa. He was treated with metronidazole with complete resolution of his symptoms. Limitations: This is limited by a single reported instance of a relatively rare entity and in this particular instance associated with COVID infection. Conclusions/Discussion: Intestinal spirochetosis represents an unusual cause of abdominal pain and diarrhea in humans. It has been more commonly associated with immunocompromised host or in certain regions of the world, such as the India and portions of Asia. This instance in an otherwise immunocompetent male with asymptomatic COVID infection represents a unique case. Its symptoms, diagnosis by colonoscopy, and cure with metronidazole reflect the traditional presentation, diagnostic modality and treatment pathway.

6.
Louisiana Agriculture ; 64:1, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1888278

ABSTRACT

This paper provides information on the many similarities between plant and human viruses concerning their detection, spread and control methods, such as in Tobacco mosaic virus and COVID-19.

7.
International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems ; 12(1):21-35, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887587

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impact of the global pandemic on level of production income and the uptake of insurance covers among agri-food related MSMEs' in South West Nigeria. The study adopted treatment effects model, the logistic regression model, Pearson's and Cramer's V correlation coefficient to analyse the data for the study. Sampled households were selected through a snowballing sampling technique using the online survey method to arrive at 192 MSMEs from Urban South West region of Nigeria comprising of 132 controls and 60 treated MSME operators. The treatment variable for this study is the uptake of insurance cover. Analysis of the sample for the study showed that the uptake of insurance cover MSMEs' in the study area stand at 31.25%. The result showed that MSMEs' who were affected by the global pandemic are more likely to take up insurance cover to mitigate future risks than those who were not seriously affected. The result of the treatment effect models further revealed that the production income and MSMEs' willingness to take insurance cover were both significantly impacted by the global pandemic. It was therefore recommended that insurance companies come up with tailor-made insurance products for MSMEs. Also, that flexible payments methods be allowed so that more micro enterprises can get cover which will in turn boost their confidence that in the event of an adverse market condition they will not be worse off.

8.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875726

ABSTRACT

Continuous propagation of Babesia duncani in vitro in human erythrocytes and the availability of a mouse model of B. duncani lethal infection make this parasite an ideal model to study Babesia biology and pathogenesis. Two culture media, HL-1 and Claycomb, with proprietary formulations are the only culture media known to support the parasite growth in human erythrocytes; however, the HL-1 medium has been discontinued and the Claycomb medium is often unavailable leading to major interruptions in the study of this pathogen. To identify alternative media conditions, we evaluated the growth of B. duncani in various culture media with well-defined compositions. We report that the DMEM-F12 culture medium supports the continuous growth of the parasite in human erythrocytes to levels equal to those achieved in the HL-1 and Claycomb media. We generated new clones of B. duncani from the parental WA-1 clinical isolate after three consecutive subcloning events in this medium. All clones showed a multiplication rate in vitro similar to that of the WA-1 parental isolate and cause fatal infection in C3H/HeJ mice. The culture medium, which can be readily reconstituted from its individual components, and the tools and resources developed here will facilitate the study of B. duncani.

9.
EFSA Journal ; 20, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863926

ABSTRACT

Parasitic nematodes of the genus Anisakis are the causative agent of anisakiosis, an important fish‐borne zoonosis. Humans are infected through consumption of raw or undercooked fish, contaminated with the parasite. Infection can result in both gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms. There are few reports of anisakiosis in Portugal, but evidence of Anisakis allergy exists, indicating that exposure is occurring in the population. The European Food Risk Assessment Fellowship Programme (EU‐FORA) work programme, entitled: ‘Food safety of fish and zoonoses: fish consumption and microbiological risk assessment and perception, from fisherman to final consumers in Portugal’ was hosted by the Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), in Porto, Portugal. It aimed to gather information on risk perception and attitudes in the Portuguese population to contamination of fish with Anisakis spp. and on their knowledge of methods to prevent infection. In addition, it aimed to examine the risk of anisakiosis in the Portuguese population.

10.
ACS Central Science ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860279

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases continue to pose a substantial burden on global populations, requiring innovative broad-spectrum prophylactic and treatment alternatives. Here, we have designed modular synthetic polymer nanoparticles that mimic functional components of host cell membranes, yielding multivalent nanomimics that act by directly binding to varied pathogens. Nanomimic blood circulation time was prolonged by reformulating polymer-lipid hybrids. Femtomolar concentrations of the polymer nanomimics were sufficient to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) entry into epithelial cells, while higher doses were needed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given their observed virustatic mode of action, the nanomimics were also tested with malaria parasite blood-stage merozoites, which lose their invasive capacity after a few minutes. Efficient inhibition of merozoite invasion of red blood cells was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo using a preclinical rodent malaria model. We envision these nanomimics forming an adaptable platform for developing pathogen entry inhibitors and as immunomodulators, wherein nanomimic-inhibited pathogens can be secondarily targeted to sites of immune recognition. © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

