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1.
Chinese Journal of Zoology ; 57(6):951-962, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20244972

ABSTRACT

Many zoonotic diseases are found in wild animals and present a serious risk to human health, in particularly the virus carried by birds flying freely around the world is hard to control. There are three main bird migration routes which cover the most areas of China. It is important to investigate and fully understand the types of avian transmitted diseases in key areas on the bird migration routines and its impacts on both birds and human health. However, no literature is available in how about the risk of virus carried by migrating birds, and how to predict and reduce this risk of virus spreading to human being so far. In this paper, we first reviewed the main pathogen types carried by birds, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses, parasites, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), etc., and then discussed the spread risk of avian viruses to human being and animals in key areas of biosafety prevention. We also analyzed and discussed the risk of cross-spread of diseases among different bird species in nature reserves located on bird migration routes which provide sufficient food sources for migratory birds and attract numerous birds. Diseases transmitted by wild birds pose a serious threat to poultry farms, where high density of poultry may become avian influenza virus (AIV) reservoirs, cause a risk of avian influenza outbreaks. Airports are mostly built in suburban areas or remote areas with good ecological environment. There are important transit places for bird migration and densely populated areas, which have serious risk of disease transmission. Finally, this paper puts forward the following prevention suggestions from three aspects. First, establish and improve the monitoring and prediction mechanism of migratory birds, and use laser technology to prevent contact between wild birds and poultry. Second, examine and identify virus types carried by birds in their habitats and carry out vaccination. Third, protect the ecological environment of bird habitat, and keep wild birds in their natural habitat, so as to reduce the contact between wild birds and human and poultry, and thus reduce the risk of virus transmission.

2.
Mezhdunarodnyi Sel'skokhozyaistvennyi Zhurnal ; 66(1):62-66, 2023.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20232834

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic illness that spreads from animals to people. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded mammals, causes the sickness. Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection that causes abortion and death in animals. Cats are the parasite's sole sexual hosts, thus they're the only ones who can get it. Because cats are frequent pets, they are highly likely to come into touch with humans. As a result, the disease poses a risk to human health. The potential danger is influenced by the frequency of oocyst secretion and the level of contamination in the environment. Toxoplasmosis has serious consequences for both animal and human health, hence preventative actions should be taken to reduce the dangers. COVID-19 is affected by such methods as well. Toxoplasmosis is thought to increase immunological and immunosuppressive factors, which increases the chance of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of the resulting COVID-19. Research into Toxoplasma gondii intermediate hosts might help understand COVID-19's dynamics and determine if the virus can be transferred from animals to humans. We explore what we know about Toxoplasma gondii infection as a human parasitosis and how it may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this review study.

3.
Revista de Patologia Tropical ; 51(Suppl. 2):88, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231455

ABSTRACT

These proceedings comprise 85 articles spanning diverse fields such as bacteriology, molecular biology, biotechnology, dermatology, infectious and parasitic diseases, epidemiology, physiotherapy, immunology, mycology, parasitology, pathology, collective health, and virology. The articles delve into a wide range of research topics, from repurposing drugs for Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections to utilising artificial intelligence for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In bacteriology, investigations explore the correlation between smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric adenocarcinoma patients, as well as the resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheostomised children. Molecular biology studies focus on gene polymorphisms related to diseases like paracoccidioidomycosis. Biotechnology research emphasises bioactive molecules in species like Croton urucurana and the development of computational models for cytotoxicity prediction. Dermatology articles address stability characterisation in vegetable oil-based nanoemulsions. The section on infectious and parasitic diseases encompasses studies on COVID-19 vaccine response in pregnant women and the impact of infection prevention measures in rehabilitation hospitals. Epidemiology investigations analyse trends in premature mortality, tuberculosis in diabetic patients, and public adherence to non-pharmacological COVID-19 measures. Physiotherapy research covers topics such as telerehabilitation through a developed game and the prevalence of congenital anomalies. Immunology studies explore immune responses in HIV and Leishmaniasis, whilst mycology investigates the biotechnological potential of fungi from the cerrado biome. Parasitology research evaluates treatment efficacy against vectors parasites such as Aedes aegypti and Toxoplasma gondii. Pathology articles discuss intentional intoxication in cattle and the influence of curcumin on acute kidney injury therapy. Collective health studies focus on intervention plan development in healthcare settings and pesticide use in horticulture. Lastly, virology research investigates parvovirus occurrence in hospitalised children during the COVID-19 pandemic, hidden hepatitis B virus infection in inmates, and the prevalence of HPV and HTLV-1/2 infections in specific populations.

