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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 160047, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105907

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) has become a new pollutant derived from the COVID-19 pandemic. Much of the efforts to characterize PPE litter has focused on its spatial distribution (i.e., trying to identify hotspots of PPE litter), however, such efforts have been limited in the temporal domain, which might result in under- or overestimations in annual projections. Here, using 55 continuous days of sampling in an urban and tropical neighborhood in south east Mexico, I show that in order to have a robust and defensible average and variance values it is needed at least 22 days of random sampling. Nonetheless, this minimum number might change in different ecosystems and land use areas of the built environment due to the temporal variability of the human behavior and activities related to the surveyed areas, as well as the influence of weather conditions that might affect the mobility of people. Furthermore, I discuss how it is recommended to report the daily average density of PPE litter (items m-2 day-1) and its variability (i.e., 95 % confidence intervals), rather than only the density of PPE litter (items m-2) in order to facilitate annual estimates of PPE litter disposal.

2.
Chemosphere ; : 137178, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104525

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic seriously threats the human society and provokes the panic of the public. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are widely utilized for frontline health workers to face the ongoing epidemic, especially disposable face masks (DFMs) to prevent airborne transmission of coronavirus. The overproduction and massive utilization of DFMs seriously challenge the management of plastic wastes. A huge amount of DFMs are discharged into environment, potentially induced the generation of microplastics (MPs) owing to physicochemical destruction. The MPs release will pose severe contamination burden on environment and human. In this review, environmental threats of DFMs regarding to DFMs fate in environment and DFMs threats to aquatic and terrestrial species were surveyed. A full summary of recent studies on MPs release from DFMs was provided. The knowledge of extraction and characterizations of MPs, the release behavior, and potential threats of MPs derived from DFMs was discussed. To confront the problem, feasible strategies for control DFMs pollution were analyzed from the perspective of source control and waste management. This review provides a better understanding the threats, fate, and management of DFMs linked to COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 303-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100052

ABSTRACT

Background: Every workplace has got hazards in many different forms, ranging from sharps, falling objects, chemicals, infections, noise and a lot of other potentially dangerous situations. The occupational safety and health administration mandates employers to protect their employees from such potentially dangerous workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in preventing and ensuring health safety amongst industrial workers. This study aimed to determine the use of PPE and rules compliance amongst Industrial Workers in Kano State. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess 150 workers selected from the Sharada Industrial Estate, Kano, Nigeria, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: The response rate was 88.2%, and the mean age of respondents was 28.1 ± 7.4. About 72% were male, 74.7% had secondary education and 16.4% reported ever having a child with a congenital anomaly. Up to 25% reported using PPE always, 62% used PPE occasionally and 12% never used PPE. Factors significantly associated with the use of PPE at bivariate level were: Gender, 'provision of statutory regulation by the management', 'provision of PPE on worksite' and 'provision of training to staff' respectively. However, on multivariable regression analysis, only 'provision of statutory regulation by the management' and 'provision of PPE on worksite' were found to be independent (intrinsic) predictors of the use of PPE. Conclusions: Training alone does not necessarily increase the uptake of PPE amongst industrial workers. There is a need to ensure the availability of PPE at the worksite, as well as statutory regulations by industries.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Female , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Work ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agricultural labor-intensive activities have been threatened by COVID-19. Wearing a face mask has been introduced as one of the personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce COVID-19 risk. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the safety behavior of urban green space workers around wearing a face mask in the time of COVID-19 before vaccination. METHODS: The personal and safety backgrounds of 61 male participants were collected using a designed questionnaire. The nonparametric correlation coefficient of Spearman and logistic regressions were used to investigate the relationships among variables. RESULTS: Above one-third of workers (37.7%) got COVID-19 in the past year. Although all of the participants were aware of wearing a face mask is a protocol against COVID-19, only about half of them (50.8%) completely wear face mask at work. Non-smoking participants were 5.5 times more likely to influence their personal preference on wearing the mask. CONCLUSION: Safety attitude may be a key variable in relation to the factors that influence the wearing face mask. The causes of face mask-wearing during a pandemic such as COVID-19 as well as safety attitudes may be behind the factors studied in this study. Although some significant linkages were found, they were not enough to conclude a comprehensive action program. This concern is still open to discovering factors that influence wearing face mask.

