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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A502, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060614

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the most common autonomic disorders (1). POTS is diagnosed by increasing heart rate by 30 bpm on more, within the first 10 minutes of standing, without orthostatic hypotension (2). Associated debilitating symptoms are lightheadedness, fainting, tremor, orthostatic intolerance, and tachycardia (2). Viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis C, mumps, Epstein bar virus, and influenza have been commonly reported with POTS syndrome (3 ). We are presenting a rare case of COVID-19 induced POTS. CASE PRESENTATION: 38-year-old presented to the hospital with the chief complaint of shortness of breath chest tightness. Her past medical history was significant for COVID-19 infection two weeks before presentation. On arrival patient's vitals were within normal limits. Her physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory investigations, including complete blood count, thyroid function test, and comprehensive metabolic profile, were unremarkable. Chest x-ray, CT angiogram, and echocardiogram were unremarkable for any consolidation, pulmonary embolism, and congestive heart failure. Orthostatic vitals were obtained, showing that the patient's heart rate increased from 90 beats/minute to 140 beats/minute, from supine to standing. This patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 induced POTS, given she was meeting the criteria of POTS and no other reason was found for postural orthostatic tachycardia. She was managed conservatively with hydration, and the patient was also instructed about yoga therapy. She was discharged home with a cardiology follow-up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 induced POTS is a relatively new entity that most commonly affect female, and the estimated prevalence is around is 17 per 100,000 patients (3). It has been reported that 10% of the patient who tests positive for COVID-19 infection remains unwell beyond three weeks after recovery from the infection (2). For some of those patients, POTS may be the cause of their symptoms. The exact pathophysiology for COVID-19 induced POTS is poorly understood and may includes peripheral neuropathy, baroreceptor dysfunction, hypovolemia, and increased serum norepinephrine (2). Nonpharmacological treatment includes increasing fluid consumption of 2 to 3 L of water per day, lower limb compression stockings, and regular exercise (2). The commonly off-label pharmacological treatment include ivabradine, fludrocortisone, midodrine, and beta-blockers (2). CONCLUSIONS: POTS is a new and under-recognized entity. The clinician should have a high suspicion of POTS syndrome in a patient with a history of recent or remote COVID-19 infection presenting with orthostatic symptoms. Timely diagnosis is essential to prevent the morbidity associated with debilitating symptoms. Reference #1: Blitshteyn S & Whitelaw S. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and Other Autonomic Disorders After COVID-19 Infection: A Case Series of 20 Patients. Immunol Res. 2021;69(2):205-11. Reference #2: Jenna Stephanie O'Sullivan, Andrew Lyne, Carl J Vaughan. COVID-19-Induced Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Treated with Ivabradine. BMJ Case Reports CP. 2021;14(6):e243585. Reference #3: Sujana Reddy, Satvik Reddy, Manish Arora. A Case of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Secondary to the Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine. Cureus. 2021;13(5). DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Arshan Khan

2.
Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases ; 9:S157-S158, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043390

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related neuropathy in Colombia: The experience during the first 23 months of pandemic Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has a high neuroinvasive capacity due to the increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE-2) in neurons (1) and it is believed that the mechanism by which it can cause injury to the nervous system peripheral nervous system is immunemediated, although a direct cytotoxic effect of the virus cannot be ruled out (2). Multiple types of neuropathy associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described, the most frequent being Guillain- Barré syndrome, pre-existing diabetes, compression neuropathies and drugs used to treat symptoms of COVID-19 (3). Objetives: To characterize the patients who were referred to the electromyography laboratory at the Fundacion Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia due to suspected COVID-19-related neuropathy Methods: Descriptive observational study, case series type. The electrodiagnostic studies carried out between January 2020 and December 2022 in the electromyography laboratory at the Fundacion Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia with suspected COVID- 19-related neuropathy were reviewed. Results: 94 patients were evaluated in the electromyography laboratory with suspected COVID 19-related neuropathy between January 2020 and December 2021, of which 53% (50/94) were men. The average age was 54.8 years. 32% (30/94) had severe COVID and 31% (29/94) were hospitalized in the ICU. Most of the studies were normal: 35% (33/94). of the abnormal findings, it was found in order of frequency: Symmetric motor and sensory axonal polyneuropathy in 21.2%, and of this group of patients, 55% were in the ICU, 35% had no data and 20% were hospitalized-not ICU. 18% presented compression neuropathy of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, 6.3% asymmetric motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, 6.3% suggestive findings of cervical and/or lumbosacral root involvement, 4.2% Guillain Barré syndrome, 4.2% compression neuropathy of the peroneal nerve , 2.1% brachial plexus axonal injury, 2.1% peroneal nerve axonal injury, 2.1% radial axonal injury, 2.1% myopathic changes, 1% hypoglossal nerve axonal injury, 1% symmetric axonal and demyelinating polyneuropathy, 1% hereditary neuropathy, 1% asymmetric demyelinating neuropathy, 1% axonal injury of the sciatic nerve, 1% axonal injury of the median nerve in the forearm, 1% axonal injury of the lumbosacral plexus, 1% compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve in the elbow and 1% axonal injury from a sensory branch of the median nerve. Conclusions: The most frequent abnormality in the study was symmetric motor and sensory axonal polyneuropathy, which can be explained by the prolonged ICU stay, which increases the risk of Critical illnes Neuropathy.