11.
Universa Medicina ; 41(1):90-99, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818855

ABSTRACT

Nearly 35 million cases and one million deaths over the nine months of the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported worldwide. Africa and some countries with endemic parasitic infections had a low incidence of COVID-19. By contrast, the United States and several European countries, having a non-endemicity of parasitic infections, recorded a high incidence of COVID-19. Some parasites have an immunomodulatory mechanism that can induce an immune tolerance state in the infected persons by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Emerging reports also stated that COVID-19 and helminth co-infections may have more hidden outcomes than predictable ones. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to show and identify that an increase in the number of regulatory immune cells due to the immunomodulatory role of a pre-existing parasitic infection could reduce the risk of COVID-19. This study explored the existing literature to determine the role of parasitic infections in modulating the immune response and possibly reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection in endemic countries. The mechanism of immunomodulation by parasites is the increased numbers of Treg cells, M2 macrophages, eosinophils, the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and the pro-inflammatory downregulation of IFN lambda, TNF alpha, and IL-6, which play an essential role in inducing cytokine storms in COVID-19 infection. This condition will probably occur in an individual with parasitic infection in a community with limited facilities and infrastructure to treat parasitic infections, particularly in developing countries. To conclude, in endemic areas, the immunomodulatory effect of parasitic infection to reduce the risk of COVID-19 cases/deaths is a possibility if the host is immunocompetent. Herein, the current knowledge on the immunomodulatory role of COVID-19 and helminth co-infections will be discussed.

12.
OECD Health Working Papers|2022. (137):54 pp. 41 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1817587

ABSTRACT

. Medicine shortages have become increasingly common in a number of countries in recent years and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation. The aim of this paper was to develop further insights into the extent and nature of medicine shortages in OECD countries (pre COVID-19). However, absent both a common nomenclature and harmonised notification systems for reporting shortages, intercountry comparisons, and an overarching global perspective remain challenging. Notwithstanding these challenges, the number of shortage notifications increased by 60% over the period 2017 to 2019 in a sample of 14 OECD countries. . In OECD's analysis, more than half of all notifications were concentrated in three main therapeutic areas: medicines targeting the nervous system, cardiovascular system and antiinfectives. In nearly two-thirds of cases, a shortage of a given active substance was reported in more than one country. Shortages affected predominantly older, off-patent molecules. However, the impact on patient health is largely unknown, given that a notification does not necessarily impact patients adversely if appropriate alternatives remain available and accessible. . The multifactorial nature of this issue and complexity of this industrial sector confound root cause analysis, with different stakeholder perceptions, poor data quality, and general misconceptions further complicating understanding of the issue. Pharmaceutical supply chains are highly complex, involving multiple stakeholders, often with different procedural steps occurring in multiple countries and/or locations. Nevertheless, in general, shortages may be considered as arising from exogenous factors that increase demand (such as in the case of COVID-19), or exogenous or endogenous factors that limit or reduce supply. . Several analyses have noted that shortages, as reported by marketing authorisation holders, are predominantly due to (exogenous) manufacturing and quality issues (in about 60% of cases). Manufacturing and quality problems include, for example, production quality issues or defects in any component of a product;shortages of inputs;inventory and storage practices;temporary and permanent suspension of production due to e.g. technical issues with production or non-compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice, or manufacturing site closure or relocation. Linked to this, policy debates also point to the issues of concentration of manufacturing, or limited availability of manufacturing facilities to produce certain categories or components of medicines, as additional sources of supply vulnerability. While the contributions of these factors are challenging to assess based on available information, in general, ensuring that the manufacturing of particular components is not highly concentrated at one or few manufacturing sites or in small geographic areas, could reduce the overall vulnerability of medicines' supply to these types of risks. . Beyond manufacturing and quality issues, (endogenous) commercial factors, and the policy settings that influence them, may play important underlying roles in propagating shortages, particularly for off-patent products, although further analysis is needed. Regulation and reimbursement policies, such as those that favour unsustainably low prices, may influence commercial decisions, putting supply at risk. In the United States, for example, an empirical analysis identified three root causes, key among them a lack of incentive for the continued production of less profitable drugs in a setting of highly competitive tendering and contracting practices. The analysis also cited a lack of incentives to upgrade production facilities or maintain quality management systems as another root cause. There have also been suggestions that similar issues are implicated in Europe, but the links between production problems and market attractiveness warrant further exploration. . Many OECD countries are pursuing policies aimed at improving the monitoring, mitigating the impact, and/or preventing the future occurrence of shortages. For

