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1.
Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis ; 34(3):457-463, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20240064

ABSTRACT

To establish a method for simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), specific primers and TaqMan probes were designed after sequence alignment according to the specific sequences of PCV2 Cap gene and PCV3 Cap gene on GenBank. By optimizing the reaction conditions, a duplex fluorescence quantitative PCR detection method for simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2 and 3 was established, and the specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility were tested. Specificity test results showed that in addition to the positive test results for PCV2 and PCV3, tests for PRRSV, CSFV, PPV, PRV, PEDV, and TGEV were all negative with no cross-reaction, indicating its good specificity. Sensitivity test results showed that the minimum detection limit for detection of PCV2 and PCV3 can both reach 10 copies.L-1, indicating its high sensitivity. The coefficient of variation within and between groups of this method was less than 2%, indicating its good stability. A total of 181 pork and whole blood samples collected from Zhejiang Province were tested using the detection method established in this article and the standard common fluorescent PCR detection method. The results showed that the positive rate of PCV2 was 50.83% (92/181), the positive rate of PCV3 was 37.57% (68/181), and the co-infection rate of PCV2 and PCV3 was 12.15% (22/181). The above detection results of ordinary fluorescent PCR were 50.28% (91/181), 36.46% (66/181), and the co-infection rate was 11.60% (21/181). The coincidence rates of the two methods for PCV2 and PCV3 can reach 98.91% and 97.06%, and the coincidence rate for PCV2 and PCV3 mixed infection were 95.45%. In summary, the duplex fluorescence quantitative PCR detection method established in this experiment can distinguish PCV2 and PCV3 rapidly, which can be used for pathogen detection and epidemiological investigation.

2.
Silent superbug killers in a river near you: how factory farms contaminate public water courses on three continents 2021 39 pp ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239768

ABSTRACT

Water downstream from factory farms harbours an invisible threat to people's health which could eclipse the COVID-19 crisis. The threat? Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) which are driving antimicrobial resistance the world's superbug crisis - projected to kill up to 10 million people annually by 2050. This publication reports the presence of ARGs in animal waste discharged from industrial farms into public waterways or onto soil (or crops) in four countries. Gauge community impact and sentiment regarding the issue was also highlighted. The water and sediment from public water courses connected to effluent discharges from 6-10 pig farms were tested in each of four countries (Canada, Spain, Thailand and the USA).

3.
Journal of Economic Animal ; 27(1):74-78, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239651

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCOV) is a new type of pig intestinal coronavirus, which targets pig small intestinal epithelial cells to cause severe enteritis. After infecting the host, PDCoV finishes its proliferation in the host cell by antagonism or escape the innate immune signaling transduction pathway. In order to understand the action mechanism of PDCOV 0n the congenital immune signal transduction pathways, this paper reviews the effects of PDCOV on RLR, Jak-STAT, MAPK and mitochondrial signaling pathway to clarify the relationship between PDCOV and host innate immune signaling transduction pathways in order to provide help for the prevention and treatment of PDCOV infection.

4.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(11):1135-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238997

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have revealed that developmental regulated brain protein (Drebrin) is involved in cell- to-cell communication, nerve transmission, tumor metastasis, spermatogenesis and other life activities, but there are few studies on viruses. The aim of the current research was therefore, to study the function of Drebrin and its effect on the proliferation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The Drebrin gene was cloned according to the Drebrin gene sequence (XM_008015438.2) of Chlorocebus sabaeus registered by GenBank, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed to analyze its homology. The results showed that the CDS region of Vero cells Drebrin gene was 2088 bp long, encoding 695 amino acids, and was relatively conserved and had high homology with all species. To investigate the effect of Drebrin on the proliferation of PEDV in Vero cells, the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-Drebrin-Flag was constructed. After transfection of Vero cells with different concentrations of pcDNA3.1-Drebrin-Flag, cells were infected with PEDV. Our results showed that overexpression of Drebrin in Vero cells could significantly inhibit the intracellular PEDV mRNA level and N protein expression, reduce the extracellular virus titer and inhibit the proliferation of PEDV. Further study on the interaction between Drebrin and PEDV S proteins by laser confocal technique was also performed. The results showed that Drebrin and S protein were co-located in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the two proteins may interact with each other. This study demonstrated for the first time that Drebrin can inhibit PEDV proliferation in Vero cells, laying a foundation for further research in to Drebrin function and provides a valuable information for anti-PEDV research.

