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1.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(6):671-678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975502

ABSTRACT

In present study, in order to develop a new and effective porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)vaccine, three B cell epitopes and the truncated S1 gene of PEDV spike protein were combined and inserted into the immunodominant region of the HBcAg. Then the constructed recombinant plasmid HBcAg-PE was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. After purification and identification by Western-blot, the expressed recombinant proteins HBPE were injected into BALB/c mice as vaccine antigen with different doses through intramuscular injection and its immune effect were preliminary evaluated. The results showed that the recombinant proteins HBPE was expressed as precipitation form and it could reacted specifically with PEDV-positive serum after purification and renaturation. Besides, the RH could induce anti-PEDV specific antibodies and the related Thl and Th2 cytokines in mice. The above results indicate that the recombinant compound epitope antigen of PEDV was successfully constructed. and its immunogenicity as a new vaccine candidate was evaluated in the mice in this study. The results of this study provided a new idea for the development of PEDV genetic engineering vaccine in the future.

2.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(4):1173-1181, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975364

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to establish a blocking ELISA antibodies detection method for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The purified N protein was used as the coating antigen, and the ELISA reaction conditions were optimized by the chess rboard titration. A blocking ELISA method for detecting PEDV antibodies was established, and its specificity, sensitivity and repeatability tests were carried out. One hundred and forty clinical serum samples were tested, and the results were compared with commercially IDvet PEDV indirect ELISA antibodies detection kit. The results showed that the best antigen coating concentration was 625 ng.mL-1, and the best dilution ratio of serum was 1:1;The best dilution of the HRP-conjugated antibody working solution was 1:5 000;There was no cross-reaction with healthy pig serum and the positive sera of common pig disease pathogens, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The sensitivity of PEDV positive serum was 1:16, which was equivalent to that of IDvet ELISA kit (titer 1:32). The coefficient of variation of within-run and between-run repeatability test is less than 10%, so it showed that the blocking ELISA established in this study had good repeatability and stability;the kappa value of detected 140 clinical porcine serum using this method was 0.87 when compared with IDvet ELISA. The above results indicated that the established blocking ELISA method for detecting PEDV antibodies in this study could be applied to the prevention and control of PEDV, epidemiological investigation and the monitoring of antibody levels after vaccine immunization.

3.
Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi ; 34(2):160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964892

ABSTRACT

In this study, 650 tissue samples which were collected from 16 pig farms in Hubei Province, were used to detect porcine circovirus (PCV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results showed that the positive rates of PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PEDV single infection were 1.08%, 4.15%, 2.46% and 6.46%, respectively. In the double infections, PEDV+PCV2 had the highest positive rate of 3.54%, followed by PCV2+PCV3, with a positive rate of 1.54%. In multiple infections, PEDV+PCV2+PCV3 had the highest positive rate of 2.00%. The results indicated that the positive rates of PEDV and PCV were decreased compared with the previous studies, but the prevalence of PEDV and PCV was still wide in Hubei Province, and most of which were co-infection.

4.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

5.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):14-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964618

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To identify the B-cell epitope peptide of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S2 gene by combinative use of bioinformatics software and monoclonal antibody technology. [Method] The B-cell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was screened using CLC Sequence viewer 6.8 software and IEDB online database, and the obtained epitope peptide was synthesized artificially. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with the conjugate of epitope peptide and keyhole hemocyanin (KLH) as antigen. Mice with higher antibody titers were identified by ELISA assay and then received an additional immunization. The spleen of the mice was taken 3 days post immunization to prepare the splenocyte suspension for cell fusion. The cells were grown on HAT selective medium to screen for effective hybridoma cells. The positive clones screened by ELISA assay were then used for expanding culture. Positive hybridoma cells were intraperitoneally injected to mice and ascites were collected. ELISA assay was used to determine the antibody titers in mice ascites and in the supernatants of monoclonal cell strains. The cells with the highest antibody titers was used as cell strain for subsequent use. [Result] The selected B-cell epitope peptide sequence was MQYVYTPTYYML Following immunization with the peptide antigen, the serum antibody titer before cell fusion reached 1:2 000. The ELISA assay of ascites from BALB/c mice and the supernatants from monoclonal cell strain cultures demostrated that the antibody liter reached 1:4 000. [Conclusion] The B-ell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was identified, which may be helpful for the vector construction of a epitope based peptide vaccine against PEDV.