3.
Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases ; 9:S162-S163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043386

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Information on COVID-19 infection prevention measures and vaccines for patients with neuromuscular diseases has been sufficiently disseminated, but the details of the actual course of infected patients are rarely directly involved by neurologists. We report four cases of COVID-19 with neuromuscular diseases and were able to observe their progress. Subjects: 1 case of multiple sclerosis (MS), 1 case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy / dermatitis (CIDP / DM), 1 case of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and one Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier (DMD-C) were examined. Result: MS: A 32-year-old man who was taking fingolimod, but improved by waiting at home, and he did not relapse. CIDP / DM: 54-year-old female, PSL, taking tacrolimus, using remdesivir for pneumonia. After recovery, peripheral neuropathy worsened, and steroid pulse treatment was added. LGMD: 48-year-old female Although she had pneumonia, she did not need to be ventilated and improved with only oxygen administration and favipiravir without deterioration of% VC. DMD-C: 59-year-old female, improved only by oxygen administration. The DMD (second son, 29 years old) who were cared by her was hospitalized because no one could care him. Discussion: All cases were affected prior to vaccination. Regarding CIDP, there was a case report of deterioration after illness, and this case also deteriorated and required treatment. LGMD / DMD-C did not show any deterioration in respiratory function. It is a study of a small number of cases, and it is necessary to accumulate future cases.

4.
Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases ; 9:S190-S191, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043376

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During Covid-19 pandemic periods, various studies have been revealed the coexistence of these two diseases, raising the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 has a role in triggering GBS or it's just co-incidentally. So far, 255 cases of this concurrence have been reported. In this study, we publish 45 patients' demographic, clinical, electro diagnostic study, response to treatment and prognostic features association of Covid- 19 and GBS during the 5 corona's epidemiologic peaks in Isfahan province. Methods: This cross-sectional, multi-central study was performed during covid-19 pandemic since 2020 February until 2021 October. In this period 5 epidemiologic peaks of corona virus occurred in Isfahan (one of providence of Islamic republic of Iran) and total of 417166 people became infected. 45 patient with definitive Covid-19 (based on positive nasopharynx Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or highly suggestion of Highresolution computed tomography (HRCT) for covid- 19) were referred to one of the 2 referral hospitals (Alzahra and Kashani hospital). All patients whom suspected of peripheral nerve symptoms referred to the neuromuscular fellowship for further examination and performing EDx. Demographic, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features were collected according to Hospital records. Results & discussion: 45 patients (60% male, 40% female) were surveyed. The mean age was 54.66±10.021 (max: 84, min:14, range:80). The most EDx pattern was AIDP (57.8%, n=26).42.2%(n=19) of patients had axonal pattern. 8 of them were Acute motor axonal neuropathy(AMAN) and 11 patients were Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy(AMSAN). The most (91%) GBS phenotype was classic pattern which defined as acute-sub acute flaccid length dependent paralysis. 2 patients had pure para paretic pattern and 2 had miller-fisher pattern. The most common symptom of covid-19 was fever (89.7%), Other symptoms included dyspnea (48.7%), cough (46.2%), myalgia (28.2%), headache (28.2%), diarrhea (28.2%) and the less common was anosmia (12.8%). No significant difference was found between any of the covid-19 symptoms with EDx patterns. 7 patients had a history of GBS which were more than 1 year before the onset of new symptoms. 13.6% of patients had no any symptoms of covid-19 on the day of the onset of neurological symptoms, either the symptoms of covid-19 developed after the neurological symptoms or covid-19 was discovered accidentally. Mean distance between onset of covid-19 and neurological symptoms was 18.05±8.88 which was significantly lower in the axonal injury groups (12.00±800 pvalue: 0.013). Also There was also signifi cant difference between frequency of para/post infectious patient in axonal and demyelinating subtypes (p value: 0.045). So that Para infection was more associated with axonal injuries. Among other prognostic findings, include respiratory equipment (33% no equipment, 44% none-invasive and 22.2% mechanical ventilation), required to ICU admission (46.7%), length of ICU admission (16.66 ±12.03), length of intubation (12.10±6.24) , length of hospitalization( 23.66±14.13) and mortality(8.9%) no Significant differences were detected among each subgroups of EDx patterns and also between axonal/ demyelinating injuries. There was also significant difference among erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein among axonal patterns that means axonal patterns (AMAN and AMSAN) had more level of ESR and CRP at the first neurological symptom's day.

