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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071540

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and quality of endodontic treatment, by radiographically assessing the periapical periodontitis and endodontic treatment status in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors. Patients who visited the Out Patient Department of Institute of Dental Sciences and Department of Cardiology, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, from August 2021 to February 2022, for a check-up or dental problem were considered as participants in this study. After obtaining informed consent, the participants were enrolled on the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST) IDS, BHUBANESWAR. After testing negative for COVID-19, patients' demographic details, such as age and gender were recorded, followed by a panoramic radiographic examination (OPG). A total sample of 408 patients were divided into three groups: Group 1/control (without any cardiovascular manifestation) consisting of 102 samples, group 2 of 222 CVR patients, and group 3 of 84 CVD cases. The CVR and CVD groups had a preponderance of elderly age groups between 60 to 70 years, with a significantly higher proportion of males. Co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with the CVR and CVD groups. From OPG interpretation, it was observed that the periapical radiolucency was greater in the CVR and CVD groups than in the control group (p = 0.009). The prevalence of endodontically treated teeth was higher in CVR and CVD than in the control group (p = 0.028). A high prevalence of dental caries, about 70%, was reported in all three groups (p = 0.356). The presence of dental restoration among all the groups was low (p = 0.079). The proportion of periodontal bone loss in the control group was significantly lower than CVR and CVD (p = 0.000). There was a strong association between periapical radiolucency, endodontically treated teeth, and periodontal bone loss in CVR and CVD patients. Notably, the associations reported herein do not reflect a cause-effect relationship; however, individuals with endodontic pathologies may accumulate additional risk factors predisposing them to hypertension or other CVDs. The results emphasize that eliminating local infections may decrease the systemic infection burden.

2.
International Journal of Medical Dentistry ; 26(3):387-392, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057450

ABSTRACT

[...]we hypothesize that improving oral health could decrease the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and reduce the associated morbidity. 2.CASE PRESENTATION Medical history The patient is a 48 year-old female diagnosed with COVID 19 in August 2020, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) three months after the infection at 'Thing Abdulaziz" Medical City- Riyadh, Saudi Arabia due to hypoxemic respiratory failure that required lifesupporting mechanical ventilation (MV). [...]Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), which is the average glucose level in the blood for the past three months, was assessed three times during the ICU admission and the results were 5.9, 6.1 and 9.3, respectively. The presented radiographic and clinical figures include probing depths (PD) and attachment loss (AL) up to 8 mm (Fig. 1) [15]. [...]radiographic bone loss (RBL) was measured to be at the mid-third of the root length or beyond, both of which qualifying the diagnosis of generalized stage IV grade C periodontitis (Fig 2). In most cases, the dental treatment included masticatory function stabilization. [...]because the teeth are already periodontally involved in secondary occlusal trauma cases, their selective grinding will not solve the problem.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 885029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039674

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis was an inflammatory disease associated with a dysbiosis of the oral flora characterized by a chronic sustained inflammation inducing the resorption of alveolar bone and leading to tooth loss. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) was a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin action. The oral microbiome played a crucial role in modulating both the innate and adaptive immune system during the trigger and exacerbation of periodontitis and T2D. The bidirectional relationship of T2D and periodontitis had been the focus of intensive research, but those were not well explored. In this commentary, an in-depth analysis of the changes of microbiome and bacterial metabolites in periodontitis with or without diabetes was described. The promotion of periodontitis to T2D might involve inflammatory factors/receptors, oxidative stress, microRNA and so on. The effect of diabetes on periodontitis might involve adipose factor pathway, AGE/RAGE and RANK/RANKL pathway etc. Generally, periodontitis and diabetes are closely related to the microecological-epithelial interaction, soft tissue degradation, bone coupling disorder, immune regulation and gene transcription. The viruses, including HBV, HCV, HSV-1, Coronavirus, HCMV, EBV, HIV, phageome and so on, played an important role in the development of T2D and periodontitis. An in-depth understanding of the relationship between microbiome and host was of great significance to clarify the bidirectional mechanisms, suggesting that the periodontitis or T2D remission will have a positive impact on the other.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulins , MicroRNAs , Microbiota , Periodontitis , Viruses , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Microbiota/genetics , Viruses/genetics
4.
Microorganisms ; 10(9)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033061

