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1.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

2.
Applied Sciences ; 12(14):7141, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963687

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between chronic inflammatory diseases and their comorbidities and correlation with periodontal diseases has become an increasing focus of research. Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to conclude if patients suffering from COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) tend to have more AP (Apical Periodontitis) than non-COPD patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients assigned as cases, associated with 30 control patients linked by age (+/−5 years) and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were recorded, and a total of 12 radiographic variables were analyzed. A total of 43 (71.7%) patients were registered with PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3, and there was a slightly tendency in the patients from the control group 22 (73.3%) compared to those from the cases 21 (70%), respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that there was not a significant association between the levels of PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3 per patient in those suffering from COPD. In fact, it could be concluded that patients diagnosed with COPD tend to have more teeth with PAI ≥ 3, more endodontic treatments and their periodontitis tended to accumulate more caries. Clinical Significance: This study establishes, in a case-control study, some specific aspects of oral health in patients with COPD, as well as analyzing the importance of oral health in this disease.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957157

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of host-virus interactions, and impairment of the host's immune surveillance by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes largely remain ambiguous. Several experimental and preclinical studies have demonstrated how the virus brings about severe disease by activating immune cells and other key elements of the inflammatory cascade. Plasmablasts are activated during primary and secondary infections, and play a determinative role in severe dengue. The cross-reactivity of DENV immune responses with other flaviviruses can have implications both for cross-protection and severity of disease. The consequences of a cross-reactivity between DENV and anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses are highly relevant in endemic areas. Here, we review the latest progress in the understanding of dengue immunopathogenesis and provide suggestions to the development of target strategies against dengue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Humans
4.
Med Nov Technol Devices ; : 100156, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956266

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global health and the world economy. Antiviral therapies targeting coronavirus are urgently required. The Cepharanthine (CEP) is a traditional Chinese herbal extract. Our previous research revealed that CEP has a very potent anti-coronavirus effect, but its mechanism of action was not fully understood. To investigate the effect of novel coronavirus on protein glycosylation in infected cells and to further investigate the mechanism of action of CEP against coronavirus, a cellular model using coronavirus GX_P2V infection of Vero E6 cells was established. The effect of coronavirus GX_P2V on host cell protein glycosylation was investigated by N-glycoproteomic analysis, and the antagonistic effect of CEP on the abnormal protein glycosylation caused by coronavirus was analyzed. The results showed that GX_P2V could cause abnormal changes in protein glycosylation levels in host cells, while CEP could partially antagonize the abnormal protein glycosylation caused by GX_P2V. In addition, we also found that CEP could regulate the glycosylation level of coronavirus S protein. In conclusion, this article provides important ideas about the infection mechanism of novel coronaviruses, providing evidence for CEP as a promising therapeutic option for coronavirus infection.

5.
Biology Bulletin Reviews ; 12(4):406-413, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1950031

ABSTRACT

This is a review of data on the impact of COVID-19 on blood clotting. An important feature of the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-Co-2 coronavirus is the risk of thrombotic complications including microvascular thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, and stroke. These thrombotic complications, like thrombocytopenia, are markers of the severe form of COVID-19 and are associated with multiple organ failure and increased mortality. One of the central mechanisms of this pathology is dysregulation of the adhesive protein P-selectin. The study of the mechanisms of changes in hemostasis and vascular pathology, and the role in these processes of biomarkers of thrombogenesis, and primarily of P-selectin of various origins (platelets, endothelial cells, and plasma), can bring some clarity to the understanding of the pathogenesis and therapy of COVID-19.

6.
mBio ; : e0145422, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950003

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases have shaped the human population genetic structure, and genetic variation influences the susceptibility to many viral diseases. However, a variety of challenges have made the implementation of traditional human Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) approaches to study these infectious outcomes challenging. In contrast, mouse models of infectious diseases provide an experimental control and precision, which facilitates analyses and mechanistic studies of the role of genetic variation on infection. Here we use a genetic mapping cross between two distinct Collaborative Cross mouse strains with respect to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) disease outcomes. We find several loci control differential disease outcome for a variety of traits in the context of SARS-CoV infection. Importantly, we identify a locus on mouse chromosome 9 that shows conserved synteny with a human GWAS locus for SARS-CoV-2 severe disease. We follow-up and confirm a role for this locus, and identify two candidate genes, CCR9 and CXCR6, that both play a key role in regulating the severity of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and a distantly related bat sarbecovirus disease outcomes. As such we provide a template for using experimental mouse crosses to identify and characterize multitrait loci that regulate pathogenic infectious outcomes across species. IMPORTANCE Host genetic variation is an important determinant that predicts disease outcomes following infection. In the setting of highly pathogenic coronavirus infections genetic determinants underlying host susceptibility and mortality remain unclear. To elucidate the role of host genetic variation on sarbecovirus pathogenesis and disease outcomes, we utilized the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic reference population as a model to identify susceptibility alleles to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our findings reveal that a multitrait loci found in chromosome 9 is an important regulator of sarbecovirus pathogenesis in mice. Within this locus, we identified and validated CCR9 and CXCR6 as important regulators of host disease outcomes. Specifically, both CCR9 and CXCR6 are protective against severe SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and SARS-related HKU3 virus disease in mice. This chromosome 9 multitrait locus may be important to help identify genes that regulate coronavirus disease outcomes in humans.