5.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):28-29, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2042995

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Prone positioning is commonly used when treating ventilated Covid-19 patients. Whilst there have been some reports of ICU proning-related injuries to the brachial plexus well before the pandemic (Goettler et al. 2002), it is usually a very uncommon complication. Despite guidance from the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine on the care of the proned patient, cases of peripheral neuropathies following ICU admission have significantly increased during the Covid-19 pandemic at our centre (Miller et al. 2021). Nerve injury is associated with reduced quality of life, impaired activity participation and persistent pain (Bailey et al. 2009). Objectives: The aim of this quality improvement project was to identify the effect that new guideline development and related healthcare professional education had on the number and severity of peripheral neuropathies identified following Covid-19 ICU admission. Methods: Between March 2020 and May 2021, we collected clinical data from patients who sustained peripheral neuropathies during their inpatient stay for Covid-19. Data were collected via face-to-face patient assessments within acute nerve clinics or post-ICU rehabilitation wards. A grading system was used to categorise the peripheral nerve injuries into severe, intermediate and mild (Power et al. 2020). Electronic ICU clinical noting was examined to identify the frequency and duration of each proning episode for each patient who presented with nerve injury. Following the first surge in 2020 updated proning guidelines were developed with ICU team leaders and disseminated. This involved face-to-face education of frontline staff. Results: At our centre 93 patients survived Covid ICU between March -June 2020 (surge 1) and 21 of those sustained nerve injury (22.58%). 309 patients survived Covid ICU between September 2020 -May 2021 (surge 2) and 12 of those sustained nerve injury (3.88%). For patients who sustained nerve injury, the average number of prones changed between surges from 6 to 13. The average duration of each episode of proning changed from 17.8hrs to 18.6hrs. Despite the increase in prone frequency, nerve injury occurrence reduced (proportionate to the number of patients who survived Covid ICU) by 82%. 14/21 (66%) injuries acquired in the first surge were of high grade and 4/ 12 (33%) were of high grade during the second surge. Conclusion: Optimising positioning of the proned ventilated patient may reduce the incidence of nerve injury. However, we must also acknowledge that changes in medical management between surges (i.e. use of dexamethasone, remdesivir) may have contributed to this. Individuals still developed severe injury despite this change in practice. Further research looking into risk factors and further methods of optimising the prone positioning on ICU is warranted to reduce the occurrence of this potentially life-changing injury.

6.
11th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, ForItAAL 2020 ; 884 LNEE:355-362, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013903

ABSTRACT

Post-Covid-19 syndrome occurs in at least half survivors, that claim to suffer from a mild to severe deconditioning syndrome, fatigue, muscle wasting and pain, dizziness, very low tolerance to minimal efforts, depression and anxiety, when they not will suffer from post-critical neurological syndrome and peripheral neuropathies. Telemedicine and telerehabilitation could be decisive solutions to safely take care and follow these patients in the recovery phase, as well as to alleviate the burden of healthcare structures, in order to reach the majority of people and in the presence of the need for social distancing. The study aims at verifying the feasibility and level of users’ satisfaction of a tele-health service that provide therapeutic education protocols for people recovering from Covid-19. An average of 350 accesses per day have been registered on the platform since 31 March to 30 June 2020. 50 people answered the users’ satisfaction questionnaire and declared no side effects and a good effectiveness (median 7.5/10) to manage fatigue and anxiety. Most subjects (66%) were people hospitalized for Covid-9 and discharged home (32,6%,) or exclusively treated at home (27,6%), instead, 11,6% of subjects were still convalescent in hospital. In conclusion, tele-health was appreciated, safe and possibly useful to integrate rehabilitative management of subjects recovering from Covid-19. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 324, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that some autoimmune diseases develop after the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019. Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disease presenting with idiopathic eosinophilia and multiple organ involvement, including the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and nervous system. The diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome poses a dilemma because clinical manifestation and serum biomarkers are similar to those of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Only a few cases have been reported where coronavirus disease 2019 may have caused the new onset or exacerbation of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 48-year-old Japanese woman with history of asthma who developed deteriorating symptoms of insidiously developed idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome following asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019. She developed acute-onset back pain, tachycardia, abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite, weight loss, skin rash on the back, and numbness of the extremities 3 days after the quarantine period. Extreme hypereosinophilia with multiple abnormal findings including pulmonary ground-glass opacity lesions and mononeuritis multiplex was consistent with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Normal cellularity with eosinophilic proliferation in the bone marrow and negative FIP1L1-PDGFRA raised the diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Although the patient tested negative for anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and skin biopsy was negative for vasculitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis could not be excluded. Since glucocorticoids are a standard therapy for both idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, we initiated glucocorticoids following a multidisciplinary discussion. CONCLUSION: Although the relationship between asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 and acute idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exacerbation was uncertain, the chronological order of the symptomatic development suggested a possible link. More clinical cases and population-based studies are needed to determine the potential effect of coronavirus disease 2019 on autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/complications , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/drug therapy , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged
8.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1693-1694, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009102