5.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(11):1189-1195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238824

ABSTRACT

To develop a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), in this study, specific primers/probes were designed based on the conserved regions of M, M and N gene sequences of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, respectively. After optimization of the reaction conditions, a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV was established. The results of specificity assay showed that the method was positive for detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and negative for detection of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine rotavirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, classical swine fever virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. The results of sensitivity assay showed that the detection limit of this method for PEDV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV plasmids standard was 1.0x101 copies/L, and had a good linear relationship with their Ct values in the range of 101 copies/L to 106 copies/L. The results of repeatability assay showed that the coefficients of variation (CVs) of intra- and inter-assay reproducibility ranged from 0.33% to 2.53%, indicating good repeatability and stability. To evaluate the effects of the developed method, 100 clinical samples collected from different parts of Henan province were used for detection of these three viruses and compared with those of single RT-PCR and standard methods. The results of multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed that the positive rates of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV were 38% (38/100), 14% (14/100) and 5% (5/100), respectively. There was no mixed infection. The coincidence rate with the standard detection methods of PEDV and PDCoV was 100%, and the sensitivity was higher than that of single RT-PCR. In this study, a specific, sensitive and rapid multiplex fluorescent quantitative RTPCR method was established for the first time, which could be used for the differential detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and laid a foundation for the differential diagnosis and control of porcine diarrheal diseases.

6.
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Silvarum Colendarum Ratio et Industria Lignaria ; 21(1):13-20, 2022.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20232366

ABSTRACT

Procurement of game animals is a major source of revenue for hunting clubs in Poland. For several years, the game meat buying market has been showing an upward trend, but this situation is also influenced by random factors that negatively affect the value of the game meat buying market. For several years in our country we have been struggling with the ASF virus, and since 2020, negative effects in the economy related to the occurrence of the SARS-CoV virus have been observed, also affecting the hunting sector with its activities. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of game meat procurement in Poland in the years 2009-2021. The data concerned the three most important species, namely deer, roe deer and wild boar. The analysis covered the quantity of game meat, procurement value and the average price of game meat depending on animal species. The conducted research confirmed an upward trend in the volume and value of game meat procurement for all the analysed game species. Similarly, the average procurement prices of roe dee and wild boar meat with the exception of red deer, showed an upward trend. The study confirmed the negative impact of the ASF virus and the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the game meat buying market in Poland.

7.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(10):1076-1083, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2323056

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is the etiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. In this study, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells were pretreated with different concentrations of glycyrrhizin (GLY) for 2 hours, and then infected with different concentrations of SADSCoV, aiming to investigate the inhibitory effect of GLY on SADS-CoV. Western blot and TCID50 results revealed a significantly decreased N protein expression and viral titer, indicating that GLY can inhibit the infection of SADS-CoV. Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells were pretreated with different concentrations of GLY for 2 hours and infected with SADS-CoV. Western blot results showed that when the concentration of GLY was 0.8 mmol/L, the expression of N protein decreased significantly, indicating that GLY inhibited the invasion of the virus. At first, cells were treated with 0.4 mmol/L GLY, and cell samples were collected at 2 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours after being infected with SADS-CoV for analysis, and the expression of N protein were found to be significantly reduced at all points, indicating that GLY had a significant inhibitory effect on the replication of the virus. GLY is a competitive inhibitor of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and the receptors of HMGB1 mainly include TLR4 and RAGE. Based on this fact, the mutant plasmid at the key sites of HMGB1 (C45S, C106S, C45/106S) and the siRNA of the RAGE receptor were transfected to Vero E6 cells and infected with SADS-CoV, and the cell supernatant and samples were harvested. The western blot and TCID50 results showed that the expression of N protein and the virus titer were decreased, suggesting that GLY exerts its function by affecting the binding of HMGB1/TLR4/RAGE during SADS-CoV infection. To further explore the signaling pathway through which GLY functions, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells were inoculated with SADS-CoV, and cell samples were harvested, western blot was used to detect the changes of MAPK proteins. The results showed that the protein expression levels of p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK were up-regulated in the early and late stages, indicating that the MAPK pathway was activated by SADS-CoV infection. Vero E6 and IPI-2I were pretreated with different concentrations of GLY and TLR4 inhibitor TAK for 2 hours and infected with SADS-CoV. Protein samples were harvested and analysed by western blot which showed a decreased p-JNK and N proteins, while other proteins showed no significant changes. These results indicated that GLY and TAK regulated the phosphorylation of JNK but did not regulate the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Also, Vero E6 cells were treated with HMGB1 antibody, the siRNA of HMGB1 and HMGB1 mutants plasmid, and infected with SADS-CoV. Protein samples were harvested, western blot results showed that phosphorylation of JNK decreased, indicating that HMGB1 affected JNK phosphorylation. Finally, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells were pretreated with different concentrations of JNK inhibitor SP600125 to infect SADS-CoV, western blot, TCID50 and IFA results showed that the expression of N protein and virus titer, as well as virus replication were reduced, indicating that SP600125 inhibited virus replication. In conclusion, our results revealed that GLY can inhibit in vitro replication of SADS- CoV, mainly through the HMGB1/TLR4/JNK signaling pathway. The discovery of this pathway provides theoretical support for the research of novel anti-SADS-CoV drugs.

