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1.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960981

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: Factors associated with burnout in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pharmacy leadership positions were examined during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacy executives of the VHA healthcare system. It collected demographic and employment characteristics, career satisfaction and work-related variables, indicators of burnout using validated single-item measures adapted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial and work-related variables. A χ  2 test with Bonferroni correction was used to evaluate the data. Burnout was defined as a score of 4 or greater on either of the 2 single-item validated statements adapted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory to assess emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. RESULTS: In total, 407 (of 1,027; 39.6%) VHA pharmacy leaders representing Veterans Integrated Service Network pharmacy executives, chiefs of pharmacy, associate chiefs of pharmacy, and inpatient and outpatient supervisors completed the survey. The overall prevalence of burnout was 68.6% using the aggregate measure of emotional exhaustion or depersonalization. Pharmacy leaders who worked more than 60 hours a week reported significantly greater rates of burnout than those who worked 40 to 60 hours a week (86.7% vs 66.9%, χ  2 = 7.34, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.05). Those experiencing increased workload related to COVID-19 also reported high burnout rates (72.1%, χ  2 = 16.40, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.001). Burnout scores were similar across groups when respondents were stratified by leadership position, gender, age, or years in position. CONCLUSION: As of March 2021, two-thirds of pharmacy leaders were experiencing burnout. It is important for healthcare system leadership to identify patterns of burnout among their pharmacy leaders to ensure a productive and sustainable workforce.

2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 100, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) appears essential to prevent the development of infections linked to surgery while inappropriate and excessive prescriptions of prophylactic antibiotics increase the risk of adverse effects, bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. In this study, we aimed to analyze SAP practices in an acute secondary hospital in Belgium during the years 2016-2021 in order to evaluate the impacts of combined stewardship interventions, implemented thanks to a physician-pharmacist collaboration. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study on SAP practices was conducted during 5 years (2016-2021) in a Belgian University Hospital. We first performed a retrospective observational transversal study on a baseline group (2016.1-2016.4). Then, we constituted a group of patients (2017.1-2017.4) to test a combined intervention strategy of stewardship which integrated the central role of a pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship team and in the pre-operative delivery of nominative kits of antibiotics adapted to patient factors. After this test, we collected patient data (2018.1-2018.4) to evaluate the sustained effects of stewardship interventions. Furthermore, we evaluated SAP practices (2019.1-2019.4) after the diffusion of a computerized decision support system. Finally, we analyzed SAP practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020.1-2020.4 and 2021.1-2021.4). The groups were compared from year to year in terms of compliance to institutional guidelines, as evaluated from seven criteria (χ2 test). RESULTS: In total, 760 surgical interventions were recorded. The observational study within the baseline group showed that true penicillin allergy, certain types of surgery and certain practitioners were associated with non-compliance (p < 0.05). Compared with the baseline group, the compliance was significantly increased in the test group for all seven criteria assessed (p < 0.05). However, the effects were not fully sustained after discontinuation of the active interventions. Following the diffusion of the computerized decision support system, the compliance to guidelines was not significantly improved. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic did not appear to affect the practices in terms of compliance to guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that optimization of SAP practices is achievable within a proactive multidisciplinary approach including real-time pharmaceutical interventions in the operating area and in the care units practicing SAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957320

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is crucial for preventing the spread of COVID-19. Vaccination for COVID-19 was implemented in Japan in community units, and community pharmacists were engaged in vaccine preparation. Capturing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pharmacists regarding COVID-19 infection control is important for developing future community health action strategies and plans. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 141 pharmacists who were members of a pharmacist association in the Shinagawa Ward of Tokyo (1-31 July 2021) using a Google online questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information and KAP questions regarding COVID-19. A correlation test was used for analyzing KAP scores. Significant correlations were found among all KAP scores. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed "age" as a significant knowledge factor and "marriage", "pharmacist careers", "information source: official government website", and "information source: word of mouth from family and friends" as significant attitude factors. Good KAP scores were recorded in this study, indicating increased comprehension of infection control measures and increased knowledge scores, as pharmacy pharmacists were practically involved in COVID-19 infection control measures through vaccine preparation. Policymakers should understand the value of pharmacists as healthcare professionals and should enhance public health through the effective use of pharmacists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infection Control , Pharmacists , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957269