4.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences ; 11(13):910-912, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2322339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ectoparasitic disease, scabies, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Some of the predisposing factors are overcrowding, unhygienic surroundings, immunocompromised status, dementia, homelessness, and sexual contact. In this study, we wanted to evaluate the changed distribution of lesions of scabies during pandemic. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed on 600 patients attending the skin department of our tertiary care hospital over a period of 6 months. The sites of the scabies lesions were noted along with types of lesions. Demographic data and history of regular hand washing and sanitization were also documented. RESULTS: Our study revealed an important correlation between change in pattern of distribution of scabies lesions from being less frequent on finger webs (19%) to being more frequent on abdomen (periumbilical area) (73%) and groins (67%) due to regular hand washing and frequent sanitization, in this pandemic era. CONCLUSIONS: A significant change in distribution of skin lesions in scabies can be noticed during this COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Jurnal Veteriner ; 23(1):121-129, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318350

ABSTRACT

Coinfection caused by bacteria, parasites, or viruses complicates almost all feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections. Pathogens that colonize the gastrointestinal tract, Clostridium perfingens, Clostridium piliforme, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Tritrichomonas fetus, canine parvovirus type 2,Salmonella sp., feline coronavirus, feline bocavirus, and feline astrovirus were isolated in the presence of FPV infection. Complex mechanisms between viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and hosts contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of coinfection. Prompt and accurate diagnosis, vaccination precautions, and appropriate treatment play important roles in reducing morbidity and mortality. This article outlines the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that can help veterinarians and pet owners improve their knowledge of managing the diseases.

6.
Dermatology and Cosmetic ; 13(2), 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2314355

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sandflies and is one of the endemic diseases of Iran. With the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic worldwide, the virus will interface with endemic infectious diseases in different regions. In this study, coronavirus disease was evaluated in patients with a history of leishmaniasis referred to the Center of Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy. Methods: A total of 91 patients with a history of leishmaniasis were studied for possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of patients referred to the Center of Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy during the coronavirus epidemic was also compared with the same period before the epidemic Results: A total of 60% of patients with leishmaniasis did not report coronavirus disease. Twenty-one percent of cases had a mild corona disease, 13% had a moderate and 3% had severe corona disease. Only a single death was reported in corona patients with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The number of referrals before the beginning of the corona epidemic was twice as high as during the epidemic. Conclusion: In these participants, mortality and side effects of COVID-19 were significantly less reported. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the immune system and cutaneous leishmaniasis protection against COVID-19. Various factors can be effective in reducing patients during the epidemic, including not going to medical centers, reducing the number of trips, and observance of health issues.

7.
Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) ; : 288-292, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2291234

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the epidemiology, prevalence, transmission, prevention and control of some infectious diseases in companion animals, livestock, wild animals and humans in Ontario, Canada, in 2022, including SARS-CoV-2;Echinococcus multilocularis, Leishmania spp. and SARS-CoV-2;antimicrobial stewardship resources;2 cases of rabid dogs imported from Iran (July 2021 and January 2022);prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriacea, Dirofilaria immitis, Brucella canis, canine parainfluenza and adeno- and herpes viruses in dogs recently imported from Asia;Paragonimus kellicotti lung flukes and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in dogs;African swine fever in pet pigs, backyard pigs and wild pigs and blastomycosis in dogs and humans.

