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1.
Hosp Top ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233131

ABSTRACT

This study reviewed state and District of Columbia (DC) health department guidelines for the use of face masks by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic via an October 2020 internet search and compared these guidelines to those from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines varied between states and DC with respect to N95 face mask and surgical mask use, as well as to extended use and re-use of N95 masks. Uniform guidance based on emerging evidence should be required for creating policy and procedures for healthcare workers during this and future pandemics.

2.
International Journal of Production Research ; 61(14):4934-4950, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244424

ABSTRACT

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, urgent surging demand for healthcare products such as personal protective equipment (PPE) has caused significant challenges for multi-tier supply chain management. Although a given firm may predominantly focus on an arms-length solution by targeting the first-tier supplier, the firm can still struggle with extended multi-tier suppliers it cannot choose which use unsustainable practices. One key goal is compliance across various dimensions with production, environmental and labour standards across the multi-tier supply chain, a goal that blockchain technology can be applied to manage. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this research develops a system architecture of blockchain-based multi-tier sustainable supply chain management in the PPE industry designed to identify and coordinate standards in production and social and environmental sustainability in multi-tier PPE supply chains. The architecture was validated by theoretical basis, expert opinions and technical solutions. We conclude with managerial implications for implementing blockchain technology to advance sustainable multi-tier supply chain practices.

3.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 16(5):66-69, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243183

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objectives of the study was to assess the level of work satisfaction, assess compliance of using PPE among shop assistants during COVID-19 and to find the factors influencing work satisfaction. Method(s): A quantitative approach with descriptive design was used for the study. Eighty samples were selected by using convenient sampling technique. The study was conducted in 4 districts of Kerala through online platform as well as through offline mediums. Result(s): From the study, it is evident that majority of the subjects (55%) were satisfied with their work at the time of COVID-19 and more than half (55%) of the samples have enough compliance with the use of PPE and only 7.5% have less compliance with the use of PPE. Demographic variables such age, relationship status, and work experience were found to be statically significant (p<0.05) with work satisfaction, and other variables did not have a significant association. Conclusion(s): This study provides a baseline for assessing the level of work satisfaction and compliance of PPE among shop assistants in selected areas. Periodic reinforcements, proper education, availability and trainings on the use of PPE can reduce the spread of Corona Virus and improve PPE compliance to an extend. Good working environment support from family and good rapport with colleagues can help to improve work satisfaction .Copyright © 2023 The Authors.

4.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242507

ABSTRACT

Too little, too late, too flawed

5.
Health & Social Care in the Community ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242315

ABSTRACT

During the early period of COVID-19 pandemic, there was a serious shortage of personal protective equipments (PPEs), which caused difficulty in homecare agencies to make home visits to those (possible) positive COVID-19 cases. An organization with the help of several foundations started a special program to distribute PPEs to those agencies in which there was a possible case or those cases that had close contact with the positive cases. This study examined whether this voluntary activity contributed to increasing the sense of security in providing care among homecare workers. We conducted a survey with homecare agencies that received PPEs from the program between July 2020 and February 2021. The participants were agency managers who applied for PPEs. We conducted the survey twice, before and after receiving PPEs. In the questionnaire, we asked about the overall sense of security in providing care for those infected with COVID-19, reasons for applying for PPE, symptoms of the client or his/her family who caused the PPE request, and the agency's and clients' characteristics. We analyzed the data from 802 responses. Before PPE distribution, the sense of security was associated with the focal client having a cognitive impairment (β = −0.096), having cough (β = −0.088), fatigue (β = −0.085), or headache (β = −0.078). Agencies that did not visits those (possibly) positive cases (β = −0.123) had lower sense of security. Overall, the mean sense of security increased after receiving PPE. Factors that contributed to the increase in sense of security included a lower sense of security before the application (β = −0.529), visiting clients without dyspnoea (β = −0.109), the agency that did not visit positive cases before the application (β = −0.089), and with higher satisfaction with the days of PPEs received (β = 0.144). These results underline the benefit of the special PPsE distribution program.