ABSTRACT

The introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) in Taiwan, which are traditionally conducted in physical hospital settings, incorporated up to 30% distance learning from May 2021 due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A web-based cross-sectional survey was adopted to investigate pharmacy students' experiences and perceptions of transitioning from in-hospital internships to distance learning due to COVID-19 in the pharmacy department of a university in Southern Taiwan. We analyzed the results to discover factors that significantly affected students' perceptions of transitioning from in-hospital internships to distance learning. In total, 81 interns from the university's pharmacy department responded to the questionnaire. Approximately half of the participants felt happy when they learned, before the internship began, that the internship would be partially replaced with distance learning. The overall satisfaction rate was 67.9%, and no significant differences was observed in students' satisfaction between hospital size or distance-learning time. However, more students in the medical center felt they had insufficient time to finish assignments compared to those in the regional hospitals, and the students who had 11-15 days of distance learning felt that they interacted more smoothly with their peers compared to those who had other durations. Program designers should make distance internship courses more student-centered, with a focus on increasing interactions between students, teachers, and peers to compensate for the lack of physical presence.

5.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S30-S31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955953

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Antibiotic resistances are among themost threatening public health issues worldwide, being highly associated with inadequate antibiotic use. To tackle this challenge, it is crucial to educate health professionals to appropriately prescribe and dispense antibiotics. Thus, out team developed eHealthResp, an educational intervention composed by two online courses and a clinical decision support system in the form of a mobile app directed to primary care physicians and community pharmacists, aiming to improve antibiotic prescribing and dispensing in respiratory tract infections. Objectives: The main goal of this pilot study is to validate the eHealthResp online courses and the clinical decision support system (mobile app), involving a small group of health professionals. Methods: Aproximately 15 physicians and 15 pharmacists will be recruited to participate in the study. Participants will have complete autonomy to explore and evaluate the eHealthResp mobile app and online courses, composed by six modules on respiratory tract infections for physicians (i) acute otitis media, ii) acute rhinosinusitis, iii) acute pharyngotonsilitis, iv) acute tracheobronchitis, v) community-acquired pneumonia, and vi) COVID-19), and three modules for pharmacists (i) common cold and flu, ii) acute rhinosinusitis, acute pharyngotonsilitis, and acute tracheobronchitis, and iii) acting protocol). Each online course is also composed by four clinical cases and the most recommended pharmacological therapy. Additionally, for the the global validation of the online course and the mobile app, participants will be invited to complete a questionnaire including three sections of questions. The first part, consisting of five brief questions, will allow the collection of sociodemographic data. The second part contains four groups of closed questions, and the third part consists of four open-answer questions, both aiming to evaluate the online course and mobile app elements. Results: After the assessment made by the physicians and pharmacists who agreed to participate in the pilot study, the data obtained will be duly analyzed and integrated by the research team. The appropriate changes will be incorporated into the e-Health platforms to improve the quality of both the online courses and the eHealthResp mobile app. Conclusions: The findings of this pilot study will provide important information for the next stage of the project, ensuring the feasibility of the educational interventions in a group of primary care physicians and community pharmacists from the Centre region of Portugal, using a randomized controlled trial designed by clusters.