7.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess regional differences in reduction of the incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD) during the mitigation period for the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with a hypothesis that more sparsely populated regions have fewer opportunities for human-to-human contact, resulting in a greater reduction in the incidence of KD. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective ecological study was conducted using data from patients hospitalized for KD as well as infectious diseases surveillance reports in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, during 2015-2020. We defined the periods before and after the onset of pandemic as January 2015-March 2020 and as April 2020-December 2020, respectively. We compared the reductions in the incidence of KD among six administrative regions in the prefecture according to the density of the populations. RESULTS: A total of 1,290 patients with KD were identified. The incidence of KD (per 100,000 person-years) was significantly reduced after the COVID-19 pandemic onset (period before pandemic onset, 105.6 [95% CI: 99.8, 111.8]; period after pandemic onset, 68.6 [95% CI: 56.7, 83.0]). During the period after pandemic onset, the incidence of KD was significantly reduced in May, compared with the corresponding period in previous years. The number of patients aged 2-4 years was significantly reduced after the pandemic onset. Notably, greater reductions in the incidence of KD were found in regions with lower population densities. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming that there were fewer opportunities for human-to-human contact in more sparsely populated regions during the pandemic mitigation period, our findings support the hypothesis that human-to-human contact may be associated with development of KD.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 893792, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the clinical manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A hallmark of COVID-19 is a lung inflammation characterized by an abundant leukocyte infiltrate, elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines, lipid mediators of inflammation (LMI) and microthrombotic events. Animal models are useful for understanding the pathophysiological events leading to COVID-19. One such animal model is the K18-ACE2 transgenic mice. Despite their importance in inflammation, the study of LMI in lung of SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-ACE2 mice has yet to be studied to our knowledge. Using tandem mass spectrometry, the lung lipidome at different time points of infection was analyzed. Significantly increased LMI included N-oleoyl-serine, N-linoleoyl-glycine, N-oleoyl-alanine, 1/2-linoleoyl-glycerol, 1/2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol and 12-hydroxy-eicosapenatenoic acid. The levels of prostaglandin (PG) E1, PGF2α, stearoyl-ethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide were found to be significantly reduced relative to mock-infected mice. Other LMI were present at similar levels (or undetected) in both uninfected and infected mouse lungs. In parallel to LMI measures, transcriptomic and cytokine/chemokine profiling were performed. Viral replication was robust with maximal lung viral loads detected on days 2-3 post-infection. Lung histology revealed leukocyte infiltration starting on day 3 post-infection, which correlated with the presence of high concentrations of several chemokines/cytokines. At early times post-infection, the plasma of infected mice contained highly elevated concentration of D-dimers suggestive of blood clot formation/dissolution. In support, the presence of blood clots in the lung vasculature was observed during infection. RNA-Seq analysis of lung tissues indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the progressive modulation of several hundred genes, including several inflammatory mediators and genes related to the interferons. Analysis of the lung lipidome indicated modest, yet significant modulation of a minority of lipids. In summary, our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and mice share common features, such as elevated levels of chemokines in lungs, leukocyte infiltration and increased levels of circulating D-dimers. However, the K18-ACE2 mouse model highlight major differences in terms of LMI being produced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential reasons and impact of these differences on the pathology and therapeutic strategies to be employed to treat severe COVID-19 are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Chemokines , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Lipids , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
9.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929926

ABSTRACT

The precise interaction between the immune system and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical in deciphering the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is also vital for developing novel therapeutic tools, including monoclonal antibodies, antivirals drugs, and vaccines. Viral infections need innate and adaptive immune reactions since the various immune components, such as neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and B lymphocytes, play different roles in various infections. Consequently, the characterization of innate and adaptive immune reactions toward SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for defining the pathogenicity of COVID-19. In this study, we explain what is currently understood concerning the conventional immune reactions to SARS-CoV-2 infection to shed light on the protective and pathogenic role of immune response in this case. Also, in particular, we investigate the in-depth roles of other immune mediators, including neutrophil elastase, serum amyloid A, and syndecan, in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 888612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928420