6.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 17(4):IC1-IC4, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20241499

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory infections including Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection spread through droplet infections. Hence standard precautionary measures like handwashing and use of masks are essential to prevent transmission of these infections in healthcare setting. Aim: To determine the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on awareness level of resident doctors on prevention of spread of infective respiratory secretions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among two subsequent batches (year 2019-20 and 2020-21) of resident doctors at a medical college hospital, from February 2020 to September 2020. The 2019-2020 batch of resident doctors worked as residents from March 2019 to March 2020 and were considered as pre-COVID-19 batch. The 2020-2021 batch of resident doctors had their training period from April 2020 to April 2021 and were considered the COVID-19 batch. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire consisting of 14 questions to evaluate the awareness on prevention of spread of infective respiratory secretions was administered. The responses were evaluated, marks awarded and summated. Results: The response rate of pre-COVID-19 batch was 85% and that of COVID-19 batch was 86%. The mean (standard deviation) score obtained by the COVID-19 batch was 9.91 +/- 3.42 which was significant higher than that obtained by the pre-COVID-19 batch which was 7.1 +/- 1.83. The score obtained by COVID-19 batch for 11/14 questions was significantly higher compared to the pre-COVID-19 batch. Conclusion: A significant improvement was seen in the knowledge level in prevention of spread of infective respiratory secretions among resident doctors after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 370, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238857

ABSTRACT

In a research paper that warrants close scrutiny by hospital administrators everywhere, Min Liu and colleagues find that none of 420 healthcare workers deployed to a hospital in Wuhan were infected with the virus, despite caring for severely ill patients and performing aerosol generating procedures over 6-8 weeks.3 The workers wore surgical masks and N95 respirators as well as protective suits and gowns, goggles, gloves, and face shields. The US and the UK missed the just right "Goldilocks zone” of hospital capacity by building temporary hospitals that remained mostly empty.6 How did this happen? "Bad modelling based on insufficient data,” says one expert. Missing the Goldilocks zone of hospital capacity during covid-19.

8.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 62(8):E467-E468, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238396

ABSTRACT

Background: Workers whose occupations put them in contact with infected persons and the public are at increased risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Recommendations: The Collegium Ramazzini calls on governments at all levels to protect worker health by strengthening public health systems;maintaining comprehensive social insurance systems;establishing policies that presume all COVID-19 infections in high-risk workers are work-related;enforcing all occupational health standards;and developing pandemic preparedness plans. The Collegium Ramazzini calls on all employers-large and small, public and private-to protect the health of all workers by developing disease preparedness plans;implementing basic infection control measures;establishing disease identification and isolation policies;reducing hazardous exposures;supporting personal protective equipment (PPE) programs;and restricting unnecessary travel. Conclusion(s): Governments and employers have legal obligations to protect worker health. They are not relieved of these duties during pandemics.Copyright © 2020 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

9.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238033

ABSTRACT

Patients should be admitted to hospital for planned or elective care only if they have self-isolated for 14 days beforehand and tested negative for covid-19, says new guidance for trusts in England designed to increase the number of routine operations and treatments.1 People who require urgent and emergency care should be tested on arrival and streamed accordingly, with services split to make the risk of picking up the virus in hospital as low as possible, said NHS England. Patients who stay in hospital should be monitored for symptoms and retested for infection every five and seven days after admission, and those who are being discharged to a care home should be tested up to 48 hours before they are due to leave. On 15 May the government announced that more than 70 million face masks would be manufactured by a private company, Honeywell, in Scotland from July, with 4.5 million FFP2 and FFP3 masks being made each month for the next 18 months.