6.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S93-S94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955951

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The empowerment of patients is considered to be one of the cornerstones of modern days rational pharmacotherapy. In Slovakia (SR), the continued, concerted professional and lay activities to this effect started about two decades ago, with strong involvement of the discipline of clinical pharmacology (CP). Objectives: To report on developments and unique experiences gained in fostering patients' empowerment in SR, a country having undergone considerable economic, political, and health care transitions ever since the 1990ies. Methods: Developing a practice-oriented analysis and subsequent synthesis of lessons learned, based upon the insiders' factual and conceptual information and knowledge of the country's developments and their driving, and slowing down forces and factors, as seen in the pertinent international contexts. Results: The developments leading to ever more pronounced and practical empowerment of patients in Slovakia were much enhanced, and even politically supported, after the launching of unprecedented multifaceted transitions following the Velvet Revolution in 1989. Setting up independent patients' organizations, their coming together forming the alliances and, later on, establishing common associations (such as Association for the Protection of Patients' Rights in SR (AOPP;see www.aopp.sk)) aimed at fostering patients' rights (that felt under some pressures from the deep transitional changes occurring within the health care system), were paralleled by growing academic and political interest (e. g., national Patients' Rights Charter approved by the SR Government in 2001), as well as by SR patients' representatives taking part in various international initiatives and organizations (e. g., EPF, ELPA, EUPATI, etc.). Starting from quickly developing informal contacts, consultations, increasingly professional discussions, and help in education (incl. issues of better access to modern pharmacotherapy modalities), SR's CP(-ists) became involved in mutual activities fostering patients' and patients' representatives' education, such as regular annotated courses Patient and Medicaments at the Slovak Medical University in Bratislava, invitations to annual CP conferences and other meetings. In 2015, EUPATI.sk was established. In 2017, a national, multistakeholder project Medicaments with Reason started, led by AOPP, with the Slovak Society of CP being its scientific guarantor. Successful long-term collaboration of AOPP with SR CP(-ists) and other stakeholders, including payers (health insurance companies in SR), Slovak Chamber of Pharmacists, politicians, academia, and some of the leading SR media, brought about more effective patients' representatives' involvement in legislation activities, high-level health policies negotiations, diagnostic and therapeutic standards and guidelines development, and a more adequate media coverage. These aspects, including collaborations with CP(-ists), were further strengthened during the Covid-19 pandemic. A patients' representative became a regular member of the newly established national SR Clinical Trials Ethics Committee (established under EU CTs Reg. No. 536/2014). Conclusion: Empowerment of patients ascertained by fostering longterm collaborations and synergies among decisive stakeholders involved, including important professional contributions of CP(-ists), as shown by decades-long experience in Slovakia, can contribute in a substantial manner to continuous, patient-friendly optimization of the national medicinal drugs policies and development of national pharmacotherapy standards and guidelines.

7.
SA Pharmaceutical Journal ; 89(2):25-29, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955699
8.
PeerJ ; 10: e13296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954763

ABSTRACT

Background: Amid the turbulent nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, telepharmacy has shifted the paradigm of patient care by leveraging digital medicine. Government mandated lockdowns and norms of social distancing have further underscored the need for telepharmacy. Many developed and developing countries implemented such initiatives where pharmacists have provided tele-pharmacy services via telecommunications. However, the implementation and utilization of tele-pharmacy services are quite negligible in resource limited settings due to financial and administrative constraints. This study was aimed to ascertain the perception and readiness of pharmacists working in various sectors of a resource limiting country. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in all provinces of Pakistan to explore the perceptions of pharmacists towards telepharmacy implementation through a 35-items study instrument. The collected data was analyzed descriptively and scored accordingly. The chi-square test was used for inferential analysis on pharmacist's perception regarding implementation of tele-pharmacy with their demographics. Results: Of 380 pharmacists, the mean age is 27.67 ± 3.67 years with a preponderance of male pharmacists (n = 238, 62.6%). The pharmacists (n = 321, 84.5%) perceived that telepharmacy implementation improves patient's quality of life and decreases patients' visits (n = 291, 76.6%). Overall, pharmacists (n = 227, 59.7%) had negative perception towards benefits of telepharmacy implementation, but pharmacists had positive perception towards eligibility (n = 258, 67.9%), regulatory issues (n = 271, 71.3%) and telepharmacy during pandemic and beyond (n = 312, 82.1%). In chi-square testing gender (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.03) had a significant association with perception regarding regulatory issues. Among perception regarding telepharmacy during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond age had a significant association (p = 0.03). Among perception regarding eligibility job location of pharmacists had significant association (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists had a positive perception regarding the eligibility of patients and regulatory issues/legal framework regarding the implementation of tele-pharmacy, as well as its use during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. The implementation of tele-pharmacy can play a major role in providing timely and better patient care to remote patient areas and may help in the prevention and treatment of different infectious diseases.