ABSTRACT

HAPLN1 maintains aggregation and the binding activity of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as hyaluronic acid and proteoglycan) to stabilize the macromolecular structure of the ECM. An increase in HAPLN1 expression is observed in a few types of musculoskeletal diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, its functions are obscure. This study examined the role of HAPLN1 in determining the viability, proliferation, mobility, and pro-inflammatory phenotype of RA- fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) by using small interfering RNA (siHAPLN1), over-expression vector (HAPLN1OE), and a recombinant HAPLN1 (rHAPLN1) protein. HAPLN1 was found to promote proliferation but inhibit RA-FLS migration. Metformin, an AMPK activator, was previously found by us to be able to inhibit FLS activation but promote HAPLN1 secretion. In this study, we confirmed the up-regulation of HAPLN1 in RA patients, and found the positive relationship between HAPLN1 expression and the AMPK level. Treatment with either si-HAPLN1 or HAPLN1OE down-regulated the expression of AMPK-ɑ gene, although up-regulation of the level of p-AMPK-ɑ was observed in RA-FLSs. si-HAPLN1 down-regulated the expression of proinflammatory factors like TNF-ɑ, MMPs, and IL-6, while HAPLN1OE up-regulated their levels. qPCR assay indicated that the levels of TGF-ß, ACAN, fibronectin, collagen II, and Ki-67 were down-regulated upon si-HAPLN1 treatment, while HAPLN1OE treatment led to up-regulation of ACAN and Ki-67 and down-regulation of cyclin-D1. Proteomics of si-HAPLN1, rHAPLN1, and mRNA-Seq analysis of rHAPLN1 confirmed the functions of HAPLN1 in the activation of inflammation, proliferation, cell adhesion, and strengthening of ECM functions. Our results for the first time demonstrate the function of HAPLN1 in promoting the proliferation and pro-inflammatory phenotype of RA-FLSs, thereby contributing to RA pathogenesis. Future in-depth studies are required for better understanding the role of HAPLN1 in RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Synoviocytes , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Phenotype , Proteoglycans , Synoviocytes/metabolism
11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 220: 107367, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Brain dural arteriovenous fistulas(bDAVFs) are anomalous connections between dural arteries and cerebral veins or sinuses. Cerebral venous thrombosis(CVT) often precedes or coincides with bDAVFs and is considered a risk factor for these vascular malformations. Recently, vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia causing CVTs has been associated with COVID-19 vaccines. Concurrently with the start of massive vaccination in our region, we have observed a fivefold increase in the average incidence of bDAVFs. Our objective is to raise awareness of the potential involvement of COVID-19 vaccines in the pathogenesis of bDAVF. METHODS: A retrospective review of demographic, clinical, radiological, COVID-19 infection and vaccination data of patients diagnosed with bDAVFs between 2011 and 2021 was conducted. Patients were divided into two cohorts according to their belonging to pre- or post-COVID-19 vaccination times. Cohorts were compared for bDAVFs incidences and demographic and clinical features. RESULTS: Twenty-one bDAVFs were diagnosed between 2011 and 2021, 7 of which in 2021. The mean age was 57.7 years, and 62 % were males. All cases except one were treated; of them, 85 % exclusively managed with surgery. All treated cases were successfully occluded. The incidence in 2021 was significantly higher than that in the prevaccination period (1.72 vs 0.35/100,000/year;p = 0.036; 95 %Confidence Interval=0.09-2.66). Cohorts were not different in age, sex, hemorrhagic presentation, dural sinus thrombosis or presence of prothrombotic or cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSION: The significant increase in the incidence of bDAVF following general vaccination policies against COVID-19 observed in our region suggests a potential correlation between these two facts. Our findings need confirmation from larger cohorts and further pathogenic research.

12.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925948

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses have persisted throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, despite other seasonal respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, human metapneumovirus) being mostly suppressed by pandemic restrictions, such as masking and other forms of social distancing, especially during the national lockdown periods. Rhinoviruses, as nonenveloped viruses, are known to transmit effectively via the airborne and fomite route, which has allowed infection among children and adults to continue despite pandemic restrictions. Rhinoviruses are also known to cause and exacerbate acute wheezing episodes in children predisposed to this condition. Noninfectious causes such as air pollutants (PM2.5 , PM10 ) can also play a role. In this retrospective ecological study, we demonstrate the correlation between UK national sentinel rhinovirus surveillance, the level of airborne particulates, and the changing patterns of pediatric emergency department presentations for acute wheezing, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2021) in a large UK teaching hospital.

13.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1923360

ABSTRACT

[...]W. Jiang et al. demonstrated that endogenous miR-31-5p is a key factor for LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the lungs, through calcium-binding protein 39- (Cab-39-) dependent inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα). Furthermore, they showed that NOX-4-mediated ROS production participates in the TGF-β-induced differentiation of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) and consequent increase in the synthesis of type I collagen by a mechanism related to activation of the p38MAPK/Akt signaling pathway in a Smad-dependent manner. [...]T. Victoni et al. and L. H. C. Vasconcelos et al. reviewed the role of oxidative imbalance in inflammatory lung diseases and bronchial asthma, respectively.