ABSTRACT

Background: Some reports of small vessel vasculitis following nSARS-CoV2 vaccination are reported in the literature (1, 2). Objectives: We purpose to report the case of small-medium vessel vasculitis after BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfzer) vaccination. Methods: We present the case of a 48 years old man with an unremarkable history who underwent BNT162b2 vaccination. Results: Five days after the frst shot of BNT162b2 vaccine, the patient refer the onset of left inguinal adenopathy, and erythematous dermatitis of the trunk. Ultrasound of the groin found increase bilateral inguinal lymph nodes with reactive characters. Contextually, erythematous, itchy and painful nodular lesions appear in the lower and upper limbs as well as acrocyanosis and paresthesia in the right hand and foot. The tests performed showed thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. While, CRP, search for fecal parasites, pANCA, cANCA, ANA, RAST test, serum tryptase were all absent. Haematological evaluation, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype and molecular biology (FIP1L1/PDGFRa), were performed, all results negative. The patient was admitted in Internal Medicine ward for worsening of skin lesions and of acrocyanosis with gangrenous lesions at the tips of the fourth fnger of the right hand. An angio-CT showed an occlusion of the right ulnar artery. At electromyography an axonal sensory neuropathy was found. The skin biopsy showed fbrinoid necrosis of venules of the superfcial vascular plexus associated with numerous eosinophils, lymphocytes and karyorrhetic debris (Figure 1). High-resolution CT scan described diffuse minimal accentuation of the interstitial texture with micronodular aspects and some ground glass appearance. The diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome was made. Therapy with Methylprednisolone 500 mg/daily for 3 days then Prednisone 1 mg/kg daily in association with IL-5 inhibitor (mepolizumab) with good clinical response, in addition to anticoagulation with warfarin was started. Conclusion: To our knowledge this might be the frst case of (HES) following COVID vaccine. As our experience, due to the short commercialization of anti-nSARs-CoV2 vaccines, is limited further studies are needed to explore the possible effect on small-medium vessels.

9.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1860, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008984

ABSTRACT

Background: The world is currently rocking to and fro in the midst of the COVID-19 viral storm and vaccinations have played a pivotal role in calming this.Although COVID-19 vaccines have been thoroughly assessed and studied before being rolled out to the general population, there have been reports of post vaccination complications in limited number of subjects strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccinations[1]. Objectives: To report a case of severe ANCA associated vasculitis after COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A case report and discussion. Results: In view of this, we report the case of a 77 year old caucasian male who developed severe ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) after two doses of Astra-Zeneca vaccine and one booster dose of Pfzer COVID-19 booster. He presented with acute onset infammatory arthritis with mononeuritis multiplex with bilateral foot drop and left radial and ulnar nerve forearm weakness in typical asymmetrical pattern two weeks after the Pfzer vaccination. He had a raised MPO-ANCA titre of 66 IU/ml, C-reactive protein of 131mg/L and reactive thrombocytosis of 458 X 10 9/L. Nerve conduction study confrmed mononeuritis multiplex in the bilateral peroneal nerves and left radial and ulnar nerve. A total body CT had excluded malignancy and paraneoplastic associations and Gullian-Barre diagnosis was also excluded. The patient was treated with 3 days of intravenous methylprednisolone 1g daily then given intravenous Rituximab 1g, two weeks apart. He is currently undergoing rehabilitation in view of the vasculitic neuropathy from his diagnosis. Conclusion: Diagnosis of AAV is often delayed or missed by other medical specialties due to its varied presentation. AAV should be suspected in a patient with paraesthesia/weakness in keeping with mononeuritis multiplex or other peripheral neuropathy in the absence of an alternative explanation (e.g. diabetes,B12 defciency) and in particular with a wrist or foot drop.Exposure to certain drugs and substances of abuse such as cocaine, hydralazine and propylthiouracil has been implicated with AAV.While short-term side effects of COVID-19 vaccine resemble those of other vaccines, long-term side effects remain unknown[2]. Rare side effects continue to surface as millions of people receive COVID-19 vaccines around the world.