9.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 12(7):53-60, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954733

ABSTRACT

The success and sustainability of any profession can be evident during times of crises. Clinical pharmacists adapted and adopted multiple roles, which were an extension of their routine activities including a few new activities depending on the situation demands. Numerous studies in the literature discussed the various roles played and the activities offered by clinical pharmacists during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The challenges and opportunities faced by the clinical pharmacists during this time are worth contemplating. We aimed to summarize the challenges faced by clinical pharmacists during the pandemic and the opportunities that arose. Providing direct patient care, change in scheduling, and burnout were among the top challenges. Telehealth services and participation in guideline development and education were among the prominent opportunities. A discouraging finding was the lack of adequate recognition along with other front-line workers. The pandemic was a clear indicator of the significant role a clinical pharmacist plays in the healthcare team. Measures need to be taken by clinical pharmacists to ensure authorities are well-informed of their activities. It is also recommended to incorporate these experiences in pharmacy degree programs to ensure that pharmacists are better prepared for any future health or natural crises. © 2022

10.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 18(9): 3568-3579, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are one of the most accessible healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst playing a vital role in medication supply and patient education, exposure to the pandemic demands and prolonged stressors increase their risk of burnout. OBJECTIVES: Using the Job Demands-Resources model, this study aims to understand the factors that led to community pharmacists' burnout and to identify their coping strategies and perceived recommendations on interventions to mitigate burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used with focus groups and interviews of community pharmacists in Qatar who were recruited using purposeful, convenience, and snowballing sampling methods. Interviews were conducted between February and April 2021, were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using thematic analysis methodology, manual inductive and deductive (based on the model) codes from the interviews were used for synthesis of themes. 11 themes emerged from six focus groups, six dyadic interviews and mini focus groups, and four individual interviews with community pharmacists. RESULTS: The contributing factors to community pharmacists' burnout have been identified as practical job demands, and emotional demands including fear of infection. On the other hand, government and workplace-specific resources, personal characteristics such as resiliency and optimism, as well as the implementation of coping strategies, have reduced their stress and burnout. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Job Demands-Resources model was appropriate to identify the contributing factors to community pharmacists' burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on these factors, individual, organizational, and national strategies can be implemented to mitigate burnout in community pharmacists during the pandemic and future emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacists/psychology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic preparedness of healthcare providers helps to mitigate future threats such as spread and fatality rates, as well as the management of the disease. Pharmacists are key partners with public health agencies, and the role of community pharmacists is becoming increasingly recognised in this COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to explore the emergency preparedness of community pharmacists (CPs) for COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among community pharmacists using cluster sampling followed by convenient sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was formulated using references from the previous literature and the WHO preparedness checklist. Descriptive analysis was undertaken for the participants' socio-demographic characteristics. All the data collected were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24 (SPSS V.24), (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) for analysis. RESULTS: Most of the CPs had five or fewer years of practice experience, and they had all the mandatory information relating to the needs of their communities regarding the disease. The participants knew where to acquire these resources whenever needed. They were able to recognise the signs and symptoms of the disease. Most participants felt that they were confident to provide patient education and carry out their duties during these challenging times. There was a strong position correlation between preparedness and the perceived response of the participants. CONCLUSION: The community pharmacists in Malaysia are prepared enough for COVID-19 pandemic management and perceive that they can respond during any unprecedented situations, such as COVID-19. Community pharmacists were aware of the challenges that they need to face in their community regarding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Community Pharmacy Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Professional Role , Social Determinants of Health
13.
Thromb Res ; 217: 52-56, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937244