6.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

7.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 77-132, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956567

ABSTRACT

Animals are valuable resources in biomedical research in investigations of biological processes, disease pathogenesis, therapeutic interventions, safety, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. Interpretation of data from animals requires knowledge not only of the processes or diseases (pathophysiology) under study but also recognition of spontaneous conditions and background lesions (pathology) that can influence or confound the study results. Species, strain/stock, sex, age, anatomy, physiology, spontaneous diseases (noninfectious and infectious), and neoplasia impact experimental results and interpretation as well as animal welfare. This review and the references selected aim to provide a pathology resource for researchers, pathologists, and veterinary personnel who strive to achieve research rigor and validity and must understand the spectrum of "normal" and expected conditions to accurately identify research-relevant experimental phenotypes as well as unusual illness, pathology, or other conditions that can compromise studies involving laboratory mice, rats, gerbils, guinea pigs, hamsters, naked mole rats, and rabbits.


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Cricetinae , Gerbillinae , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Mole Rats , Rabbits
8.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

9.
Transl Anim Sci ; 6(2): txac057, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931906

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global pandemic greatly affected pork processing plants in the United States. These pork processing plants were forced to either temporarily close or operate at reduced capacity due to the increased number of health-related employee absences. Because finishing pigs could not be timely marketed, methods to reduce growth performance were required to keep pigs from becoming too heavy at slaughter weight. Therefore, our objective was to determine the extent that reducing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and tryptophan-to-lysine ratio (Trp:Lys) ratio would slow finishing pig average daily gain (ADG) in a commercial setting. A total of 1,080 finishing pigs (327 × 1050, PIC; initially 32.3 kg) were used in a 119-d growth trial. Pigs were allotted by initial body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design with 27 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. Three dietary regimes were formulated to contain either 100%, 90%, or 80% of the estimated SID Lys requirement for pigs in this facility, with a SID Trp:Lys ratio of 19%, with the exception of the last dietary phase formulated to 17% SID Trp:Lys. Seven different dietary phases were fed. The SID Lys concentrations in the 100% diets were: 1.10%, 1.01%, 0.91%, 0.83%, 0.79%, 0.71%, or 0.67% SID Lys from 32 to 40, 40 to 51, 51 to 72, 72 to 85, 85 to 98, 98 to 112, and 112 to 130 kg, respectively. A fourth regime was formulated to 80% SID Lys with a SID Trp:Lys ratio of 16% (80-16% SID Trp:Lys) throughout all phases. Overall from d 0 to 119, ADG (linear, P < 0.001), final BW (linear, P < 0.001), and gain-to-feed (G:F) decreased (linear, P = 0.087) as SID Lys decreased from 100% to 80% of the estimated requirement. Pigs fed the 80-16% SID Trp:Lys diets had an additional decrease in ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P < 0.10) compared with pigs fed 80% of the SID Lys requirement with the normal Trp:Lys ratio. The reduction in SID Lys (from 100% to 80%) and reduction in SID Lys and Trp:Lys ratio resulted in an 8.6 and 11.7 kg, respectively, decrease in final BW compared with pigs fed Lys and Trp at the requirement (100%). This study provides alternatives for pork producers to reduce growth rate of finishing pigs.

10.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

11.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

12.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

13.
Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 38(2):422-428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893038

ABSTRACT

In this study, we detected the viral load and protein expression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) after overexpression and inhibition of integrin avbeta1 on the surface of Vero cells, and then cleared the role of integrin avbeta1 in the PEDV infection process. The results showed that the viral load and protein expression were significantly increased in the Vero cells which overexpressed integrin avbeta1, and the viral load and protein expression were significantly reduced in the Vero cells with silent integrin avbeta1 gene. Integrin avbeta1 promotes PEDV to infect Vero cells.