10.
Mentalhigiene es Pszichoszomatika ; 23(3):252-285, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20237512

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a preventive and widely mandatory use of face masks was a dominant segment of the infection prevention and control of the epidemic. Covering about 60-70% of the facial surface, face masks dramatically affect social interactions-especially emotion recognition, expression and mentalization. Difficulties in communication in the doctor-patient relationship become of paramount importance to the effectiveness of the healing work. This becomes even more critical when the patient suffers from a disorder characterized by a mentalization deficit. In our study, we use the theory of social representations to examine the contents with which mask wearing has become part of our everyday knowledge. Objectives: We aimed to explore the social representations of mask wearing considering its impact on interpersonal communication, in groups where the effectiveness of mutual understanding is critical. Methods: In our study, carried out during the second and third waves of the coronavirus epidemic in Hungary, we gave a free association task to the target word mask-wearing" in a group of medical doctors, and hospitalized somatic and psychiatric patients and healthy controls (total of 81 subjects, mean age 43.1 [13.83] years), then used the obtained associations to form semantic categories and to map the structure of social representations within the groups using a rank-frequency method. Results: The positive experience of safety and the negative experience of physiological discomfort caused by the facemasks were consistently central to the social representations of mask-wearing in all study groups. Differences were found between groups in terms of more mature elaborative categories, as well as anxiety, aggression, helplessness, damaged dependency needs, and forced conformity. Conclusions: The analysis of the social representations revealed ambivalent meanings of the mask wearing. Although there were significant differences in the structure of mask-related social representations, the mask was recognized as an "inconvenient but necessary" health protection measure in most of the groups studied. Based on the results, each group may be at risk in a different way or deal differently with the pandemic based on their specific representations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved) (Hungarian) Elmeleti hatter: A COVID-19-pandemia idejen a jarvanyugyi intezkedesek meghatarozo reszeve valt az arcmaszkok viselesenek preventiv es szeles koru alkalmazasa. Az arcmaszkok az arcfelulet mintegy 60-70%-at lefedve jelentosen befolyasoljak a szocialis interakciokat - kulonosen az erzelemfelismerest, erzelemkifejezest es mentalizalast. A kommunikacioban fellepo nehezsegek a gyogyito munka hatekonysaga szempontjabol kiemelt jelentoseguve valnak az orvos-beteg kapcsolatban. Ennek meg kritikusabb esetei azok a helyzetek, amikor a paciens mentalizacios deficittel jellemezheto zavarban szenved. Tanulmanyunkban a szocialis reprezentaciok elmeletet hasznaljuk annak vizsgalatara, hogy a maszkviseles milyen tartalmakkal valt a kozos tudas reszeve. Celkituzes: Vizsgalatunkban a maszkviseles szocialis reprezentaciojanak felterkepezeset tuztuk ki celul, figyelembe veve annak interperszonalis kommunikaciora gyakorolt hatasat, olyan csoportokban, ahol a kolcsonos megertes hatekonysaga kiemelt jelentoseggel bir. Modszerek: Kutatasunkban a koronavirus-jarvany masodik es harmadik magyarorszagi hullama idejen, orvos, szomatikus es pszichiatriai beteg csoportban, valamint kontrollcsoportban (osszesen 81 fo, atlageletkor 43,1 [SD = 13,83] ev) szabad asszociacios feladatot adtunk a maszkviseles" hivoszora. A nyert adatokbol szemantikus kategoriakat kepeztunk, majd ranggyakorisag-eljarassal felterkepeztuk a szocialis reprezentaciok szerkezetet az egyes csoportokon belul. Eredmenyek: A vizsgalati csoportok maszkhasznalathoz kapcsolodo szocialis reprezentaciojaban egysegesen kozponti elemkent jelent meg a maszkviseles altal nyujtott biztonsagelmeny, valamint a maszk zavaro testerzetet kelto hatasa. Kulonbseget talaltunk az egyes csoportok kozott elaborativ kategoriak megjelenese, illetve szorongas, agresszio, tehetetlenseg, serult dependenciaszukseglet, valamint a kenyszeru alkalmazkodas tekinteteben. Kovetkeztetesek: A maszkviseles szocialis reprezentaciojanak elemzese alapjan a maszkviseles ambivalens jelentestartalmakat hordoz. Bar a maszkviseleshez kapcsolodo szocialis reprezentaciok strukturajaban szamottevo kulonbsegek is mutatkoztak, ugyanakkor a legtobb vizsgalt csoportban a maszk a virusvedelem szempontjabol kenyelmetlen, de szukseges" eszkozkent kerult felismeresre. Az eredmenyek alapjan az egyes csoportok sajatos reprezentacioik alapjan eltero modokon lehetnek veszelyeztetettek, illetve kuzdhetnek meg a pandemia idejen kialakult helyzettel. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Annals of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital & Karachi Medical & Dental College ; 28(2):80-87, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20235439