5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 30(1): 10, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dispatching first responders (FR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in addition to the emergency medical service has shown to increase survival. The promising development of FR systems over the past years has been challenged by the outbreak of COVID-19. Whilst increased numbers and worse outcomes of cardiac arrests during the pandemic suggest a need for expansion of FR schemes, appropriate risk management is required to protect first responders and patients from contracting COVID-19. This study investigated how European FR schemes were affected by the pandemic and what measures were taken to protect patients and responders from COVID-19. METHODS: To identify FR schemes in Europe we conducted a literature search and a web search. The schemes were contacted and invited to answer an online questionnaire during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020/ January 2021) in Europe. RESULTS: We have identified 135 FR schemes in 28 countries and included responses from 47 FR schemes in 16 countries. 25 schemes reported deactivation due to COVID-19 at some point, whilst 22 schemes continued to operate throughout the pandemic. 39 schemes communicated a pandemic-specific algorithm to their first responders. Before the COVID-19 outbreak 20 FR systems did not provide any personal protective equipment (PPE). After the outbreak 19 schemes still did not provide any PPE. The majority of schemes experienced falling numbers of accepted call outs and decreasing registrations of new volunteers. Six schemes reported of FR having contracted COVID-19 on a mission. CONCLUSIONS: European FR schemes were considerably affected by the pandemic and exhibited a range of responses to protect patients and responders. Overall, FR schemes saw a decrease in activity, which was in stark contrast to the high demand caused by the increased incidence and mortality of OHCA during the pandemic. Given the important role FR play in the chain of survival, a balanced approach upholding the safety of patients and responders should be sought to keep FR schemes operational.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Responders , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095595

ABSTRACT

Purpose The aim of this study was to create an overview on the COVID-associated burdens faced by the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) workforce during 1 year of the pandemic. Materials and methods OMS hospitals and private practices nationwide were surveyed regarding health care worker (HCW) screening, infection status, pre-interventional testing, personal protective equipment (PPE), and economic impact. Participants were recruited via the German Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Results A total of 11 hospitals (416 employees) and 55 private practices (744 employees) participated. The HCW infection rate was significantly higher in private practices than in clinics (4.7% vs. 1.4%, p<0.01), although most infections in HCW occurred in private environment (hospitals 88.2%, private practice 66.7%). Pre-interventional testing was performed significantly less for outpatients in private practices than in hospitals (90.7% vs. 36.4%, p<0.01). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used significantly more for inpatients in hospitals than in private practices (100.0% vs. 27.3%, p<0.01). FFP2/3 use rose significantly in hospitals (0% in second quarter vs. 46% in fourth quarter, p<0.05) and private practices (15% in second quarter vs. 38% in fourth quarter, p<0.01). The decrease in procedures (≤50%) was significantly higher in hospitals than in private practices (90.9% vs. 40.0%, p<0.01). Despite higher infection rates in private practices, declining procedures and revenue affected hospitals more. Conclusion Future COVID-related measures must adjust the infrastructure especially for hospitals to prevent further straining of staff and finances.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130273, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086413

ABSTRACT

The accelerated use, massive disposal, and contamination with face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic have raised new questions regarding their negative impact on the environment emerged. One major concern is whether microplastics (MPs) derived from face masks (FMPs) represent an important ecotoxicological hazard. Here, we discussed the shortcomings, loose ends, and considerations of the current literature investigating the ecotoxicological effects of FMPs on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Overall, there are multiple uncertainties regarding the true impact of FMPs at a certain concentration due to the presence of uncontrolled or unknown degradation products, such as MPs of various size ranges even nano-sized (<1 µm) and chemical additives. It is apparent that FMPs may induce endocrine-disrupting and behavioral effects in different organisms. However, the results of FMPs should be carefully interpreted, as these cannot be extrapolated at a global scale, by taking into account a number of criteria such as face mask manufacturers, providers, consumer preferences, and type of face masks. Considering these uncertainties, it is still not possible to estimate the contribution of face masks to the already existing MP issue.

8.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 1917-1929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079910

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has brought greater workload pressures to the medical field, such as medical staff being required to wear personal protective equipment (PPE). While PPE can protect the safety of staff during the pandemic, it can also accelerate the accumulation of fatigue among operators. Objective: This study explores the influence of different protection states on the mental fatigue of nurses. Methods: In this study, 10 participants (5 males and 5 females) were randomly selected among applicants to monitor mental fatigue during the nurses' daily work in four different PPE states (low temperature and low protection; low temperature and high protection; high temperature and low protection; high temperature and high protection). The NASA subjective mental fatigue scale was used for subjective evaluation. Reaction time, attention concentration, attention distribution, memory, and main task completion time were used for objective evaluation. Results: The results demonstrated a significant difference in the effects of different protection states on mental fatigue. The state of high temperature and high protection had the greatest influence on mental fatigue, the state of low temperature and low protection had the least, and states of high (low) temperature and low (high) protection had intermediate effects on mental fatigue. Furthermore, the correlation between the subjective and objective fatigue indices was analyzed using a multiple regression model. Conclusion: This study clarified the influence of different protection states on the mental fatigue of nurses, and verified that nurses require more time and energy to complete the same work as before under high protection states. It provides a basis for evaluating the mental fatigue of nurses in the unique period of the COVID-19 pandemic and specific ideas for optimizing the nursing process.