8.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 97(48):621-632, 2022.
Article in English, French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2290184

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the number of children who required PC for STH decreased for pre-SAC from 291.2 million to 260.6 million and for SAC from 732.3 million to 653.7 million (Figure 2). This change was mainly due to revision of the numbers of children who require PC for STH in India, which decreased from 103.5 to 80.7 million for pre-SAC and from 332.1 to 259.1 million for SAC. The decreases were based on impact assessment surveys conducted in the past few years, which changed the endemicity status of some districts. Globally, PC coverage of SAC increased from 47% in 2020 to 62.9% in 2021.The number of SAC reached with deworming increased almost to that before the COVID-19 pandemic (411 million in 2021, 344 million in 2020, 455.9 million in 2019), indicating that countries are recovering.

9.
Disease Surveillance ; 38(2):132-134, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2296125

ABSTRACT

In January 2023, a total of 64 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 235 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (235), monkeypox (110), dengue fever (31), measles (27) and cholera (15). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Nipah virus disease (62.5%), Ebola virus disease (47.0%), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (37.5%), Lassa fever (15.1%) and West Nile fever (7.6%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, cholera, measles and dengue fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, cholera and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, cholera, monkeypox, dengue fever and chikungunya fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and invasive group A streptococcus infection.

10.
Bee World ; 99(4):125-126, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2271641

ABSTRACT

This article compares the development of the highly infectious COVID-19 disease in humans with infections or infestations in honey bees. The importance of knowledge on the exotic nature of COVID-19 and each of its variants in providing a useful insight as to how it would be expected to develop, and in particular the expected reduction in its virulence over time, is also discussed.

11.
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 13(9):252-257, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2265024

ABSTRACT

Malaria is an endemic disease in a true sense. It is an acute febrile disease caused due to the parasite Plasmodium. However, unlike COVID-19, it failed to raise an international concern or gain the scientific limelight. Most of the 200 million globally affected by malaria, half of them are from Africa. Four of the nations, Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), and Uganda (4%), account for half of the world's malaria burden and is the leading cause of illness and death. In 2019, an estimated 5-6 million people died of malaria - most of them are young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many of the countries affected by malaria have the lowest economic status. In the malaria-endemic region, the most vulnerable groups are young children and pregnant women. The costs of malaria are enormous to individuals, families, communities, societies, and nations. After a struggle for three decades, the much-awaited malaria vaccine, RTS, S (brand name Mosquirix), was finally launched;but it came with its controversies and allegations. This review explored the different angles of this disease, the vaccine development, and the emerging debates.

12.
China Tropical Medicine ; 23(1):106-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2288789

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the laboratory indexes of patients infected with malaria patients and COVID-19, so as to provide reliable evidence for the diagnosis of mixed infection of both. Methods The routine clinical laboratory items such as routine blood, biochemistry and lymphocyte subsets were tested in three cases of COVID-19 complicated with falciparum malaria who admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University from July to December 2020 were tested. Laboratory data were stage-wise analyzed in conjunction with changes in the course of disease. Results Three patients confirmed COVID-19 infection recruited all had malaria infection history. Fever, headache, and other symptoms emerged on the 4rd to 11th day after admission. Malaria parasite was detected by malaria parasite antigen testing and blood smear testing, and all three patients had re-ignition of malaria after being confirmed COVID-19 infection. In the early stage of malaria relapse, lymphocytes decreased, CRP and SAA increased, and gradually returned to normal level after antimalarial treatment. Interestingly, we only found one patient at the initial stage of malaria detection showed PLT decreased, no other unnormal changes in other routine blood results (WBC, ESO) and liver function results (ALT, AST, GGT, TBIL, DBIL, CG) were found from the beginning to end course of the disease. Conclusion COVID-19 infection may promote the resurgence of malaria, so the relapse of malaria should be monitored especially for the patient with malaria infection history who begin to develop fever and other symptoms a few days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. The inflammatory indicators would be worth able as an auxiliary judgment basis for the effective treatment of the two combined infection.