13.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810043

ABSTRACT

In the field of drug discovery, the nitrile group is well represented among drugs and biologically active compounds. It can form both non-covalent and covalent interactions with diverse biological targets, and it is amenable as an electrophilic warhead for covalent inhibition. The main advantage of the nitrile group as a warhead is mainly due to its milder electrophilic character relative to other more reactive groups (e.g., -CHO), reducing the possibility of unwanted reactions that would hinder the development of safe drugs, coupled to the ease of installation through different synthetic approaches. The covalent inhibition is a well-assessed design approach for serine, threonine, and cysteine protease inhibitors. The mechanism of hydrolysis of these enzymes involves the formation of a covalent acyl intermediate, and this mechanism can be exploited by introducing electrophilic warheads in order to mimic this covalent intermediate. Due to the relevant role played by the cysteine protease in the survival and replication of infective agents, spanning from viruses to protozoan parasites, we will review the most relevant and recent examples of protease inhibitors presenting a nitrile group that have been introduced to form or to facilitate the formation of a covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine active site residue.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Proteases , Parasitic Diseases , Cysteine/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Nitriles/pharmacology
14.
Microorganisms ; 10(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810032

ABSTRACT

The development of antimalarial drug resistance is an ongoing problem threatening progress towards the elimination of malaria, and antimalarial treatments are urgently needed for drug-resistant malaria infections. Host-directed therapies (HDT) represent an attractive strategy for the development of new antimalarials with untapped targets and low propensity for resistance. In addition, drug repurposing in the context of HDT can lead to a substantial decrease in the time and resources required to develop novel antimalarials. Host BCL-xL is a target in anti-cancer therapy and is essential for the development of numerous intracellular pathogens. We hypothesised that red blood cell (RBC) BCL-xL is essential for Plasmodium development and tested this hypothesis using six BCL-xL inhibitors, including one FDA-approved compound. All BCL-xL inhibitors tested impaired proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 parasites in vitro at low micromolar or sub-micromolar concentrations. Western blot analysis of infected cell fractions and immunofluorescence microscopy assays revealed that host BCL-xL is relocated from the RBC cytoplasm to the vicinity of the parasite upon infection. Further, immunoprecipitation of BCL-xL coupled with mass spectrometry analysis identified that BCL-xL forms unique molecular complexes with human µ-calpain in uninfected RBCs, and with human SHOC2 in infected RBCs. These results provide interesting perspectives for the development of host-directed antimalarial therapies and drug repurposing efforts.

15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796693

ABSTRACT

Cyclospora spp. is an important cause of traveler's diarrhea or water and food-borne diarrhoeal diseases. We present an interesting but rare case report of cyclosporiasis in a 51-year-old male who had undergone renal allograft transplant six years ago. He also had a past history of tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and hepatitis C infection and was being treated with immunosuppressants. The patient had a prolonged history of gastrointestinal manifestations with recent acute onset of watery diarrhea associated with abdominal cramps. Stool examination after modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed oocysts of Cyclospora spp. The patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole.

16.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(2): 73, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776815

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Individuals affected by the disease gradually lose their capacity for abstract thinking, understanding, communication and memory. As populations age, declining cognitive abilities will represent an increasing global health concern. While AD was first described over a century ago, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. It is believed that cognitive decline in AD is caused by a progressive loss of neurons and synapses that lead to reduced neural plasticity. AD is a multifactorial disease affected by genetic and environmental factors. The molecular hallmarks of AD include formation of extracellular ß amyloid (Aß) aggregates, neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, excessive oxidative damage, an imbalance of biothiols, dysregulated methylation, and a disproportionate inflammatory response. Recent reports have shown that viruses (e.g., Herpes simplex type 1, 2, 6A/B; human cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2), bacteria (e.g., Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcmitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, and Helicobacter pylori), as well as eukaryotic unicellular parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii) may factor into cognitive decline within the context of AD. Microorganisms may trigger pathological changes in the brain that resemble and/or induce accumulation of Aß peptides and promote tau hyperphosphorylation. Further, the mere presence of infectious agents is suspected to induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses promoting cellular damage and neuronal loss. Here we review the influence of infectious agents on the development of AD to inspire new research in dementia based on these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 6(1):1210-1215, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1772281

ABSTRACT

The study of interleukin-17 (IL-17) has gotten a lot of attention in the last decade because of the cytokine's role in psoriasis and other autoinflammatory disorders, as well as the success of IL-17-targeting therapy in patients with these diseases. Pathologies caused by the cytokine IL-17 are distinct from those caused by the cytokine's beneficial effects. To conduct this research, we used a meta-analysis in which we searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and CrossRef using the keywords "fungal" and "IL-17." The author analysed five papers after the final screening. Border tissue colonisation can be controlled by IL-17, according to the study results. C. albicans is an extremely infectious pathogen, and IL-17 plays a critical role in protecting the host from the disease. There is evidence that IL-17 can also protect against species other than C. albicans, however. Anti-common pathogen defences might, under certain circumstances, lead to aggravation with undesirable consequences for the host, thereby giving parasites an entirely new role as disease-promoting components apart from their previous role as potential irresistible operators.

18.
Science ; 373(6558):977.13-979, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769812
19.
Science ; 373(6558):977.12-979, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769811
20.
Science ; 373(6557):866.12-868, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769805
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