9.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27823, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072179

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has dramatically shifted the healthcare landscape since 2020. Measures against it includes universal masking in the healthcare areas and the community, viral testing before aerosolizing procedures, and ambulatory elective surgical procedures. Some hospitals have had mandated viral testing policies even before admission to the hospital. Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been cautiously modifying all pertinent practices to avoid the transmission of the virus. Personal protective equipment (PPE), including gowns, gloves, eye protection, and properly fitted N95 respirator or powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) while treating the suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients were made mandatory. Similarly, we changed our aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) protocols based on available limited data. We amended our approach to in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (basic life support (BLS)/advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS)), given the risk of aerosol generation and transmission during the process. This article shares our experience and outcomes of PPE use in healthcare emergencies at our tertiary care academic center.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 733724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071098

ABSTRACT

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the influence of personal protective equipment (PPE) on quality of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) showed inconsistent results. Accordingly, a meta-analysis was performed to provide an overview. Methods: Relevant studies were obtained by search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane's Library databases. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity was used to pool the results. Results: Six simulation-based RCTs were included. Overall, pooled results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the rate [mean difference (MD): -1.70 time/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.77 to 2.36, P = 0.41, I 2 = 80%] or the depth [MD: -1.84 mm, 95% CI: -3.93 to 0.24, P = 0.11, I 2 = 73%] of chest compressions performed by medical personnel with and without PPE. Subgroup analyses showed that use of PPE was associated with reduced rate of chest compressions in studies before COVID-19 (MD: -7.02 time/min, 95% CI: -10.46 to -3.57, P < 0.001), but not in studies after COVID-19 (MD: 0.14 time/min, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.36, P = 0.95). In addition, PPE was not associated with significantly reduced depth of chest compressions in studies before (MD: -3.34 mm, 95% CI: -10.29 to -3.62, P = 0.35) or after (MD: -0.97 mm, 95% CI: -2.62 to 0.68, P = 0.25) COVID-19. No significant difference was found between parallel-group and crossover RCTs (P for subgroup difference both > 0.05). Conclusions: Evidence from simulation-based RCTs showed that use of PPE was not associated with reduced rate or depth of chest compressions in CPR.

11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114250, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in certain types of litter, many of which are expected to end up in the marine environment. The present study aimed to monitor the pandemic-related litter pollution along the Greek coastal environment. Overall, 59 beach and 83 underwater clean-ups were conducted. Litter was categorized as: PPE (face masks and gloves), COVID-19-related, single-use plastic (SUP) and takeaway items. PPE, dominated by face masks (86.21 %), accounted for 0.29 % of all litter. The average PPE density was 3.1 × 10-3 items m-2 and 2.59 items/ 100 m. COVID-19-related items represented 1.04 % of the total. Wet wipes showed higher densities (0.67 % of all litter) than in the pre-COVID era, while no increase in SUP and takeaway items was observed. Benthic PPE, dominated by gloves (83.95 %), represented 0.26 % of the total. The mean PPE density was 2.5 × 10-3 items m-2.

12.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica ; 72(2):101-107, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068271

ABSTRACT

Background : During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers were facing shortage in personal protective equipment, especially adequate respirators. Alternative do-it-yourself respirators emerged, without any proof of protection. Objective : Verify seal potential of two alternative respirators compared to a common FFP2 respirator. Design : Quality assessment pilot study. Setting : Tertiary Care Hospital. Participants : Ten anaesthesiology residents. Interventions : Participants performed quantitative face-fit tests (QNFT) with three respirators to evaluate seal. A common FFP2 "duckbill" respirator was used as baseline (control group). Alternatives tested in this study were an anaesthesia face mask and a full-face modified snorkelling mask with a 3D-printed connector, both in conjunction with a breathing system filter. Main outcome : Non-inferior seal performance of the alternatives over FFP2, assessed by calculated QNFT based on measured individual fit factors, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Results :For each respirator a total of 90 individual fit factor measurements were taken. Within the control group, seal failed in 37 (41%) measurements but only in 10 (11%) within the anaesthesia mask group and in 6 (7%) within the snorkelling mask group (P < 0.001 respectively). However, when calculating the final, mean QNFT results, no difference was found between respirators. Successful QNFT were determined for 5 out of 10 participants in the FFP2 group, for 8 in the anaesthesia mask group (P = 0.25) and for 7 in the snorkelling mask group (P = 0.69). Conclusion : Both do-it-yourself respirators successfult) pass QNFT and have the potential to provide non inferior seal compared to a common FFP2 respirator. While anaesthesia masks are easily assembled, snorkelling masks must undergo significant but feasible modifications. Our results suggest that those do-it-yourself respirators seem to be viable alternatives for situations when certified respirators are not available but need further investigation for validation. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT04375774 Key Points : Question: Can alternative do-it-yourself respirators protect wearers from hazardous aerosols? Findings : Our findings demonstrate that do-it-yourself respirators have the potential to provide non-inferior seal as compared to regular FFP2 personal protective equipment. Meaning : Our real-life situational testing provides evidence that do-it-yourself respirators potentially provide sufficient seal to compete with or even outperform conventional FFP2 respirators and that face-fit testing should be a mandatory safety check in healthcare providers.