14.
Northwest Pharmaceutical Journal ; 37(1):168-171, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918649

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize and analyze the susceptible constitution of coronavirus disease 19(COVID-19), put forward the diet prescription of traditional Chinese medicine for prevention based on the thought of treating non-disease and the theory of constitution, and to provide reference for COVID-19's prevention. Methods The relevant literatures in the past 5 years were reviewed, and the current situation of COVID-19's clinical manifestations, etiology, pathogenesis, disease location, disease transmission, susceptible physique, physique differentiation and prevention were summarized. Results The symptoms of COVID-19 were similar in the initial stage of infection, which was caused by damp pathogen. People with different physique were different in susceptibility to COVID-19 and the development and outcome of syndrome type after infection. The susceptible constitution was phlegm-dampness, dampness-heat, Qi deficiency and yang deficiency, blood stasis and Qi depression. Invigorating vital Qi, dispelling dampness, and nourishing lung are the basic treatment principles. Combined with physical differences and dialectical prevention, tonifying, invigorating spleen and stomach, and aromatic dampness-transforming drugs are major drugs, which are supplemented by drugs for promoting lung-Qi. Conclusion The formulation of preventive prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine according to different physique can provide some guidance for the clinical prevention of COVID-19.

15.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):12747-12756, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918495

ABSTRACT

The tug of war between viruses and humans existed for millions of years. The defensive mechanisms and rapid evolution of these viruses have made it difficult for researchers to progress in antiviral drug discovery. Therefore, this paper is intended to give an overview on reported drug targets via an insight on viral pathogenesis and the peptidomimetic-drugs reported till date against three most globally prevalent and deadly viruses: SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and HCV. The reason for selective illustration in this review is attributed to the proven record of antecedents reporting wide scope of peptidomimetics in development of antiviral drugs highlighting the ease of rapid mobilization of peptidomimetics for treatment of emerging viruses.

16.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

17.
Revista Virtual De Quimica ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918245

ABSTRACT

A novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is a public health emergency of international concern since this infection spreads quickly through human-to-human transmission. Several drugs are being studied by researchers worldwide as an effective antiviral agent against this coronavirus. Therefore, most studies are focusing on drugs that have been already used earlier on the treatment of other diseases. Therapies under investigation include azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir. Remdesivir is the only Food and Drug Administrationapproved drug for the use in adult and pediatric patients (>12 years old) for the treatment of this disease requiring hospitalization. In this context, the present review summarizes information about these drugs highlighting the chemical standpoint, such as physical-chemical and molecular characteristics, toxicity, history, and main applications, since knowledge about these substances is essential to assist the search for an appropriate treatment.

18.
Methods Microbiol. ; 50:xvii, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915190
19.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 486, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are pivotal regulators involved in the pathogenic mechanism of multiple coronaviruses. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has evolved multiple strategies to escape the innate immune response of host cells, but whether ncRNAs are involved in this process during PDCoV infection is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the expression profiles of miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs in IPEC-J2 cells infected with PDCoV at 0, 12 and 24 hours postinfection (hpi) were identified through small RNA and RNA sequencing. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) and mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were screened from the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 0 and 12 hpi as well as the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 12 and 24 hpi. The target genes of these DEncRNAs were predicted. The bioinformatics analysis of the target genes revealed multiple significantly enriched functions and pathways. Among them, the genes that were associated with innate immunity were specifically screened. The expression of innate immunity-related ncRNAs and mRNAs was validated by RT-qPCR. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks among innate immunity-related ncRNAs and their target mRNAs were established. Moreover, we found that the replication of PDCoV was significantly inhibited by two innate immunity-related miRNAs, ssc-miR-30c-3p and ssc-miR-374b-3p, in IPEC-J2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a data platform to conduct studies of the pathogenic mechanism of PDCoV from a new perspective and will be helpful for further elucidation of the functional role of ncRNAs involved in PDCoV escaping the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Immunity, Innate/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , Swine
20.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911185

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has driven the scientific community to adopt an efficient and reliable model that could keep up with the infectious disease arms race. Coinciding with the pandemic, three dimensional (3D) human organoids technology has also gained traction in the field of infectious disease. An in vitro construct that can closely resemble the in vivo organ, organoid technology could bridge the gap between the traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture and animal models. By harnessing the multi-lineage characteristic of the organoid that allows for the recapitulation of the organotypic structure and functions, 3D human organoids have emerged as an essential tool in the field of infectious disease research. In this review, we will be providing a comparison between conventional systems and organoid models. We will also be highlighting how organoids played a role in modelling common infectious diseases and molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of causative agents. Additionally, we present the limitations associated with the current organoid models and innovative strategies that could resolve these shortcomings.

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