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to find out the frequency and risk factors responsible for COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers in a large-scale university teaching hospital. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 185 healthcare workers sampled from the database of 1309 participants maintained at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi. Both the cases and controls were derived from the hospital's database of COVID-19 Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and COVID-19 antibody tests were performed on the said population. The participants included were physicians working in the hospital. They were grouped into cases and controls based on the positive diagnostic tests. We administered a simple structured questionnaire over the telephone and face to face for the interview. Statistical analyses were performed on IBM SPSS version 25. Results: The mean age of the cases was significantly different than controls [cases (32.7±9.9) vs controls (38.8±10.6), [p-value=0.002]. More cases 29/37 (78.3%) were working at a single setting compared to controls 54/148 (36.5%) (p-value<0.001). The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), exposure to COVID-19 patients and experiencing symptoms also had statistical significance with the odds of infection (p-value<0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that younger age, exposure to a known COVID-19 patient and longer duration of exposure among the hospital physicians is associated with positive COVID-19 results. Therefore, it is imperative that adequate measures be undertaken to limit the exposure to COVID-19 patients in this age group. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Annals of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital & Karachi Medical & Dental College is the property of Knowledge Bylanes and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Microplastics in the Ecosphere: Air, Water, Soil,and Food ; : 65-75, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20235280

ABSTRACT

Single-use plastic (SUP) products are designed to be used only once or for a short time before being discarded. This research focused on personal protective equipment (PPE) made of SUP-based products (face masks, gloves, etc.) and SUP packaging during the COVID-19 era. One of the most obvious effects of the pandemic has been the increase in the use of PPE not only by healthcare professionals but also by the general public. As part of the fight against the pandemic, quarantines were started in many countries;people had to work from home, and shops were closed. Online shopping became more common. The increase in e-commerce also increased the use of SUP packaging. Here, we present an estimation of the number of daily single-use face masks and the amount of medical waste, considering the current COVID-19 cases and population. As a result of our calculations, we show that while the daily amount of medical waste is greatest in the European region, the number of single-use face masks used each day is highest in Asia. These results are associated with the number of COVID-19 cases and population data in the regions. Medical waste and number of patients were directly proportional, as were population and face mask waste. We are faced with plastic pollution that is becoming more difficult to control each day. In the current circumstances, within the scope of combating the possible plastic pandemic, we should prevent the shift of beneficial plastic from a preservative to a pollutant by prioritizing individual, societal, and institutional reforms to minimize plastic pollution. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

14.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology ; 8(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20235164

ABSTRACT

Background/aimsThe COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the use of personal protective equipment for those involved in trachoma survey grading and trichiasis surgery. We sought to determine which configuration of a face shield would be less likely to impact grading accuracy and ability to conduct trichiasis surgery. The research also included assessment of comfort, ease of cleaning and robustness.MethodsThere were three research phases. In phase 1, assessment of four potential face shield configurations was undertaken with principal trachoma graders and trichiasis surgeon trainers to decide which two options should undergo further testing. In phase 2, clarity of vision and comfort (in a classroom environment) of the two configurations were assessed compared with no face shield (control), while grading trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF). The second phase also included the assessment of impact of the configurations while performing trichiasis surgery using a training model. In phase 3, face shield ease of use was evaluated during routine surgical programmes.ResultsIn phase 2, 124 trachoma graders and 28 trichiasis surgeons evaluated the 2 face shield configurations selected in phase 1. TF agreement was high (kappa=0.83 and 0.82) for both configurations compared with not wearing a face shield. Comfort was reported as good by 51% and 32% of graders using the two configurations. Trichiasis skill scores were similar for both configurations.ConclusionThe face shield configuration that includes a cut-out for mounting the 2.5× magnifying loupes does not appear to impact the ability or comfort of trachoma graders or trichiasis surgeons to carry out their work.