13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1398-1405, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the practices and perceptions of Health care workers (HCWs) in Nigeria towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in Nigeria healthcare facilities using a 25-item validated online questionnaire. The hyperlink of the questionnaire was shared with the various professional associations/societies and hospitals in June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 426 HCWs completed the questionnaire with pharmacists (28.8%), nurses/midwives (22.7%) and medical doctors (20.1%) being the highest respondents. Less than 50% of the HCWs had previous training on COVID-19 and how to use personal protective equipment (PPE). Only one in five HCWs had access to adequate PPE during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, the HCWs had good infection control practices with better practices observed among those who attended training on COVID-19 infection and those trained on how to use PPE. Lack of funds to purchase PPEs (55.3%), lack of access to PPE (52.5%) and lack of training on how to use PPE (44.0%) were the most common barriers to adherence to infection control guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in Nigeria have limited access to adequate PPE and lack adequate support from health authorities. Attendance of training on the use of PPE and COVID-19 infection were associated with access to adequate PPE and better infection control practices. Training of HCWs, provision of adequate PPE, and support are recommended to improve compliance with infection control guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception
14.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):369-372, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067156

ABSTRACT

To reduce the infection risk of 2019-novel coronavirus and to protect medical staffs, "Graded personal protection scheme for preventing medical staffs from 2019-novel coronavirus infection in West China hospital" was formulated according to the guidance and notice issued by the National Health Commission combined with the actual situation of West China Hospital. This scheme could provide reference for preventing such disease for medical staffs. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

15.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 26(3):140-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066865

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among the frontline health care workers (HCWs). Even though PPE helps in preventing infection, it poses significant physical and psychological impacts at varying levels. Correspondingly, multiple independent studies have brought out the PPE-associated problems. However, there exists a lacuna on comprehensive information of global prevalence related to the same. Aim(s): To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of PPE among HCWs during COVID-19 across the globe. Design(s): Systematic review and meta-analysis. Method(s): The review was undertaken as per the protocol registered in PROSPERO CRD42021272216 following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis(PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers have undertaken the search strategy, study selection, and methodological quality assessment. Discrepancies were addressed by the third reviewer. Heterogeneity was addressed through I2 statistics and forest plots generated by open meta-software. Result(s): A total of 16 articles conducted across 6 different countries among 10,182 HCWs were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of skin lesions, headache, sweating, breathing difficulty, vision difficulty, thirst/dry mouth, fatigue, and communication difficulty, anxiety, fear were 57 (47-66%), 51 (37-64%), 75 (56-90%), 44 (23-68%), 61 (21-94%), 54 (30-77%), 67 (58-76%), 74 (47-94%), 28 (24-33%), 14 (10-17%), respectively. Moreover, the various risk factors included are the use of PPE for >6 h and young females. In addition, the medical management of new-onset problems created an additional burden on the frontline health care personnel (HCP). Conclusion(s): The frontline HCWs encountered physical and psychological problems at varying levels as a result of wearing PPE which needs to be addressed to prevent the inadequate use of PPE leading to infections. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12625, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066440

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 disease has brought many challenges in the field of personal protective equipment. The amount of disposable surgical masks (DSMs) consumed increased dramatically, and much of it was improperly disposed of, i.e., it entered the environment. For this reason, it is crucial to accurately analyze the waste and identify all the hazards it poses. Therefore, in the present work, a DSM was disassembled, and gravimetric analysis of representative DSM waste was performed, along with detailed infrared spectroscopy of the individual parts and in-depth analysis of the waste. Due to the potential water contamination by micro/nanoplastics and also by other harmful components of DSMs generated during the leaching and photodegradation process, the xenon test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were used to analyze and evaluate the leaching of micro/nanoplastics. Micro/nanoplastic particles were leached from all five components of the mask in an aqueous medium. Exposed to natural conditions, a DSM loses up to 30% of its mass in just 1 month, while micro/nanoplastic particles are formed by the process of photodegradation. Improperly treated DSMs pose a potential hazardous risk to the environment due to the release of micro/nanoparticles and chloride ion content.