13.
One Health Bulletin ; 2(16), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2288530

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is effective in preventing the increase of disease, especially emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and it is particularly important for people in close contact with infected sources and susceptible populations who are at increased risk of getting infectious diseases due to behavior, occupation or health. Despite targeted vaccination guidelines, inadequate vaccination of the key populations fails to receive widespread attention, resulting in a high-risk transition of disease from key populations to general populations. Strengthening the vaccination of the susceptible groups can effectively block the spread of pathogens to general populations, and reduce the consumption of medical resources in universal vaccination, which has significant economic value. In this review, we describe the prevalence of EIDs, analyze the experience and lessons of infectious disease vaccination in key populations through several cases, and further explore the causes for the decline in vaccination rates of key populations. According to the trends of EIDs, a plan to strengthen the vaccination of key populations is proposed to effectively prevent the transition of EIDs from key populations to general populations.

14.
2023 OVMA (Ontario Veterinary Medical Association) Conference and Tradeshow ; : 284-288, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2286421

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the clinical signs and use of differential laboratory diagnostic techniques (computed tomography, cytology, histopathology, antigen/antibody detection and polymerase chain reaction) for infectious (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) and non-infectious (inflammatory/immune mediated, neoplastic, cardiac, malformation, foreign body, smoke inhalation, aspiration of caustic material, non-cardiogenic, pulmonary oedema, traumativ, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusions and idiopathic) causes of respiratory diseases in cats and dogs in Ontario, Canada.

15.
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds ; 42(6):2947-2969, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2280987

ABSTRACT

The molecular structure of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) used in the treatment of malaria is recently suggested for emergency used in COVID-19. The chemical compound of HCQ is produced by chemical alteration of ethylene oxide from human products, such as waxy maize starch. The molecular graph is a graph comprising of atoms called vertices and the chemical bond between molecules is called edges. A topological index is a numerical representation of a chemical structure which correlates certain physico-chemical characteristics of underlying chemical compounds besides its numerical representation. To distinguish the creation of entropy-based measures from the structure of chemical graphs, several graph properties have been utilized. For computing the structural information of chemical graphs, the graph entropies have become the information-theoretic quantities. The graph entropy measure has attracted the research community due to its potential application in discrete mathematics, biology, and chemistry. In this paper, our contribution is to explore graph entropies for molecular structure of HCQ based on novel information function, which is the number of different degree vertices along with the number of edges between various degree vertices. More precisely, we have explored the degree-based topological characteristics of hydroxyethyl starch conjugated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ-HEC). Also, we computed entropies of this structure by making a relation of degree-based topological indices with the help of information function. Moreover, we presented the numerical and graphical comparison of the computed results.

16.
Annals of Parasitology ; 68(4):667-672, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2280866

ABSTRACT

There are some doubts about the exact relationship between neglected infectious diseases (NIDs) and COVID-19 disease, which remains to be clearly defined. The present review summarized the effect of parasitic infections as the risk factors or protective agents in the COVID-19 pandemic. Parasites could proficiently modulate immune responses. Thus, parasitic infections could have a different impact on the incidence and clinical severity of COVID-19 in different regions of the world. Also, restoring programs to prevent, treat, and control NIDs, in particular helminths, could help in reducing the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in endemic areas and help to increase vaccination effectiveness. Changes in the gut microbiome associated with helminth infection may have systemic immunomodulatory effects toward suppressing host immune responses, reducing vaccine efficacy and increasing the severity of other infectious diseases. The cytokine storm observed in severe cases of COVID-19 is characterized by a predominance of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. However, it is possible that helminth infection could change the outcome of infection by modifying the Th2 response to limit the inflammatory component;this would be particularly apparent in areas endemic for helminthic infections, which suggests a possible protective effect against COVID-19. Because parasitic infections affect more than 2 billion people throughout the world, their impact on COVID-19- associated effects on public health could be considerable. Further studies with larger sample sizes would be needed to explore the possible role of neglected parasitic infections in the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
New Microbiologica ; 45(2):83-98, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2253971