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients taking warfarin require frequent international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring in healthcare settings, putting them at increased risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure during the pandemic. Thus, strategies to limit in-person visits to healthcare facilities were recommended by the Anticoagulation Forum. The objective of this study was to describe the number and types of changes made to anticoagulation therapy as a result of pharmacist intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients included in a primary care COVID-19 anticoagulation intervention was conducted. During this intervention, pharmacists provided individualized recommendations for anticoagulation changes in patients taking warfarin to limit their healthcare facility exposure while also maintaining safe anticoagulation management practices. RESULTS: As a result of pharmacist intervention, 83 (55.7 %) of the 149 patients included in the intervention had changes in anticoagulation including: switching to a direct oral anticoagulant (n = 12), extending the INR monitoring interval (n = 48), switching to home INR monitoring (n = 21), or stopping anticoagulation (n = 2). For those patients who were taking warfarin for the entire 6 months pre- and post-intervention, the total number of healthcare facility and laboratory visits with an INR completed decreased from 8.8 to 6.4 (p < 0.001) per patient without a statistically significant decrease in time in therapeutic range (p = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: This study depicts rapid implementation of a population health-based approach to assess all patients taking warfarin for options to minimize healthcare visits and decrease risk for COVID-19 exposure. Methods to reduce healthcare visit burden while maintaining patient safety should be considered as a regular component of anticoagulation management post-pandemic.

14.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1938109

ABSTRACT

Heart failure is a leading diagnosis for hospitalization with a high risk of readmission. Despite robust data and recommendations by professional societies, there is a well-documented gap in delivering guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) known to reduce hospitalizations and improve mortality for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The Dashboard Activated Services and Telehealth for HF (DASH-HF) is a quality improvement initiative to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive population management clinics to optimize use and dosing of GDMT for patients with HFrEF relative to usual care. The study utilizes the existing Veterans Affairs Academic Detailing HF Dashboard to target actionable patients (n=300) with a low optimization potential score (OPS) (Table 1). The intervention clinics utilize multidisciplinary providers (e.g., physicians, pharmacists) to perform chart review and telemedicine visits to address opportunities to optimize GDMT. The primary outcome of the study is the OPS 6 months after the end of the intervention, defined by active prescriptions and prescribed doses for each class of GDMT. Secondary outcomes include differences in hospitalizations and mortality and measures of health service efficiency such as patients contacted per clinic. The intervention duration was September to December 2021, and analysis is planned for June 2022. This is a unique study to systematically identify HFrEF patients with the largest gaps in GDMT and proactively engage with this group. We describe the study design for identifying target patients, logistics of the intervention, patient characteristics, and an overview of barriers faced during the intervention. The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to a marked increase in telehealth services. If successful, this study may serve as a key pilot trial for more robust telehealth delivery, targeting patients at highest risk for HF-related hospitalizations and mortality.

15.
Farmacia ; 70(3):557-564, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1929075

ABSTRACT

By law, doctors and pharmacists may be held liable for professional misconduct. The pharmacist’s roles and responsibilities have been expanding in patient care, particularly in times of COVID-19 pandemic and now they may perform a diverse range of professional activities as attested by the newly adopted legislation, Minister of Health’s Order no. 2382/2021. However, pharmacist malpractice is different than medical malpractice because pharmacists’ responsibility is based on pharmacist professional standards and legal duties. Despite the existence of overlaps, there are differences between the doctors’ and the pharmacists’ professional duties. Our study identified ten main legal professional duties of pharmacists and provided examples of negligence. The results could be used as a tool for malpractice risk assessment and management. We also argue that the Romanian legal framework allows malpractice claims to be filed by both the patient and/or the doctors when shared accountability is involved and this increases the pharmacists’ risk of being sued. Moreover, the chief pharmacist is responsible for the pharmacy’s overall activity, including liability for tasks entrusted to subordinated personnel.