14.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

15.
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya ; 57(2):371-383, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879686

ABSTRACT

Animal and human mycotoxicoses occur due to the ingestion of metabolites of toxicogenic microfungi. The effect increases in case of the co-ingestion of several mycotoxins, their mix with another ecotoxicants and biological agents. However, published research data only partially cover the nature of mixed mycotoxicoses in infectious diseases. This work shows for the first time the effect on pigs of the infection load of Clostridium perfringes and the combined effect of T-2 toxin, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol in low doses. Our goal was to study the chronic form of combined mycotoxicosis in weaned pigs with a persistent infection in herd on the animal productivity, blood morpho-biochemical and immunological parameters, pathological changes in organs and tissues. Combined experimental mycotoxicosis with infectious load was modeled under the conditions of the vivarium complex (the Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, 2018) on the weaning Large White piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus) divided into three groups 3 pigs each. Group I received no mycotoxins, group II received dietary T-2 toxin (70 µg/kg feed), group III received mixed dietary mycotoxins (DON 1000 µg/kg, ZEN 50 µg/kg and T-2 70 µg/kg). All animals were orally administered a suspension of Clostridium perfringes No. 392 type C (1½106 CFU/ml, 2 ml). On day 15, the animals were vaccinated intramuscularly in the posterior thigh with 1 ml of the associated vaccine against rota-, coronavirus and colorectal diarrhea of newborn piglets (FCTRB-VNIVI). Group I (control) was considered clinically healthy. Signs of intoxication, blood biochemical parameters (total protein, total bilirubin, glucose, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity), blood morphology (counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes, the hemoglobin level) and immunological parameters (T- and B-lymphocytes, titer of antibodies to vaccine antigens) on day 10, 20 and 30. The antibody titers to the Escherichia coli vaccine strain were determined by the agglutination reaction, to the coronavirus vaccine antigen by the ELISA test using a Multiscan FC photometer (Thermo Scientific, USA), and to the rotavirus antigen by an indirect hemagglutination test. At the end of the experiment, pieces of organs were fixed in 10 % neutral formalin, followed by generally accepted pathomorphological processing for histological studies. Histopreparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Feed contamination with mycotoxins combined with clostridiosis had an adverse effect on the clinical and immune status, blood morpho-biochemical parameters, and pathoanatomical patterns. The changes were more apparent in co-contamination with ecotoxicants. Average daily bodyweight gain in piglets of group II was lower by 20.5 % compared to the control (p ≥ 0.05), of group III by 39.2 % (p ≤ 0.05). In group III, by the end of the experiment, there was a decrease in the erythrocyte counts by 40 % (p ≤ 0.001), in the level of hemoglobin by 20 % (p ≤ 0.01), glucose by 57 % (p ≤ 0.001), and total protein by 13 % (p ≤ 0.05). The concentration of bilirubin increased 5.1-fold (p ≤ 0.001), the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase 2.2- and 1.8-fold (p ≤ 0.001), respectively, the concentration of malondialdehyde 2.8-fold (p ≤ 0.001), the activity of alkaline phosphatase decrease by 41.5 % (p ≤ 0.001). Co-mycotoxicosis combined with an infectious load led to immunological changes. Titers of specific antibodies to rotavirus were 8 times lower, to coronavirus 6.4 times lower (p ≤ 0.05), to Escherichia 5 times lower (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the control. Marked pathological changes in the internal organs also occurred. Therefore, the co-mycotoxicosis due to T-2 toxin-, deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed combined with the persistence of Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of intestinal infection lead to suppression of immunological parameters (a decrease in the titer of specific protective ntibodies, the number of T- and B-lymphocytes), activation of lipid peroxidation, and pathological changes in tissues and organs of the piglets. © 2022 Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

16.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):1-20, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876329

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.

17.
Ciencia Animal ; 31(4):134-153, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863944

ABSTRACT

This work aims to review about coronaviruses in swine, emblazoning there's differences. Transmissible gastroenteritis and epidemic diarrhea are imported diseases, as they generate a high mortality rate in lactating piglets and economic losses. These viruses reach enterocytes, causing villous atrophy;affected animals present watery diarrhea, vomiting, hypoxia and dehydration. Two other viruses have recently emerged, the swine deltacoronavirus and the swine acute diarrhea syndrome virus, which have pathogenicity and clinical signs similar to those described in previous diseases. In the other hand, the porcine respiratory coronavirus and the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus have distinct clinical signs. The first causes mild or subclinical respiratory manifestations and the second neurological signs, vomiting and emaciation, mostly affecting piglets younger than 4 weeks. As there is no specific treatment for these diseases, and vaccines do not provide full protection, a good biosecurity program is the main way to control and prevent them.