8.
Agriculture ; 13(3), 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319823

ABSTRACT

Food supply has been a constant source of concern for mankind. In the present context, with food security a priority of European and national policies, an analysis of pig farming in a representative NUTS2 administrative level of Romania that emphasizes the proportion of households raising at least one pig and the main factors influencing farmers to adopt or give up swine breeding could allow a much clearer understanding of this phenomenon that lies at the border between cultural tradition and socio-economic necessity. This study uses mixed methods that complement each another to help reveal this complex phenomenon in the analyzed territory. Cluster analysis shows the concentration of swine breeding and maps its spread in terms of both subsistence and larger farms, and qualitative interviews prove the motivation of farmers to continue in this occupation. As a primary result, the study visualizes the spatial distribution of pig farming in the rural environment of Valcea county, Romania, from a diachronic perspective in the post-communist period. It also reveals areas of differing concentrations of both very small-sized farms, which prioritize meeting their own food needs, and larger farms, which prioritize commercial production to supplement their revenue streams. Both categories, but particularly the latter, are of particular interest in a period in which the socio-economic environment after 1990 - marked by economic restructuring, unemployment, population migration, the economic crisis of 2008-2010, the pandemic of 2020-2021, and the most recent energy crisis - periodically highlights the importance of rural areas in ensuring food security and sufficiency at both the local and regional levels.

9.
Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 36(2):427-434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2316572

ABSTRACT

[Objective] Using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology, the present experiment aimed to study the interaction relationship and localization of the target peptide and the complementary peptide based on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S protein receptor binding site peptide in living cells, so as to provide the foundation and theoretical support for the further use of the peptide in the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. [Method] The target peptide was designed according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the target protein, such as the amino acid composition, the type of charge, the ability to form intennolecular hydrogen bonds, the strength of polarity, and hydrophobicity;According to the amino acid composition of the target protein, a complementary peptide that interacted with it in theory was designed, and the target peptide and complementary peptide were predicted and analyzed by using bioinfonnatics tools;The target peptide and complementary peptide were inserted into the pBiFC-VC155 and pBiFC-VN173 vector, which was double digested by the EcoRI/XhoI and NotI/SalI, respectively, verified by enzyme digestion and sequencing, and then transfected into Vero cells to study the interaction between the target peptide and the complementary peptide, and the precise localization of BiFC complex in cells. [Result] Bioinfonnatics analysis showed that the target peptide and complementary peptide had hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, respectively, and the hydrophilic domains were both positively and negatively charged, which could generate electrostatic attraction. The results of enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the pBiFC-VC155-target peptide and pBiFC-VNI73-complementary peptide plasmids were successfully constructed;Cell transfection experiments showed that the target peptide and complementary peptide could form BiFC complexes in Vcro cells after co-transfection of recombinant plasmids, indicating that they could interact with each other;Indirect immuttolluorescence assay confirmed that the BiFC complex was mainly distributed in the nucleus. [Conclusion] It was confirmed that the peptide designed based on the PEW/ S protein receptor binding site can interact with each other in living cells, demonstrating the feasibility of the peptide for detection.