ABSTRACT

Malaria is long known as a deadly vector borne infection, caused by five parasite species of the coccidian genus Plasmodia that are present in as many as 85 countries. Despite significant progresses have been achieved to control the infection by early diagnosis and artemisinin combination treatment, insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, malaria still represents a major public health issue in many endemic low-income countries. New diagnostic tools of higher sensitivity and specificity are now available for use in endemic countries to better guide diagnosis and treatment. In particular, highly sensitive rapid antigenic tests are now available and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a very promising and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. After 2015, decreasing morbidity and mortality trends have been stagnating because of limited funding, emergence of parasite and vector resistance to drugs and insecticides respectively and, recently, by the disrupting effect of COVID-19 pandemic. The incomplete knowledge of the complex immunity of malaria infection has slowed the development of an effective vaccine. However, in 2021, the RTS-S vaccine, however of suboptimal protective efficacy, has been made available for routine use in children above 5 months of age. Population movements has increased the chance of observing imported malaria in non-endemic areas, where malaria competent vectors may still exist.

18.
Sociedad y Ambiente ; 24, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2253841

ABSTRACT

The possession of exotic animals as pets is a social practice that has become more visible in Mexico in recent years, so it is interesting to understand its environmental and social implications and those related to human health. The present study aims to identify the main species of exotic animals kept as pets and the zoonotic diseases reported in these species. We analyzed official figures of seizures of exotic fauna in Mexico and reviewed specialized literature on zoonotic diseases documented in Mexico in these species. We identified zoonoses in species of fauna that can be acquired legally and illegally in the country, reported in environments in which animals coexist with other species and are in direct contact with people, which represents an important factor in the spread and propensity of this type of disease. We conclude that the sanitary regulation of wildlife markets, the monitoring and studying microorganisms associated with wildlife are valuable strategies to prevent the emergence of zoonoses.

19.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 97(45):575-590, 2022.
Article in English, French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2279009

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the global report on leishmaniasis surveillance, highlighting its significance as a major health problem in four eco-epidemiological regions of the world. The report provides an update on the GHO leishmaniasis indicators reported by 45 member states to WHO up to 2021 and describes specific indicators such as gender and age distribution, relapses, the AmBisomeR donation programme selected outbreaks, case fatality rates for visceral leishmaniasis, rates of co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and the burden of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. It also discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on leishmaniasis surveillance efforts and the Kala-azar Elimination Programme in South-East Asia, as well as highlights adverse events after the administration of antileishmanial drugs and the need for continued surveillance efforts to control and eliminate leishmaniasis globally.

20.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):1447-1464, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2247920

ABSTRACT

New infectious agents pose a global threat to the healthcare system, and studies are conducted to estimate their health and epidemiological outcomes in the long run. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has caused the COVID-19 disease, was formerly assumed to be a respiratory virus;however, it can have serious systemic effects, affecting organs such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Viral RNA was reported in the stool in a subset of patients, indicating another mode of transmission and diagnosis. In COVID-19, prolonged GIT symptoms, especially diarrhea, were associated with reduced diversity and richness of gut microbiota, immunological dysregulation, and delayed viral clearance. Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa that are most typically transmitted to humans by oocysts found in fecally contaminated food and water. Their epidemiological relevance is coupled to opportunistic infections, which cause high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised individuals. Among immunocompetent people, intestinal coccidia is also involved in acute diarrhea, which is usually self-limiting. Evaluating the available evidence provided an opportunity to carefully consider that;the COVID-19 virus and coccidian protozoan parasites: namely, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Isospora belli, could mutually influence each other from the microbiological, clinical, diagnostic, and elimination aspects. We further systemically highlighted the possible shared pathogenesis mechanisms, transmission routes, clinical manifestations, parasite-driven immune regulation, and intestinal microbiota alteration. Finally, we showed how this might impact developing and developed countries prevention and vaccination strategies. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review that has discussed the reciprocal effect between coccidian parasites and COVID-19 coinfection.

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