10.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:936, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008887

ABSTRACT

Background: Mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (MCV) is an immune-complex-mediated systemic vasculitis characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations mainly involving skin, kidney and peripheral nervous system. Despite reassuring safety data from EULAR Coronavirus Vaccine (COVAX) physician-reported registry, a signifcant proportion of patients with autoimmune diseases reported unwillingness to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the preliminary results of the COVAD study, due to concerns about the lack of longterm safety data, and fear of associated side effects and disease fare. Objectives: Aims of this multicentre Italian study were to investigate the prevalence of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Italian population of MCV patients, to explore the reason for the missed vaccination, and to investigate short and long-term side effects of the vaccine, including vasculitis fare. Methods: All MCV patients referring to 12 Italian centres were investigated about vaccination and possible both short-(within 48 hours) and long-term (within 30 days) adverse events (AE), classifed according to FDA Toxicity Grading Scale for preventive vaccine clinical trials, and possible disease fares. Patients with MCV related to lymphoproliferative disorders or connective tissue diseases were excluded from the study. The baseline variables were expressed as percentages or mean±standard deviation. The differences between continuous variables were analysed using the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. The chi-squared test, or Fischer's exact when appropriate, were used for categorical variables (absolute numbers and percentages) regarding baseline characteristics. Results: A total of 416 patients, 69.2% females and 30.8% males, with a mean age of 70.4±11.7 years, were included in the study. Only 7.7% of patients were not vaccinated, mainly for fear of adverse events (50%) or for medical decision (18.8%). Corminaty was the vaccine most frequently used (80.5%). Interestingly, 6 patients (1.44%) were with a heterologous vaccination (usually AstraZeneca-Corminaty). Considering ongoing treatment, not vaccinated subjects were more frequently treated with chronic glucocorticoid therapy and/or Rituximab (p=0.049 and p=0.043 respectively). AE were recorded in 31.7% of cases, mainly mild and self-limiting (grade 1). More severe adverse events, such as fare of vasculitis, were observed in 5.3% of cases. AE were not associated with the kind of vaccine used and with the clinical manifestations of vasculitis. Patients with active MCV showed a lower frequency of short-term (within 48 hours) adverse events, but patients affected by peripheral neuropathies or skin vasculitis frequently showed a fare of their symptoms, recorded in 40% and 25% of cases, respectively. Finally, patients under glucocorticoid treatment were more prone to develop a vasculitis fare within a month after vaccination. Conclusion: Vaccination in MCV patients has been performed in a high percentage of patients showing a good safety. Other than patients' fear, treatments with rituximab and glucocorticoids are the main reasons for delaying vaccination, and it should be considered by the physician before starting therapy. Vasculitis fares were observed in about 5% of cases, in line with that observed in other autoimmune diseases. Specific attention should be reserved to people with purpura or peripheral neuropathy, for the increased risk of exacerbation of their symptoms.

11.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S73-S74, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006362

ABSTRACT

Aim and objective: During the recent COVID-19 pandemic various vaccines have been developed and approved for emergency use, including adenovirus vector-based ChAdOx1 nCov-19. There are few reports of serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Materials and methods: Here, we report two cases of serious AEFI who required ICU admission. Results: Case 1: A 55-y-m hospitalized with complaints of giddiness for 4 days and onset of weakness of all four limbs with altered sensorium for 1 day. He had no history of any comorbidity, non-smoker and non-alcoholic, and no previous episodes of transient ischemic attacks. He was vaccinated with a second dose of adenoviral vector-based ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine (8 days before the onset of first symptoms). After hospitalization, immediate intubation was done for airway protection. His neurological examination revealed blinking of eyes spontaneously, motor power of 0/5 in all four limbs, deep tendon reflex of +2, and mute plantar. MRI Brain was done on the next day (day of illness, DOI-4), which revealed acute infarct in the pons and bilateral cerebellar hemisphere. He was referred to our ICU on DOI-12. Repeat MRI Brain on DOI-16 showed subacute infarcts in the pons, bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles, and left cerebral hemisphere with thrombosed basilar artery. Lipid profile, homocysteine levels, auto-immune work-up were normal. Echocardiography showed normal LV function with no evidence of LA clot. Carotid Doppler showed normal carotid vessels. In view of ischemic stroke and basilar artery thrombosis anti-platelet agent and therapeutic anticoagulation continued. Over the next 3 weeks, he showed gradual improvement in motor power (3/5 in upper limbs and 2/5 in lower limbs) and weaned off from mechanical ventilation. Case 2: A 19-y-m hospitalized with complaints of acute onset paraesthesia and progressive weakness in both lower limbs for 4 days and difficulty in speech and swallowing for 1 day. He had no history of any comorbidity, and no history of preceding viral/bacterial infection except that he had received the first dose of the adenoviral vector-based ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine (16 days before the onset of first symptoms). After hospitalization, he required intubation in view of pooling of oral secretions and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed bifacial weakness, severe neck muscle weakness, and flaccid areflexic quadriparesis with prominent proximal upper and lower limb weakness. Pin-prick sensation was distally reduced in both lower limbs with associated autonomic instability in the form of tachycardia and hypertension. MRI Brain was normal in the study. In further work, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was diagnosed. CSF showed albumin-cytologic dissociation (protein 1.14 g/L and nil cell), and bilateral motor nerve axonal neuropathy on nerve conduction study. Immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy was started on DOI-6. He did not show significant improvement and was referred to our ICU for further management. During the 5th week of illness, the IVIG dose was repeated without any improvement and continuing requirement of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Though vaccination is one of the important public health interventions implemented to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, there are known and unknown serious AEFI being reported. Both cases presented quadriparesis with different diagnoses, who received vaccination for COVID-19.