10.
The Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 46(3):300-306, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2315819

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been affecting the swine industry, especially in suckling pigs in with a high mortality rate. Among all the strategies to overcome PEDV, boosting mucosal immunity in pig intestine via oral administration appears to be more efficient than other routes. However, there are biological obstacles such as acidic environment that could damage biologics, a product from organisms often used for PEDV treatment. The plant-derived 2C10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) from Nicotiana benthamiana produced by transient expression was revealed as one of the potential candidates against PEDV through oral delivery. Herein, we demonstrated the calcium-alginate microencapsulation system to protect the 2C10 mAb from the harsh condition in the stomach and to be released the 2C10 mAb when arriving in the intestine. The pH-responsive encapsulated 2C10 mAb microbeads were constructed from the calcium-alginate system. The microbeads were well-tolerated under the acidic environment of simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and were digested under the alkaline condition of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The encapsulated 2C10 mAb in the SPF-treated microbeads exhibited high virus neutralization efficiency in Vero cells when compared to the unencapsulated 2C10 mAb treated by SPF that cannot neutralize the virus. For these reasons, calcium-alginate microencapsulation system is an attractive platform to be considered as a candidate for the next generation of oral vaccine development.

11.
Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 37(11):1381-1387, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2313599

ABSTRACT

Objective: A Taq Man probe-based duplex real-time PCR for rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus(PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus(TGEV) was developed. A study was conducted using the methodology to analyze the related 2019-2021 epidemic occurred in Fujian. Method: Specific primers and probes labeled with FAM and VIC were designed to amplify the N gene of PEDV and the S gene of TGEV, respectively. A reaction system for the assay was established, optimized, and tested for sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability. The assay was used for the viral detection on297 suspected clinic specimens collected from 2019 to 2021 for an epidemiology study. Result: The newly developed duplex qPCR methodology showed a sensitivity of 10 copies.L-1 on PEDV and TGEV, which was 100 times higher than that of regular PCR. There were no cross reactions with other common viruses. The inter-and intra-assays had variations on Ct values below 1%. On the 297 specimens, the infection rate of PEDV was 88.89%, that of TGEV 1.01%, and that of both PEDV and TGEV 3.37%. Conclusion: The established duplex qPCR had high sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, and reproducibility for detecting PEDV and TGEV. The 2019-2021 epidemic involving the viruses appeared to be mostly PEDV with low incidents of mixed TGEV and PEDV/TGEV infection.

12.
Revista de Gestao Social e Ambiental ; 17(2), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2293014

ABSTRACT

Objective: to calculate the minimum number of animals that a rural pig farm needs to raise so that the implementation of biodigesters to generate clean energy in the context of Brazil is financially viable. Theoretical framework: a more efficient productive farm tends to include environmentally sustainable actions, since pig farming is considered a relevant activity of environmental concerns due to the amount of manure produced, especially in an intensive system. It is in this context that several current studies have been debating the environmentally correct reuse of pig manure. Method: using interviews and exploratory searches, data were collected that projected the project's cash flow. From this, the number of animals needed for the net present value of the project to be zeroed was calculated. Also, the probabilistic scenario was designed using the Monte Carlo Simulation. Results and conclusion: for the deterministic scenario, it was calculated that 736 animals are needed for zero/null NPV and for a probabilistic scenario context with p(NPV<0) = p(IRR<TMA) = 0.2, it is necessary that the rural property has at least 840 animals. Research implications: the academic and social contribution of this work is that it can help small swine producers in their decision-making for the implementation of biodigesters. Originality/value: considering rural activities as strong polluters and the large increase in electricity tariffs seen in recent years, mainly due to severe droughts and the COVID-19 pandemic, the reuse of waste becomes increasingly important and relevant for clean and distributed energy generation. © 2023 ANPAD - Associacao Nacional de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Administracao. All rights reserved.