18.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 2:672-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841702

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To explore whether porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can infect and proliferate in different animal species-derived cell lines. [Methods] The Sichuan isolate CHN-SC2015of PDCoV was inoculated in twelve cell lines derived from hamster,poultry,monkey, human and swine. After at least five blindly passages in each cell line, the virus was identified by RT-PCR,RT-q PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and sequencing. [Results] PDCoV caused distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in Vero,PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells at the 1st passage (P1) and proliferated to various degrees in PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells, while the CPE gradually disappeared during subsequent passages in Vero and PAM cells. Except that in the three susceptible cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST), the viral copies of the infected cell lines gradually decreased with the increase in passages, and PDCoV could not be detected at P4 or P5 of DEF,Marc-145,HEK-293,ZYM-SIEC02, and PAM cells. PCR results showed that PDCoV could be detected only in CEF and Vero cells at P5. The IFA results showed that PDCoV could infect other cell lines except BHK-21 and ZYM-SIEC02, and specific immunofluorescence was observed in PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST cells at P1,P3, and P9. Therefore, only three cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST) were suitable for serial passage, with the virus titers up to 107.11,107.00, and 107.37 TCID50/mL at P9,respectively. After passage in different cell lines,CHN-SC2015 accumulated 14 nucleotide mutations corresponding to 12 amino acid mutations. [Conclusion] This study indicates that PDCoV can infect a variety of cells in vitro, suggesting that it may have the potential of cross-species transmission.

19.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1834362

ABSTRACT

With a focus on journalistic discourse, this paper argues for a re-envisioning of food-system communication that takes non-human animals into account as stakeholders in systems that commodify them. This is especially urgent in light of the global pandemic, which has laid bare the vulnerability to crisis inherent in animal-based food production. As a case study to illustrate the need for a just and non-human inclusive orientation to food-systems communication, the paper performs a qualitative rhetorical examination, of a series of articles in major U.S. news sources in May of 2020, a few months into the economic shutdown in the U.S. in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. At that time, millions of pigs were brutally killed on U.S. farms due to the impossibility of killing them in slaughterhouses overrun with COVID-19 outbreaks. The analysis finds that media reporting legitimated violence against pigs by framing narratives from industry perspectives, deflecting agency for violence away from farmers, presenting pigs as willing victims, masking violence through euphemism, objectifying pigs and ignoring their sentience, and uncritically propagating industry rhetoric about “humane” farming. Through these representations, it is argued, the media failed in their responsibility to present the viewpoints of all sentient beings affected by the crisis;in other words, all stakeholders. The methodology merges a textually-oriented approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA) with social critique informed by critical animal studies (CAS), and the essay concludes with recommendations for journalists and other food-system communicators, which should be possible to implement even given the current capitalist, industry-influenced media environment and the demonstrated ruthlessness of animal industries in silencing voices inimical to their profitmaking. Copyright © 2022 Barca.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820234

ABSTRACT

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild pigs, listed as notifiable by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). It causes substantial economic losses to pig farming in the affected countries, with consequent enormous damage to livestock production due to mortality of the animals, and to the restrictions on national and international trade in pigs and derivative products that the presence of the infection implies. To prevent or reduce the risk of ASF introduction, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the OIE recommend preventive and control measures, such as the ban of live swine and their products traded from ASF-affected to ASF-free countries or zones. The current spread of ASF into Europe poses a serious risk to the industrialized and small-scale pig sector, as demonstrated by observed cases in different EU areas. In this paper the authors discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ASF, and the indirect effects including the impact on animal health and disease management. They suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected animal disease surveillance control. ASF requires rapid responses and continuous monitoring to identify outbreaks and prevent their spread, and both aspects may have been greatly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , European Union , Humans , Internationality , Livestock , Pandemics , Sus scrofa , Swine
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