16.
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Assiut ; 45(1):311-325, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1929000

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health crisis that affected human beings, businesses and the economy negatively. Community pharmacies are the frontline of health care, and pharmacists are considered as the first point of care. However, the pandemic of COVID-19 has posed a great danger to the public health and pharmaceutical markets. Aim: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the community pharmacies administratively and economically. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 to 30 November 2020 among pharmacy employees in independent and chain community pharmacies. The questionnaire covered the areas of changes in different pharmaceutical business functions as pharmacy administration and management, supply chain, sales and training programs. Results: A total of 1154 respondents have participated in the survey study from different Egyptian regions. The majority of responses were from independent pharmacies 916(79.4%). Most pharmacies 1119(97%) reported an increase in the demand for pharmaceutical products. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the sales of chain pharmacies were increased compared to independent pharmacies. Several community pharmacies workforce 923(80%) were shifted towards home delivery business. Most pharmacies cancelled the training programs during the COVID-19 and only a small percentage 28(2.4%) shifted to online programs. COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a negative psychological impact on the pharmacy employees with about two-third (68.1%) of participants were seeking career shifts.Conclusion: This study identified particular influences of COVID-19 on community pharmacies services from administrative and economic perspectives. The findings of this study may help decision-makers and pharmacy professionals to impart suitable preparedness for community pharmacists and handle future pandemic waves to keep business maintenance of community pharmacies and foster pharmacy employees' satisfaction.

17.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927791

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer heightened morbidity, mortality, and readmission rates. COPD is co-prevalent with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 20-60% of patients, and patients with COPD/OSA overlap are at higher risk for hospital readmission and mortality compared to COPD alone. Current COPD readmission reduction programs are focused on decreasing COPD readmissions;however, few explore impactful comorbid conditions. No study has identified peri-discharge barriers in the acute care setting from the perspective of patients with COPD/OSA or healthcare workers to identify areas of improvement. Methods: Semi-structured interviews, conducted via telephone (recorded) of hospitalized patients with COPD/OSA and acute care healthcare workers were conducted at an urban academic medical center (11/2020-1/2021) among a convenience sample of recruited participants. All recordings were transcribed and uploaded to NVivo, which facilitated thematic analysis, using an a priori codebook. Coding was conducted in rounds, and meetings were used to resolve differences and update the codebook as needed. This iterative process continued until all transcripts were analyzed. Results: Thirty-five participants were interviewed, 27 healthcare workers (HCW), 4 nurses, 6 respiratory therapists, 5 physicians, 3 case managers, 4 social workers, and 5 pharmacists, and 8 patients. The HCWs interviewed served an average of 7.5 years, were <50 years old (81.5%), and most were female (74.1%), white (81.5%), and non-Hispanic (100%). HCW respondents identified barriers that mapped to four main levels: patient, team, hospital, and the healthcare system. Select barriers HCWs identified included health literacy, patient cognitive impairments, peri-discharge time management, lack of resources for patients post-discharge, cost, and insurance. All patient interviewees were <50 years old, most were male (62.5%), white (62.5%), and non-Hispanic (87.5%). Select barriers patients identified included current SES status, care team discussions, disease burden (visits to ED/hospital), follow-up care (including transportation), and perceptions of healthcare due to COVID-19. Conclusion: Healthcare workers and COPD/OSA patients report multilevel hospital discharge barriers. To improve barriers to care for these complex patients, multilevel interventions addressing noted barriers are needed.

18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 15: 1911-1923, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928354

ABSTRACT

The health and economic burden of diabetes mellitus across the United States and the world is such that effective care is crucial to improving outcomes, including macro and microvascular complications, and lowering health care costs. Pharmacists are well placed within communities to provide the critical care necessary for patients with diabetes and have a unique skillset that has demonstrated clear benefits in clinical and non-clinical outcomes. Here, we will provide a narrative review of the literature including the role of the pharmacist in different care models, outcomes associated with pharmacist care, and future directions and opportunities for pharmacist-managed diabetes.

19.
Drug Topics ; 166(6):16-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925358
20.
Drug Topics ; 166(6):22-23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925228
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