17.
Membranes (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066257

ABSTRACT

The study of the surface of membrane coatings constructed with adsorbed coronavirus (COV) was described to test their suitability for the antiviral activity for application in personal protective and medical equipment. The nanocoating based on polyethyleneimine (PEI) or polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) with metallic nanoparticles incorporated was investigated using the AFM technique. Moreover, the functioning of human lung cells in a configuration with the prepared material with the adsorbed coronavirus was studied using microscopic techniques and flow cytometry. The mean values of the percentage share of viable cells compared with the control differed by a maximum of 22%. The results showed that PEI and PSS membrane layer coatings, modified with chosen metallic nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, CuNPs, FeNPs) that absorb COV, could support lung cells' function, despite the different distribution patterns of COV on designed surfaces as well as immobilized lung cells. Therefore, the developed membrane nanocoatings can be recommended as material for biomedical applications, e.g., medical equipment surfaces to reduce coronavirus spreading, as they adsorb COV and simultaneously maintain the functioning of the eukaryotic cells.

18.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066193

ABSTRACT

Background: Guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the resuscitation of COVID-19 patients. Data on the effects of PPE on rescuers' stress level and quality of CPR are sparse and conflicting. This trial investigated the effects of PPE on team performance in simulated cardiac arrests. Methods: During the pandemic period, 198 teams (689 participants) performed CPR with PPE in simulated cardiac arrests (PPE group) and were compared with 423 (1451 participants) performing in identical scenarios in the pre-pandemic period (control group). Video recordings were used for data analysis. The primary endpoint was hands-on time. Secondary endpoints included a further performance of CPR and the perceived task load assessed by the NASA task-load index. Results: Hands-on times were lower in PPE teams than in the control group (86% (83-89) vs. 90% (87-93); difference 3, 95% CI for difference 3-4, p < 0.0001). Moreover, PPE teams made fewer change-overs and delayed defibrillation and administration of drugs. PPE teams perceived higher task loads (57 (44-67) vs. 63 (53-71); difference 6, 95% CI for difference 5-8, p < 0.0001) and scored higher in the domains physical and temporal demand, performance, and effort. Leadership allocation had no effect on primary and secondary endpoints. Conclusions: Having to wear PPE during CPR is an additional burden in an already demanding task. PPE is associated with an increase in perceived task load, lower hands-on times, fewer change-overs, and delays in defibrillation and the administration of drugs. (German study register number DRKS00023184).

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 era, there was a call for the transformation of higher education. Universities had to combine non-face-to-face teaching with traditional procedures. This study analyzed the effectiveness and perceived satisfaction in a cohort of health sciences students of non-face-to-face teaching with passive training versus face-to-face teaching with active training in the proper donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a clinical simulation scenario. METHODS: A total of 142 participants were randomized into two groups: (a) non-face-to-face teaching with passive training; (b) face-to-face teaching with active training. The proper protocol for donning and doffing PPE was assessed. Students evaluated their skills before and after training and satisfaction with training received. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed for the statements "I felt more confident in donning after receiving this training" (p = 0.029) and "I felt more confident in doffing after receiving this training" (p = 0.042) in the face-to-face teaching with active training group compared to the non-face-to-face teaching with passive training group, whose number of tasks violated was significantly higher (p = 0.020). Satisfaction was significantly higher in the face-to-face and active training group (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Face-to-face teaching with active training improves effectiveness and satisfaction more than non-face-to-face teaching with passive training for acquiring skills in donning and doffing PPE properly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Students
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065996

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent the nosocomial transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it has become necessary for health workers to increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and influencing factors for adverse skin reactions (ASR) due to occupational PPE use among nursing staff in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study uses a mixed methods design. A focus group was created with experts from the field of healthcare, and an online survey was then carried out among nursing staff. Influencing factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression via odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2274 nursing staff took part in the survey, with 1967 included in the analysis. The prevalence of ASR was 61%, with 94% affecting at least one area of the face. Statistically significant factors of influence were Filtering Face Peace (FFP) mask wearing duration of ≥4 h, a history of contact allergies, and being female and young. A pre-existing skin disease had a protective effect. The prevalence of PPE-related ASR underlines the necessity for targeted preventive measures for nursing staff during pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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