13.
Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) ; : 288-292, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2291234

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the epidemiology, prevalence, transmission, prevention and control of some infectious diseases in companion animals, livestock, wild animals and humans in Ontario, Canada, in 2022, including SARS-CoV-2;Echinococcus multilocularis, Leishmania spp. and SARS-CoV-2;antimicrobial stewardship resources;2 cases of rabid dogs imported from Iran (July 2021 and January 2022);prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriacea, Dirofilaria immitis, Brucella canis, canine parainfluenza and adeno- and herpes viruses in dogs recently imported from Asia;Paragonimus kellicotti lung flukes and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in dogs;African swine fever in pet pigs, backyard pigs and wild pigs and blastomycosis in dogs and humans.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(7)2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294370

ABSTRACT

Animal research is considered a key element in advance of biomedical science. Although its use is controversial and raises ethical challenges, the contribution of animal models in medicine is essential for understanding the physiopathology and novel treatment alternatives for several animal and human diseases. Current pandemics' pathology, such as the 2019 Coronavirus disease, has been studied in primate, rodent, and porcine models to recognize infection routes and develop therapeutic protocols. Worldwide issues such as diabetes, obesity, neurological disorders, pain, rehabilitation medicine, and surgical techniques require studying the process in different animal species before testing them on humans. Due to their relevance, this article aims to discuss the importance of animal models in diverse lines of biomedical research by analyzing the contributions of the various species utilized in science over the past five years about key topics concerning human and animal health.

15.
Microb Pathog ; 179: 106118, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305539

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a novel coronavirus which infects pigs, spreading around the world and causing huge economic losses. In recent years, there have also been human cases of PDCoV infection, which poses a potential threat to public health. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of PDCoV in pigs in China between 2015 and 2021. The prevalence of PDCoV in China was searched from five databases (CNKI, VIP, WanFang, PubMed and ScienceDirect) and 65 articles met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 25,977 samples, including 3828 positive cases. The overall prevalence of PDCoV was 13.61% (3828/25,977), with the highest prevalence in northern China (19.18%) and the lowest prevalence in southwest China (7.19%). We also analyzed other subgroup information, such as sampling years, test methods, age and geographic factors. The results show that PDCoV is endemic in China and climate may be a potential risk factor for PDCoV infection. It is suggested that appropriate measures should be taken in different climatic areas to reduce local PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Humans , Swine , Animals , Prevalence , China/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University ; 37(5):790-798, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2275509

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the epidemic variation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains in Sichuan Province, and to analyze the causes of poor vaccination effect. Methods: Piglet intestinal samples were collected from a pig farm in Sichuan Province for PCR detection, virus purification, determination of virus titer and virus infection experiments. Whole genome sequencing of isolated strains was determined. The S gene sequence of the isolated strain was compared with the strains from other regions and vaccine strains, and the phylogenetic tree was established. The amino acid site variation of S protein between the isolated strain and the classical vaccine strain CV777 was compared. Results: A PEDV strain was successfully isolated and named as PEDV SNJ-P. The determination of virus titer was 1..107.5/100 L. Animal infection experiments showed that the isolated strain could cause diarrhea, dehydration and other symptoms and lead to death in piglets. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the whole gene of PEDV SNJ-P strain was 28003 bp, and the genotype of the strain was S non-INDEL type. The strains were closely related to the strains of PEDV-WS, CH/JLDH/2016 and CH/HNLH/2015 isolated from China, and were relatively distant with the same type vaccine strain, and were far from the classical vaccine strain. Compared with the classical vaccine strain CV777, the S protein of SNJ-P strain had multiple amino acid mutations, deletions and insertions. Conclusion: Due to the continuous variation of strains, SNJ-P strain is far from the vaccine strain, and the current vaccines cannot provide effective protection. The results of this study are expected to provide reference for the study of PEDV strains and vaccine development in China.

17.
Georgofili ; 17:158-184, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2270153

ABSTRACT

This report describes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the productive and economic aspects of livestock and aquaculture production in Italy, including farm management, labour, income, marketing and consumption of animal products (meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products), consumer behaviour, food safety, agrotourism and disease control.