ABSTRACT

Great emphasis has been placed on bacterial microbiomes in human and animal systems. In recent years, advances in metagenomics have allowed for the detection and characterization of more and more native viral particles also residing in these organisms. The digestive tracts of animals and humans-from the oral cavity, to the gut, to fecal excretions-have become one such area of interest. Next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses have uncovered vast phylogenetic virome diversity in companion animals, such as dogs and cats, as well as farm animals and wildlife such as bats. Zoonotic and arthropod-borne illnesses remain major causes of worldwide outbreaks, as demonstrated by the devastating COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the increasing need to identify and study animal viromes to prevent such disastrous cross-species transmission outbreaks in the coming years. Novel viruses have been uncovered in the viromes of multiple organisms, including birds, bats, cats, and dogs. Although the exact consequences for public health have not yet become clear, many analyses have revealed viromes dominated by RNA viruses, which can be the most problematic to human health, as these genomes are known for their high mutation rates and immune system evasion capabilities. Furthermore, in the wake of worldwide disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic, it is evident that proper surveillance of viral biodiversity is crucial. For instance, gut viral metagenomic analysis in dogs has shown close relationships between the highly abundant canine coronavirus and human coronavirus strains 229E and NL63. Future studies and vigilance could potentially save many lives.

5.
Applied Sciences ; 12(16):8213, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023099

ABSTRACT

In particular, the bi-directional communication network, also known as the gut lung axis connecting the intestinal and pulmonary microbiota, is considered responsible for the massively increased bacterial load in the cecum after acute lung injury, causing alterations in airway microbiota and its transitory translocation into the bloodstream toward the bowel [7,8]. [...]subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often show intestinal hyper-permeability and a high prevalence of IBD [9]. Both mechanisms would underlie the association between periodontitis and inflammatory and degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, age-related macular degeneration [22], chronic inflammatory bowel disease [23], and solid neoplasms, such as colorectal carcinoma [24]. [...]intestinal microbes could, due to mucosal barrier impairment, translocate to the liver through the biliary tract and the portal vein, and oral dysbiosis could exacerbate chronic liver diseases, likely modulating the gut ecosystem through the oral–gut axis, on the one side, and may reflect the intestinal dysbiotic ecosystem, affected in turn by hepatic diseases, on the other side [12,25]. Furthermore, mainly the upper but also the lower airways of healthy individuals frequently harbor oral anaerobes, including Prevotella and Veillonella species, probably secondary to continuing microaspiration by contiguity. [...]detecting oral bacterial DNA in the lower airways in healthy subjects could represent the traces of aspirated oral bacteria either not eliminated through physiological clearance or living in dynamic equilibrium with host defensive responses by promoting mucosal immunity of the Th17/neutrophilic phenotype and suppressing innate immunity. Whether bacteria from the oral microbiome regulate responses to pulmonary pathogens and whether they interfere in inflammatory lung disease pathogenesis [26] is still under study. [...]a growing body of evidence highlights that gut and oral dysbioses, interconnected with the local microbial and inflammatory environment of the lung, liver, and other organs, are crucially implied in a multitude of diseases also involving distant organs.

8.
Saudi Dent J ; 34(7): 596-603, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983982

ABSTRACT

Objective: Studies have shown that gingival crevices may be a significant route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. However, the role of oral health in the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 is not known. Design: A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic health record data from a large urban academic medical center between 12/1/2019 and 8/24/2020. A total of 387 COVID-19 positive cases were identified and matched 1:1 by age, sex, and race to 387 controls without COVID-19 diagnoses. Demographics, number of missing teeth and alveolar crestal height were determined from radiographs and medical/dental charts. In a subgroup of 107 cases and controls, we also examined the rate of change in alveolar crestal height. A conditional logistic regression model was utilized to assess association between alveolar crestal height and missing teeth with COVID-19 status and with hospitalization status among COVID-19 cases. Results: Increased alveolar bone loss, OR = 4.302 (2.510 - 7.376), fewer missing teeth, OR = 0.897 (0.835-0.965) and lack of smoking history distinguished COVID-19 cases from controls. After adjusting for time between examinations, cases with COVID-19 had greater alveolar bone loss compared to controls (0.641 ± 0.613 mm vs 0.260 ± 0.631 mm, p < 0.01.) Among cases with COVID-19, increased number of missing teeth OR = 2.1871 (1.146- 4.174) was significantly associated with hospitalization. Conclusions: Alveolar bone loss and missing teeth are positively associated with the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 disease, respectively.

