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1.
J Integr Med ; 20(6): 488-496, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105445

ABSTRACT

At present, a variety of vaccines have been approved, and existing antiviral drugs are being tested to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no standardized treatment has yet been approved by the World Health Organization. The virally encoded chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which facilitates the replication of SARS-CoV in the host cells, is one potential pharmacological target for the development of anti-SARS drugs. Online search engines, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed, were used to retrieve data on the traditional uses of medicinal plants and their inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Various pure compounds, including polyphenols, terpenoids, chalcones, alkaloids, biflavonoids, flavanones, anthraquinones and glycosides, have shown potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 2-44 µg/mL. Interestingly, most of these active compounds, including xanthoangelol E (isolated from Angelica keiskei), dieckol 1 (isolated from Ecklonia cava), amentoflavone (isolated from Torreya nucifera), celastrol, pristimerin, tingenone and iguesterin (isolated from Tripterygium regelii), tannic acid (isolated from Camellia sinensis), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, 3-isotheaflav1in-3 gallate and dihydrotanshinone I (isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza), had IC50 values of less than 15 µg/mL. Kinetic mechanistic studies of several active compounds revealed that their mode of inhibition was dose-dependent and competitive, with Ki values ranging from 2.4-43.8 µmol/L. Given the significance of plant-based compounds and the many promising results obtained, there is still need to explore the phytochemical and mechanistic potentials of plants and their products. These medicinal plants could serve as an effective inexpensive nutraceutical for the general public to help manage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viral Infections and Antiviral Therapies ; : 377-406, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104206

ABSTRACT

Mortality from emergent diseases escalated drastically with the 2019 pandemic of COVID-19. History hails the discovery of antibiotics as the key event that reduced death rate from infectious diseases. The myriads of antibiotics currently available saved the human race from becoming extinct to a large extent. Antibiotic resistance is the negative impact to improper use of antimicrobials. Resistant strains have created several epidemics specifically emanating from hospitals. Newer, stronger, and better antibiotics have replaced the ones to which organisms gained resistance. The genetic mechanism of resistance is now well understood. The cluster of genes, highly conserved through several species have provided the evolutionary advantage to the microbes to overcome antibiotic threats. This is true with bacteria and viruses alike. In case of viral infections, the scenario is entirely different as the effective antiviral agents are relatively newer. Resistance to antiviral agents is also reported widely in literature. Viruses, having the capability to mutate frequently, pose a newer threat to the treatment as many antiviral agents become ineffective. To make the conditions even worse, the emergence of newer viruses have created a new hurdle. Considering these facts, it is evident that conventional antiviral agents alone is sufficient to control viral infections. For this, ancillary help is solicited from other areas like boosting the immunity of the host and natural antiviral agents. Phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants and nutraceuticals provide ample opportunity to this notion and the current evidence available regarding their antiviral activity provides a promising hope.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099579

ABSTRACT

Several human diseases are caused by viruses, including cancer, Type I diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, people have suffered greatly from viral diseases such as polio, mumps, measles, dengue fever, SARS, MERS, AIDS, chikungunya fever, encephalitis, and influenza. Recently, COVID-19 has become a pandemic in most parts of the world. Although vaccines are available to fight the infection, their safety and clinical trial data are still questionable. Social distancing, isolation, the use of sanitizer, and personal productive strategies have been implemented to prevent the spread of the virus. Moreover, the search for a potential therapeutic molecule is ongoing. Based on experiences with outbreaks of SARS and MERS, many research studies reveal the potential of medicinal herbs/plants or chemical compounds extracted from them to counteract the effects of these viral diseases. COVID-19's current status includes a decrease in infection rates as a result of large-scale vaccination program implementation by several countries. But it is still very close and needs to boost people's natural immunity in a cost-effective way through phytomedicines because many underdeveloped countries do not have their own vaccination facilities. In this article, phytomedicines as plant parts or plant-derived metabolites that can affect the entry of a virus or its infectiousness inside hosts are described. Finally, it is concluded that the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants must be analyzed and evaluated entirely in the control of COVID-19 in cases of uncontrollable SARS infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1039183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093777
5.
Inflamm Res ; 71(12): 1489-1500, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The current study aimed to summarize the evidence of compounds contained in plant species with the ability to block the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-II), through a scoping review. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus electronic databases were used for the systematic search and a manual search was performed RESULTS: Studies included were characterized as in silico. Among the 200 studies retrieved, 139 studies listed after the exclusion of duplicates and 74 were included for the full read. Among them, 32 studies were considered eligible for the qualitative synthesis. The most evaluated class of secondary metabolites was flavonoids with quercetin and curcumin as most actives substances and terpenes (isothymol, limonin, curcumenol, anabsinthin, and artemisinin). Other classes that were also evaluated were alkaloid, saponin, quinone, substances found in essential oils, and primary metabolites as the aminoacid L-tyrosine and the lipidic compound 2-monolinolenin. CONCLUSION: This review suggests the most active substance from each class of metabolites, which presented the strongest affinity to the ACE-II receptor, what contributes as a basis for choosing compounds and directing the further experimental and clinical investigation on the applications these compounds in biotechnological and health processes as in COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Flavonoids , Angiotensins
6.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society ; 67(3):5656-5661, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092177

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread across the worldwide. It becomes a global pandemic and risk to the healthcare system of almost every nation around the world. In this study thirty natural compounds of 19 Indian herbal plants were used to analyze their binding with eight proteins associated with CO VID-19. Based on the molecular docking as well as ADMET analysis, isovitexin, glycyrrhizin, sitosterol, and piperine were identified as potential herbal medicine candidates. On comparing the binding affinity with Ivermectin, we have found that the inhibition potentials of the Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) and Piper nigrum (black pepper) are very promising with no side-effects.