18.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(11):4097-4109, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2269287

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the protective mechanism of baicalein against porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. The targets of baicalein were obtained through Pharmamapper, Pubchem, STITCH, TCMSP and Swiss Targer Prediction databases, and the targets of PDCoV infection were obtained according to the proteomics data from our previous study. The targets of baicalein-PDCoV interaction were obtained and analyzed by STRING database and Cytoscape 3.8.2 software to construct a network diagram of "baicalein-PDCoV-targets". The CytoNCA was used to analyze network topology and core network construction. Metascape database was used for GO and KEGG analysis of core network genes. The expression levels of genes in the predicted signaling pathways were detected in vitro. A total of 268 potential targets of baicalein were screened out. There were 75 potential targets of baicalein-PDCoV infection. GO enrichment results showed that baicalein was mainly involved in the formations of membrane raft, spindle and mitochondrial membrane, cell cycle and MAPK signaling pathways. A total of 277 signaling pathways (P < 0.01) were screened out by KEGG enrichment. The PI3K-Akt, Ras and MAPK signaling pathways were the main pathways that involved in the protective effects of baicalein against PDCoV infection. The results showed that compared with the cellular control groups, the mRNA expressions of PI3K, AKT and NF-B significantly increased in the PDCoV infection group. Compared with the PDCoV group, treatment of baicalein significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of PI3K, AKT and NF-B (P < 0.05). The effect of baicalein on PDCoV infection has the characteristics of multi-targets and multi-pathways, through the intervention of AKT1, HSP90AA1, SRC, EGFR, CASP3, MAPK, STAT3 and other core genes in regulating PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, and virus infection. These results suggested that baicalein could be a potential therapeutic drug against PDCoV infection for further study.

19.
Biosystems Engineering ; 224:92-117, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2267725

ABSTRACT

Current research on airborne transmission of African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), avian influenza (AIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) was reviewed to evaluate commonalities, knowledge gaps, and methodologies of studying airborne transmission of animal diseases. The reviewed studies were categorised as short-range transmission (within a single facility) and long-range transmission (beyond a single site). Short-range airborne transmission was demonstrated for at least one strain of the above-mentioned pathogens in experimental settings. Most studies reported in the literature concern FMDV, with limited information for ASFV and PEDV, particularly for short-range airborne transmission. Air sampling upwind, downwind, and within infected facilities has been commonly used to demonstrate long-range airborne transmission. The amount of evidence from air sampling for each of the reviewed viruses varies from no evidence on ASFV to evidence from multiple settings for AIV. Computer modelling has been used to study past outbreaks of infectious diseases to assess the contribution of airborne transmission with a multitude of computer models reported in the literature for simulating long-range airborne transmission of FMDV based on past outbreaks. This has resulted in predictive tools for assessing future risk of airborne transmission. Some important computer models are based on epidemiology analysis, weather analysis, and air dispersion. Few models are reported for ASFV, PEDV, and PRRSV. Studies in the literature indicate that airborne transmission is generally affected by virus strain, aerosol type, shedding duration and concentration, environmental conditions, and infectious dose.

20.
Pathogens ; 9(5), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2265171

ABSTRACT

The Open Reading Frame 3 (ORF3), an accessory protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), has been shown to interact with a myriad of cellular proteins, among which include the IB kinase beta (IKBKB). Here, specific IKBKB domains responsible for ORF3-IKBKB interaction were identified. Dysregulation of NF-B and Type I interferon (IFN) in the presence of ORF3 was also demonstrated. We showed that while ORF3 was capable of up-regulating IKBKB-meditated NF-B promoter activity, it surprisingly down-regulated the activation of IKBKB-meditated IFN-beta promoter and expression of IFN-beta mRNA. When overexpressed, ORF3 could suppress Poly I:C mediated type I IFN production and induction. Finally, we demonstrated that IKBKB- and RIG-I-mediated type I IFN induction by ORF3 resulted in different outcomes. Our study is the first to demonstrate the potential and complex roles of ORF3 in the involvement of aberrant immune signaling as well as in the virus-host interaction.

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