10.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(11): 6721-6732, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, COVID-19 complications were reported to be associated with periodontitis. Accordingly, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that a history of periodontal therapy could be associated with lower risk of COVID-19 complications. METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the medical health records of COVID-19 patients in the State of Qatar between March 2020 and February 2021 and dental records between January 2017 and December 2021. Cases were defined as COVID-19 patients who suffered complications (death, ICU admissions and/or mechanical ventilation); controls were COVID-19 patients who recovered without major complications. Associations between a history of periodontal therapy and COVID-19 complications were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and medical factors. Blood parameters were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: In total, 1,325 patients were included. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) analysis revealed that non-treated periodontitis was associated with significant risk of need for mechanical ventilation (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.21-12.57, p = 0.022) compared to periodontally healthy patients, while treated periodontitis was not (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.25-6.58, p = 0.768). Blood analyses revealed that periodontitis patients with a history of periodontal therapy had significantly lower levels of D-dimer and Ferritin than non-treated periodontitis patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with periodontal bone loss, only those that have not received periodontal therapy had higher risk of need for assisted ventilation. COVID-19 patients with a history of periodontal therapy were associated with significantly lower D-dimer levels than those without recent records of periodontal therapy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The fact that patients with treated periodontitis were less likely to suffer COVID-19 complications than non-treated ones further strengthen the hypothesis linking periodontitis to COVID-19 complications and suggests that managing periodontitis could help reduce the risk for COVID-19 complications, although future research is needed to verify this.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Humans , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Periodontitis/therapy , Periodontitis/complications , Biomarkers
11.
Russian Neurological Journal ; 27(3):64-73, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969994

ABSTRACT

Since the description of the first clinical cases of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, numerous hypotheses have been proposed for their development. At the same time, the failure of therapeutic strategies in various directions of clinical research indicates the fallacy of most theories. In this regard, in recent years, various infectious agents are increasingly considered as a trigger of neuronal inflammation and a factor inducing the onset of the neurodegenerative process. Infectious agents differ in their mechanisms of invasion into the central nervous system and can even enter the brain perineurally. Reactivation of latent viral infection induces the production of viral proteins and the accumulation of abnormal proteins that are markers of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Both bacterial (chlamydia, causative agents of chronic periodontitis, E. coli) and viral (herpes viruses, noroviruses) infectious agents are considered. However, for the development of neurodegeneration, it is not enough just a simple invasion and reactivation of the infectious process: the genetic characteristics of the main histocompatibility complex also play a huge role. Currently, several studies have been initiated on the possible efficacy of antibacterial and antiviral drugs in Alzheimer's disease. Data obtained over the past year suggests that the brain may act as a target for SARS-CoV-2. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 can occur as a result of both the direct cytopathic action of the pathogen and the activation of neuroinflammation, accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in COVID-19 will form the basis for the development of treatments for neurological complications.

12.
Saudi Dent J ; 34(7): 623-628, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967109

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by biofilm accumulation resulting in loss of periodontal attachment which could be linked to systemic implications. Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that triggers damage to the lungs and other organs. COVID-19 and periodontitis share similar risk factors such as smoking, obesity, old age, and diabetes mellitus. Studies noted that periodontitis along with some systemic diseases has increased mortality. Thus, this study aims to examine the association of periodontitis with COVID-19 outcomes. Methods: This observational study included periodontitis group and non-periodontitis group for COVID-19 outcome assessment. Inclusion criteria were applied to select adults (≥18 years old) who showed at least one dental visit, and were isolated or admitted due to a COVID-19 complication (i.e. in-ward, ICU, or death). Exclusion criteria were patients with no active dental records. The periodontal status was examined from posterior bitewings and panoramic radiographs. The primary outcome assessed was COVID-19 complications versus no admission. Results and discussion: This study was the first of its kind as a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between periodontitis and COVID-19 severity in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Our findings revealed that periodontitis is statistically associated with COVID-19 severity. Periodontitis patients were three times more likely to have COVID-19 complications (p = 0.025). Diabetes (p = 0.004) and hypertension (p = 0.016) patients were 3.5 times more likely to have COVID-19 complications. Conclusion: Understanding the potential association between periodontitis and COVID-19 through systemic inflammation might be a pathway to achieve high quality medical care.