15.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20235118

ABSTRACT

Tension between the Trump administration and its public health officials burst into the open this week, as President Donald Trump openly criticised his top infectious disease specialist, Anthony Fauci, for testifying in Congress against the reopening of states that have not met the administration's published criteria for ending their lockdowns.1 Dozens of mostly Republican controlled states are lifting restrictions despite failing grades on metrics such as new daily infections and percentage of positive test results. Maskless revellers filled bars across Wisconsin on the night of 13 May, as the state's conservative dominated Supreme Court struck down a lockdown imposed by Democratic governor Tony Evers. White House, April 16, 2020. https://www.whitehouse.gov/openingamerica/ 2 Dyer O. Covid-19: Trump says added deaths are necessary price for reopening US businesses.

16.
Emerging Aquatic Contaminants: One Health Framework for Risk Assessment and Remediation in the Post COVID-19 Anthropocene ; : 101-126, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20233998

ABSTRACT

A highly transmissible and pathogenic Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, which severely affected human health and impacted negatively on the environment. In this review, we discuss the extent of the generation of COVID waste, and how its disposal can influence the environment. We have especially emphasized the COVID-related biomedical waste management. An attempt has also been made to identify several challenges encountered in India. Studies have indicated an altered water usage pattern, which increased megacities' water footprint in India. Enhanced domestic sewage discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform count in water bodies. Disposal of COVID biomedical waste (CBW) and personal protective equipment (PPE) resulted in a huge amount of single-use plastics (SUPs);which in turn cause the long-term risk of micro- and nano-plastic in the environment. This review also aims to put up the need for well-equipped infrastructure, efficient treatment facility, and public availability of CBW data in India to make effective policies and sustainable solutions for long-term goals. © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

17.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20233840

ABSTRACT

Help for the social care sector has come late in the day, but it's not just PPE and testing that it needs. Access to clinical expertise, palliative care, and bereavement support is also vital, reports Rachel Carter

18.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20232057

ABSTRACT

Government prioritised the NHS but was slow to protect social care

19.
AIP Conference Proceedings ; 2521, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20231824

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene (HH) is a crucial factor for reducing Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) in the hospital setting. The current analysis was created to create an intervention methodology to enhance hand hygiene compliance among hospital personnel in a healthcare setting. Covid-19 disease epidemic has additional stressed the need for world-wide development in hand hygiene compliance by the healthcare personnel. Healthcare Associated Infections have been a hot issue for several time periods and Healthcare Associated Infections are the most common adverse results due to the delivery of medical care and treatment. There is unanimity that hand hygiene is the extremely successful way to avoid healthcare associated infections. As healthcare systems fluctuate widely, prevention approaches must be designed appropriately. Hand hygiene, however, remains relevant in all settings, and World Health Organization (WHO) is strongly endorsing alcohol-based hand rubs to interrupt transmission. Nevertheless, very minimal compliance rate amongst the healthcare staff have been reported worldwide. Infected surfaces, especially those that are touched repeatedly by the patient's surroundings, act as reservoirs for pathogens and cause towards pathogen transmission. Therefore, healthcare disinfection requires a thorough approach whereby several strategies may be applied together, risk-based methodologies, to decrease the possibility of HAIs for the patients. In this paper more than 200 articles have been studied from 2016 to 2021 time period and various surveys have been conducted to analyze hand hygiene intervention and studied the various factors involving the patient's situation, medication management behavior of several units, and the type of healthcare employees during and before the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on this study, we evaluated overall hand hygiene compliance rate including the intake of hand wash liquid agent, alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), the paper wipes, medical waste consumption and personal protective equipment's (gloves, masks etc.) before and after Covid-19 intervention to improve the hand hygiene compliance rate in Abu Dhabi hospitals. © 2023 Author(s).

20.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 369, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20231671

ABSTRACT

Where clinicians once believed "there is no harm trying,” they realise that CPR offers little benefit to patients but brings significant risk to staff as they wait for the protective equipment that was promised in the UK and globally (doi:10.1136/bmj.m1423;doi:10.1136/bmj.m1367). Adding to the scandals of unpreparedness and lack of personal protective equipment is the scandal of testing. Germany's relatively low case fatality rate is helped by an "early and high level of testing” (doi:10.1136/bmj.m1395).

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