7.
Application of Natural Products in SARS-CoV-2 ; : 199-221, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2085815

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious challenge to mankind. The need for an urgent cure for SARS-CoV-2 increased, as there was no specific treatment protocol designed for this global pandemic. Previous studies show similarities in the genomic structure of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. So, the treatment strategy applied for SARS-CoV can be applied on SARS-CoV-2 as well. This chapter focuses on the effectiveness of diarylheptanoids against SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082094

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only jeopardized people's physical health, but also put additional strain on their mental health. This study explored the role of indoor natural elements (i.e., green plants) in relieving individuals' mental stress during a prolonged stressful period. A pilot and three formal studies examined the effect of indoor green plants placed in living and working environments on people's perceived stress during the pandemic and further uncovered its underlying mechanism emphasizing a mediating role of emotion. The pilot study confirmed that the severity of the pandemic positively correlated with individuals' level of stress. Study 1 then demonstrated that indoor green plants in people's living environments might reduce their perceived stress during the pandemic, which is referred to as the "plant effect". Study 2 repeated the plant effect in a field experiment conducted in a working environment and Study 3 revealed a mediating role of positive emotion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the mitigating effect of indoor green plants on individuals' mental stress during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The indoor green plants placed in living and working environments may elicit positive emotion, which in turn reduce people's mental stress. In addition, our results reveal that growth status of the indoor green plants affected the plant effect as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viridiplantae , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Plants
10.
Physical Sciences Reviews ; 0(0), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070806

ABSTRACT

South Africa, a country considered affluent in nature, ranks third in global biodiversity and encompasses approximately 9% of higher plants on planet Earth. Many indigenous plants have been utilised as herbal medicine, proving successful in treating numerous ailments. From the common cold to pandemic maladies such as COVID-19 in the 21st century and the treatment of incurable diseases, South African inhabitants have found great promise in the healing properties of these plants. Phytomedicine is a rapidly evolving topic, with in-depth bioactive composition analysis, identifying therapeutic action mechanisms, and disease prevention. While we are now poised to take advantage of nature's medicine cabinet with greater scientific vigour, it remains critical that these practises are done with caution. Overharvesting significantly impacts biodiversity and cultivation practices amidst the beautiful nature of these nutraceuticals. This book chapter focuses on the therapeutic potential of commonly used South African medicinal plants, their ethnopharmacological properties, and how we can conserve this treasure cove we call home for future generations.

11.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10:S125-S127, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072567

ABSTRACT

The world is facing medical crisis due to the pandemic created by COVID-19. Due to COVID-19. not only our country but the whole world is passing through economic crisis also. As there is no specific treatment for the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 and it affects the people with weak immunity more adversely so, many people including scientists are looking forward to increase the immunity by using medicinal plants, i.e., herbs and spices. Vitamin C is also being widely used by the doctors across the world to increase the immunity, but as herbs and spices are easily available and have been widely used as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent since ancient time so, they can be used both as effective immunity booster as well as antiviral agent as shown by some compounds found in the herbs and spices.

12.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10:S116-S124, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072566

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2), has been the cause of global pandemic and a matter of concern for a larger population on this planet. Despite recent reports of substantial research towards the development of viable therapies to combat this global health issue, there is still no approved therapy to cure SARS-CoV-2. India is witnessing a third wave of coronavirus (due to Omicron variant), with daily rise in COVID-19 cases in the states with large population may rise exponentially and lead to community transfer. The rapid mutations of the virus and never-ending new strains (Delta, Omicron) have now become more critical and it is hard to tell, how this situation will manifest in future. The increase in COVID-19 cases has put a pressure on the healthcare system, leading to uncertainty in the minds of the people. Indian systems of traditional medicines-AYUSH have a wide-ranging potential for being used in these tough times either as adjuvant therapy or prophylactically due to their age-old use in the community, classical references/text, pharmacopeias and scientific evidence about their safety and clinical efficacy. AYUSH-Unani (Greco-Arabian medicine) originated with the concept and teachings of Hippocrates and developed during the middle ages, which employs natural drugs of plant, animal and mineral origin for the treatment during the epidemic. An attempt has been made to give a brief overview on AYUSH-Unani concept of epidemic and its preventive measures by the use of single plant origin drugs/compound formulations, having pharmacological activities.