13.
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL REGULATORS AND HOMEOSTATIC AGENTS ; 36(2):1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965480
14.
Applied Sciences ; 12(14):7141, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963687

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between chronic inflammatory diseases and their comorbidities and correlation with periodontal diseases has become an increasing focus of research. Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to conclude if patients suffering from COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) tend to have more AP (Apical Periodontitis) than non-COPD patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients assigned as cases, associated with 30 control patients linked by age (+/−5 years) and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were recorded, and a total of 12 radiographic variables were analyzed. A total of 43 (71.7%) patients were registered with PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3, and there was a slightly tendency in the patients from the control group 22 (73.3%) compared to those from the cases 21 (70%), respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that there was not a significant association between the levels of PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3 per patient in those suffering from COPD. In fact, it could be concluded that patients diagnosed with COPD tend to have more teeth with PAI ≥ 3, more endodontic treatments and their periodontitis tended to accumulate more caries. Clinical Significance: This study establishes, in a case-control study, some specific aspects of oral health in patients with COPD, as well as analyzing the importance of oral health in this disease.

15.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):139-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955702

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause long-standing damage to the immune system characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activation. Maintaining periodontal health may reduce host susceptibility to COVID-19 and prevent COVID-19 aggravation in infected patients. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to warrant an association between the presence of PDs and the development and course of respiratory illnesses. Optimum oral health, maintaining good systemic health, and elimination of smoking habits may be beneficial for the prevention and management of COVID-19 infections. Future studies on the periodontal status of patients with COVID-19, including from mild to severe forms, could allow the opportune identification of people at risk of severe illness and generate relevant recommendations. The connection, if any, between the oral microbiome and COVID-19 complications is urgently required to establish the importance of oral hygiene and pre-existing oral disease in the severity and mortality risk of COVID-19.

16.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:296, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956769

ABSTRACT

Background: Nifedipine is a calcium channel-blocking drug, common antihypertensive medication. Gingival tissue enlargement is a frequent periodontal side effect, associated to the presence of dental plaque. Description of the procedure: In January 2018, a male 62-year-old patient was evaluated at the Dentistry Department of Coimbra University Hospital. His main complaint was gingival “swelling” and masticatory difficulty. Anamnesis revealed hypertension medicated with Nifedipine for 8 years. Besides partial edentulism and tooth migration, oral observation highlighted severe bimaxillary gingival enlargement, not restricted to the papillae, pronounced inflammation and periodontal attachment loss. Periodontal screening revealed 10 mm probing depth (PD) at several interdental sites, maximum clinical attachment loss (CAL) of 5 mm, bleeding on probing (BOP) of 61% and plaque index (PI) of 100%. The patient was diagnosed Nifedipine Gingival Enlargement with a Generalized Stage IV, Grade B Periodontitis. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was initiated with oral hygiene instructions, supra and subgingival instrumentation. Simultaneously, his assistant physician replaced nifedipine with enalapril. The patient attended regular periodontal appointments for 12 months. A decrease in gingival enlargement was noted in the subsequent months. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, patient was only reevaluated in May 2021. Outcomes: Three years after replacement of nifedipine and nonsurgical periodontal treatment, gingival enlargement was resolved. Periodontitis was stabilized, as periodontogram revealed a mean reduction PD of 6 mm at the deepest sites, grade II furcation involvements, BOP of 10% and PI of 34%. Step 3 periodontal therapy could be initiated. Due to economic restrictions, oral rehabilitation could not be fulfilled. Conclusions: Severe gingival tissue enlargement related to nifedipine in a periodontitis IVB patient was resolved by non-surgical periodontal treatment. Meticulous plaque control is mandatory. Communication with the Physician is important to alter the medication and restore patient's quality of life.

17.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:347-348, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956768

ABSTRACT

Background: New Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions having worked into 2017 has defined candida-associated periodontal lesions as “Non-plaque-induced gingival diseases” associated with specific infection (list point 2.3). Patients with diagnosis Periodontal candidosis have been observed at the Division of Periodontology SPBGMU and City Periodontal Center “PAKS” more than for 25 years with an average quantity of 3-5 new cases a year. There had been formed a typical pattern for setting diagnosis and treatment. As a risk group was recognized, patients who predominantly had such general conditions as diabetes, immunosuppressive therapy, and heavy smokers. Since 2020 the pattern has been completely changed due to changing general conditions of the patients who consisted of the group and increasing quantity of periodontal candidosis about threefold. The core of the group has consisted of predominantly patients who recently had COVID-19 and/or underwent immunosuppressive therapy. Description of the procedure: Diagnostic procedure: Level 1. Anamnesis, clinical record, standard periodontal charting, estimation of periodontal and hygienical indices, absence or present mucosa lesions. CBCT Level 2. Clinical fluorescence diagnostic-wave length 400 ± 10 nm estimation gingival and mucosa condition. The cultural test for Candida detecting. Level 3. Cytology Treatment: in addition to SRP procedure there prescribed local and systemic antifungal therapy. 1. Photodynamic therapy (toluidine blue photosensitizer) 2. Local antifungal therapy - rinsing by Clotrimazole solution 3. Systemic antifungal therapy - Fluconazole 150 mg once in day 4. Modification of host response - Imudon 6 six in day 5. Toothpaste with the alkalic antifungal agent -sodium bicarbonate. Outcomes: Outcome control: Clinical investigation, the cultural test for Candida. Case: Female age 47 had a severe COVID-19 case, 3 months later she had rising level of activity periodontitis without response on usual periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Candida-associated periodontitis is difficult for diagnostic and treatment disease which use to occur quietly rare but nowadays have vastly increased.