12.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S536, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995721

ABSTRACT

CASE: The patient is a 66-year-old male presenting with progressive ambulatory dysfunction and lower extremity weakness that began ten days ago. Notably, the patient was admitted to the hospital two months prior with similar complaints. At that time, he was diagnosed with transverse myelitis after MRI showed a spinal cord lesion concerning for demyelination at T3-T4. The patient was treated with IV steroids and discharged. Neurology impression at time of discharge was transverse myelitis possibly related to Covid vaccination two weeks prior to admission. The patient states he was doing fine after initial discharge before recurrence of his progressive weakness and difficulty walking that led to the current admission. He denies fever, chest pain, abdominal pain, and bladder/ bowel incontinence. The patient is a former smoker and denies current alcohol or drug use. Past medical history includes WPW status post ablation, stable thoracic aortic aneurysm, peripheral neuropathy secondary to past alcohol abuse, osteoarthritis, GERD, and anxiety. Family history is remarkable for cancer, coronary artery disease, and diabetes in his father. Medications include metoprolol, tamsulosin, pantoprazole, olanzapine, and venlafaxine. Neurological exam is positive for atrophy and decreased vibratory sensation in bilateral lower extremities. His gait is not assessed due to safety concerns, but the patient notes he has begun using a cane to assist with ambulation. Otherwise, physical exam is unremarkable. Imaging studies include MRI showing T3-T4 hyperintensity, as seen during previous admission two months prior. Labs including ANA, rheumatoid factor, SPEP, CSF studies, and AQP-4 were negative. After an unrevealing workup, the patient experienced symptomatic improvement with IV steroids and was discharged home. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Our case illustrates a clinical picture of Covid-19 vaccine-related transverse myelitis, a rare but serious complication of the vaccine. The prolonged course of this patient's complications is concerning, although the benefit of receiving the vaccine remains unquestionable. Furthermore, although the timing of symptom onset and vaccination suggests a relation, there are other diagnoses that could explain the presentation and further research is needed regarding vaccine-related side effects. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for neurological issues of unclear etiology following recent Covid-19 vaccination despite their rare occurrence. CONCLUSION: Teaching points: Diagnostic criteria for transverse myelitis includes sensory, motor, or autonomic dysfunction attributable to spinal cord, no evidence of cord compression, bilateral symptoms with clear sensory level, and inflammation defined by CSF analysis, elevated IgG, or MRI enhancement. Neurological complications of the Covid vaccine include general symptoms such as headache, fever, and fatigue, Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, myelitis, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

13.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990263

ABSTRACT

Small fiber neuropathy usually presents with gradual and progressive chronic length-dependent pain. Acute small fiber neuropathy is rarely reported. Three patients with acute onset neuropathic pain after Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccination are described. Two patients were identified at the Oxford University NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK and one patient in Red de Salud UC Christus, Santiago, Chile. All patients underwent a clinical assessment that included a detailed neurological examination, laboratory investigations, nerve conduction studies, thermal threshold testing, and skin biopsy for intra-epidermal nerve fiber density. Patients seen in Oxford underwent MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal analysis was not performed. Neuropathic symptoms (burning pain, dysaesthesias) developed in the hands and feet within 2 weeks of vaccination. On clinical examination, there was pinprick and thermal hyposensitivity in the area of neuropathic pain. Laboratory investigation, nerve conduction tests, sympathetic skin responses, and MRI showed no relevant abnormalities. Thermal thresholds were abnormal and intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in the lower leg was reduced. In two cases symptoms persist after several months. Three cases of definite acute small fiber neuropathy after Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccination are described. At follow up, neuropathic pain was present in two of the patients.