18.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:348, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956767

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent scientific evidence states that a subset of COVID-19 patients have a risk of increased bleeding tendency. This case report presents a 38-year-old woman with periodontitis, generalized stage III, grade C with an abnormal post-operative blood clot formation, who tested positive for COVID-19 5 days after a standard periodontal surgery. nature.com/articles/s41598-020-80010-z. Description of the procedure: After initial periodontal treatment and re-evaluation, we proceeded to the surgical phase including: 1. regenerative procedure with EMD 15 2. regenerative procedure with EMD 44 3. open flap debridement 13-23 4. shortened flap 34-37. Outcomes: Periodontal surgical procedures (1) and (2) proceeded without any complications and were considered standard. On day 1 after the third periodontal surgery (3), the patient was called for post-operative control. The patient had no complaints.On day 2 post-operative, the patient reported by email excess of bleeding in the oral cavity from the operated area, simultaneously with fever and loss of taste. A photo taken by the patient confirmed the abnormal blood clot. On day 3, in compliance with COVID-19 protocols, the patient was seen urgently in our clinic while her COVID-19 symptoms had started to decline. During the appointment, the bleeding tendency was less acute than the day before. Further suturing for precaution was decided. The same day the patient received a COVID-19 PCR test. On day 4 post-operative, the report of the PCR test was confirmatory for COVID-19 and the patient reported no further complaints of intraoral bleeding. Conclusions: After considering the normal response of the initial treatment and the well documented good post-operative healing pattern of the periodontal tissues for this patient, we concluded that the abnormal bleeding tendency was associated with an active phase of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware that during the first days after a periodontal surgery patients could have bleeding complications due to an active phase of COVID-19. labblog.uofmhealth.org/lab-report/ subset-of-covid-19-patients-have-increased-bleeding-risk.

19.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:348-349, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956766

ABSTRACT

Background: Necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPD) are fuso-spirochetal infections causing ulceration and destruction of periodontal tissues and associate with impaired host response. Elevated bacterial levels of Prevotella intermedia, Veillonella and Streptococci present in NPD lesions were detected in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Description of the procedure: A 40-year-old female, non-smoker patient was referred to the clinic with complaints of fever, halitosis, bad taste, severe gingival pain and bleeding. The patient reported a history of COVID-19 a month prior to any symptoms. Extra and intraoral examinations revealed submandibular lymphadenopathy, plaque accumulation, necrotic areas covered with pseudo-membranes, spontaneous gingival bleeding and suppuration. Alveolar bone loss was detected in the radiographic examination. Since periodontal pocket formation was present, the clinical diagnosis of the case was necrotizing gingivitis as a result of previously occurred periodontitis. During the first visit, necrotic areas were gently swabbed with 3% H2O2 moistened cotton pellets and oral hygiene instructions were given. Systemic antibiotic (metronidazole 500 mg 2 × 1) was prescribed for 5 days and rinsing with 0.12% chlorhexidine and 3% H2O2 was recommended. Three days later, since the acute complaints were reduced, clinical periodontal parameters were recorded and nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) was performed in 4 sessions in 2 weeks. One month after NSPT, all clinical periodontal parameters were recorded again. Outcomes: Following NSPT with the combination of systemic antibiotic regimen, all symptoms were resolved leading to the dissolution of necrotic areas. All clinical parameters were improved after NSPT. Conclusions: This case may be an evidence that COVID-19 could be a contributing factor for the appearance of NPD. Since COVID-19 leads to an altered immune response of the patient, a suitable environment becomes present orally for bacteria causing infections that result in NPD. The importance of routine intra-oral examination for COVID-19 patients is highlighted.

20.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

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