14.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 25(11): 1246-1253, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), caused by the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), has become a life-threatening epidemic, affecting multiple organs, including the nervous system. Recent studies have documented that COVID-19-associated peripheral neuropathy is a common and frequent problem, with central and peripheral nervous system complications. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to evaluate the peripheral nerves and muscle involvement after COVID-19 infection, in addition to studying the prevalence rate and risk factors of their affection. METHODS: The study involved 400 patients, divided into 2 groups, with a history of COVID-19 infection with or without symptoms of neuromuscular affection, and 30 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers were involved as controls. They were referred to the Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation for electro-diagnosis. All participants performed complete clinical examination and laboratory measures with an electrophysiological study. RESULTS: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and myopathy in post-COVID-19 patients was 56.3% among all patients. A significant difference was detected among patients of both groups regarding serum creatine phosphokinase level, clinical signs, and electrophysiologic findings of neuropathy and myopathy compared to the control group, with more prominent features among the symptomatic group. Histories of hospitalization, severe and long-lasting respiratory symptoms were risk factors for developing neuromuscular complications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study could indicate that muscle involvement and peripheral nerve affection are common problems even among asymptomatic patients after COVID-19 infection, especially in the presence of any risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology
15.
Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ; 63:S24-S25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1966661

ABSTRACT

Background: Rates of alcohol use disorder amongst women have increased markedly since the start of the Covid-19 Pandemic with some studies showing as much as a 41% increase in heavy drinking days (1). Among women with alcohol use disorder, there is a high degree of comorbidity with eating disorders (ED) with studies suggesting rates of co-occurring disease as high as 23-50%(2). However, there is little data on the assessment of transplant recipients presenting with co-occuring ED and AUD. Case: A 34-year-old woman with no known past psychiatric or substance use history presented to our hospital in acute hepatic failure (MELD Score 34) in the context of escalating alcohol use over the course of the COVID-19 Pandemic. As the patient did not respond to multiple medical therapies, evaluation for liver transplantation was initiated. The patient was assessed using the Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplant (SIPAT), and found to be a high risk candidate. During the course of our evaluation, the patient demonstrated a lack of interest in eating food, refusing to eat food that required chewing, and expressed multiple consequences about the aversive consequences of eating. She described extremely restrictive eating patterns with her lowest weight being 95 lbs (BMI < 16), leading to nutritional deficiencies, peripheral neuropathy and anemia. Given the absence of excessive concern regarding appearance or body weight, a diagnosis of avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was made. Despite efforts to engage the patient, she demonstrated little understanding of her ED. The patient was declined for listing and medically stabilized. She was declined by all inpatient substance use programs given the extent of her ED and rejected recommendations for targeted ED treatment. She was ultimately discharged to an intensive outpatient program for AUD. Discussion: There is a paucity of information regarding liver transplantation in patients with co-occurring AUD and EDs. However, there are many unique considerations in the management of this patient population in both the pre- and post- transplant period. Existing screening methods such as the SIPAT do little to evaluate transplant risk in patients with EDs relative to other psychiatric illnesses. And while predictive risk factors for recurrence of alcohol use after transplant have been identified, little is known about the risk factors for ED relapse. It appears that the emphasis on abstinence from alcohol in the post-transplant period can be a potent trigger for ED relapse(3). Post-transplant, patients with ED have an increased risk of relapse to alcohol and poorer retention in residential treatment(4). Conclusion: Patients with co-occurring ED and AUD requiring liver transplantation are a challenging patient population with complex pre- and post-transplant considerations. References: 1. Pollard M, et al. "Changes in Adult Alcohol Use and Consequences During COVID-19 Pandemic in the US." JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9). 2. Bulik, Cynthia, et al. “Alcohol Use Disorder Comorbidity in Eating Disorders: A Multi-center Study.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 65:7, July 2004. 3. Coffman K L, et al. Treatment of the Postoperative Alcoholic Liver Transplant Recipient With Other Addictions." Liver Transpl Surg. 1997;3:322–327. 4. Elmquist, J. et al., "Eating Disorder Symptoms and Length of Stay in Residential Treatment for Substance Use: A Brief Report." Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11(3-4), 233–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/15504263.2015.1104480.2015.

16.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology ; 36, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965247

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 286 papers. The topics discussed include: is there still a place for methotrexate in severe psoriatic arthritis?;Improving availability of naloxone: an emergency;national pharmacovigilance surveillance of Astrazeneca Covid-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S vaccine);recommendations of the French Society of Rheumatology and the French Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation on the non-pharmacological management of knee osteoarthritis;management of drug?drug interactions with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in patients treated for Covid-19: guidelines from the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (SFPT);adverse events associated with JAK inhibitors;impact of the new CFTR modulators treatment on the respiratory epithelium;pharmacokinetics study showed increased brain delivery of anti-PD-1 after ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier in glioblastoma mouse models;and modulation of HCN channel activity in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.

17.
Journal of Chinese Medicine ; - (129):30-36, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955694

ABSTRACT

Distal sensory peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a painful chronic condition that affects one’s quality of life. People with DSPN experience pain, numbness, tingling, sensory loss, absent or reduced reflexes, and muscle weakness. Distal sensory peripheral neuropathy in T2DM is typically managed with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and opiates. However, side effects can occur with pharmaceuticals, therefore a non-invasive symptom management approach such as moxibustion is worthy of consideration. Unfortunately, moxibustion is often overlooked and not considered a viable method for managing symptoms associated with DSPN. This case report illustrates the success of six moxibustion treatments conducted twice weekly for three weeks. The treatments reduced pain related to DSPN and improved indices of neurosensory testing.

18.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System ; 27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935098

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 69 papers. The topics discussed include: chemotherapy induced peripheral neurotoxicy: why should we care?;studying the caudal nerve anatomy and physiology to refine detection of peripheral nerve damage in rodent models;anxiety and depression in Charcot-Marie-tooth disease: data from the Italian CMT National Registry;fatigue in CMT: a web based survey from the Italian CMT National Registry;early molecular diagnosis of mutations on the transthyretin gene as a strategy to improve the prognosis of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis - an update of the GENILAM project;THR124MET myelin protein zero mutation mimicking motor neuron disease;torsional neuropathy in parsonage turner syndrome following anti-COVID19 vaccination. how to detect and manage with it?;isolated musculocutaneous involvement in parsonage-turner syndrome associated with SARS-COV2 vaccination;neonatal FC receptor expression in patients with chronic dysimmune neuropathy. a feasibility study;and peripheral neuropathies after common organ transplantations. literature review and the use of electrophysiological tests and ultrasound.

19.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925502

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of seizures in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without a prior history of epilepsy. Background: Infection with COVID-19 has been associated with neurological complications such as headache, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and acute vascular events. Acute onset seizures have been reported as a rare neurological complication in patients with COVID-19 infection. Design/Methods: PUBMED and EMBASE were searched from 12/01/2019 - 3/31/2021 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, using the MESH terms ((Seizure) OR (Electroencephalography) OR (Status Epilepticus)) AND (COVID-19). The primary outcome was frequency of new onset seizure in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Secondary outcomes were frequency of seizure in patients who had Electroencephalography (EEG) completed, risk of abnormal CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) results, and risk of abnormal imaging in patients with COVID-19. An inverse variance meta-analysis of single proportions was performed using the double arcsine method. A random effects model was used due to high inconsistency within the studies. Results: Ninety-four studies identifying 333 patients with COVID-19 and new onset seizures were included. Frequency of new onset seizures in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 0.71% ([95% confidential interval]: [0.16-1.65], I2=89%, 147/28242 patients). Frequency of seizures in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who had EEG completed was 8.49% ([95% confidential interval]: [0.62-24.07], I2=14%, 44/535 patients). The risk of abnormal imaging by either CT head, MRI or vessel imaging was 43.85% ([95% confidential interval]: [17.47-72.27%], I2=58%, 58/128 patients). The risk of abnormal CSF results was 43.03% ([95% confidential interval]: [4.28-88.35], I2=41%, 28/58 patients). Conclusions: The frequency of new onset seizures in patients with COVID-19 was 0.71% ([95% confidential interval]: [0.16-1.65], I2=89%, 147/28242 patients). Slightly less than half of COVID-19 patients with seizures had evidence of structural abnormalities on head imaging as a complication from infection. A small percentage of patients with COVID-19 and seizures were diagnosed with acute viral encephalitis.

20.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925501

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study objective is to evaluate the electromyography and nerve conduction study (EMG/NCS) findings among COVID-19 patients and look for possible correlations. Background: Neurological manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from early features of anosmia and dysgeusia to widespread involvement of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, as well as the neuromuscular junction and muscle. Design/Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective observational study. All COVID-19 patients between the period of 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020 undergoing an EMG/NCS were included. Results: Eighteen patients (12 male and 6 female) were included. The mean age was 55 ±12 years. 11 patients required intubation for a mean period of 18.6 days (range: 3-37 days). Electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with a myopathy in a majority of these patients (82%). Five of them also had a concurrent axonal neuropathy. In the remaining patients who did not require intubation (n=7), three patients had myopathic EMG changes and one had Guillain Barre syndrome. Conclusions: Myopathic EMG changes are commonly seen in critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially with a prolonged hospital stay. At this time, there are no neuromuscular-specific recommendations for patients who contract COVID-19. Only time and additional data will unveil the varying nature and potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19.

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