13.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):13183-13200, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067020

ABSTRACT

Emission inventories are essential for modelling studies and pollution control, but traditional emission inventories are usually updated after a few years based on the statistics of “bottom-up” approach from the energy consumption in provinces, cities, and counties. The latest emission inventories of multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) was compiled from the statistics for the year 2016 (MEIC_2016). However, the real emissions have varied yearly, due to national pollution control policies and accidental special events, such as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on the “top-down” approach was developed to optimise sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by assimilating the data of SO2 concentrations from surface observational stations. The 4DVAR system was then applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of COVID-19 pandemic (from 17 January to 7 February 2020), and the same period in 2019 over China. The results showed that the average MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 emissions were42.2×106, 40.1×106, and 36.4×106 kg d-1. The emissions in 2020 decreased by 9.2 % in relation to the COVID-19 lockdown compared with those in 2019. For central China, where the lockdown measures were quite strict, the mean 2020 emission decreased by 21.0 % compared with 2019 emissions. Three forecast experiments were conducted using the emissions of MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 to demonstrate the effects of optimised emissions. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the experiments using 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 28.1 % and 50.7 %, and the correlation coefficient increased by 89.5 % and 205.9 % compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016. For central China, the average RMSE in the experiments with 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 48.8 % and 77.0 %, and the average correlation coefficient increased by 44.3 % and 238.7 %, compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016 emissions. The results demonstrated that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.

14.
Water ; 14(19):3100, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066637

ABSTRACT

While Rwanda is aiming at environmental pollution resilience and green growth, some industries are still discharging untreated effluent into the environment. This study gives a general overview of the compliance level of industrial effluent discharge in Rwanda and the linked negative environmental impacts. It comprises qualitative and quantitative analyses of data obtained from wastewater samples collected from five selected industries in Rwanda. The selected industries had previously been audited and monitored by the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), due to complains from neighboring residents. The study found that the effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all concerned industries failed to comply with (i) oil and grease (O&G) national and international tolerable parameter limits or the (ii) fecal coliforms national standard. In addition, a compliance level of 66.7% was observed for key water quality monitoring parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and heavy metals (i.e., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)). Following these study findings, one industry was closed by the REMA for deliberately discharging untreated effluent into an adjacent river. This study recommends the adoption of the best available technology for effluent treatment, installation or renovation of existing WWTPs, and the relocation to industrial zones of industries adjacent to fragile environments.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicinal and aromatical plants (MAPs) have been historically used as traditional remedies in many cultures in Europe and globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of MAPs in various health disorders in association to dietary habits and other lifestyle factors among residents in Thrace, NE Greece. METHODS: Data were collected through anonymous and voluntary responses to a structured online questionnaire, via convenience (snowball) sampling. RESULTS: The 561 responders (age: 39.7 ± 11.6 y) were mostly female (59.7%), with higher education (69.8%), working as state or private employees (55.4%), and having low/medium income (77.1%). Overall, more than 70% were using MAPs in various symptoms and common health disorders, such as chamomile against common cold and the flu. More than 20 different MAPs were being used in smaller frequencies against various conditions. Key contributing factors to the consumption of MAPs were sex (female over male), employment (employed vs. unemployed), education (higher education vs. lower) and higher Body Mass Index (overweight and obese vs. normal), while consumption of fruit, fish, and vegetables was mainly associated with the use of MAPs as common items of diet and in health disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The use of MAPs as part of the diet and as traditional remedy is present in the examined population, while particular choices seem to be affected by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.


Subject(s)
Diet , Vegetables , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Greece
17.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065294

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread throughout the globe and has become a terrible epidemic. Researchers all around the globe are working to understand the characteristics of coronavirus and are trying to find antiviral compounds as an alternative to vaccines. Objective(s): The present study has been conceptualized to screen the various metabolites of traditional therapeutic plants that can have crucial antiviral activity against COVID-19. Method(s): Medicinal plants are rich sources of therapeutic agents of human origin. In this study, active metabolites from plants such as O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, Z. officinale, A. paniculata, G. glabra, A. sativum, P. guajava, V. negundo and S. aromaticum have been studied. This study aims to control COVID-19, either by interfering with the Cysteine-like protease (3CLpro) component of COVID-19 or by blocking viral entry via the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptor. The molecular docking of forty plant metabolites was studied with the 3Clpro component and ACE 2 receptors. In addition to this, the binding capacity of these two targets was also compared with hydroxychloroquine used for its treatment. Result(s): The results reveal that Glycyrrhizin binds to 3CLpro in a highly stable manner with the lowest binding energy. Glabridin, beta-sitosterol, beta-Caryophyllene, alpha-Curcumene, and Apigenin, among others, have shown effective interactions with both ACE 2 and 3CLpro. The study reveals the ability of more than 20 plant-based compounds against the COVID-19 infection cycle, which are more effective than hydroxychloroquine. Conclusion(s): Medicinal plant-based therapeutic compounds might provide quickly, sensitive, precise, and cost-effective alternative therapies. To reduce adverse effects, many pharmacological characteristics of medicinal plant agents should be adjusted. Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

18.
Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering , CSCE 2021 ; 249:443-447, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059745

ABSTRACT

We evaluated sampling design in wastewater-based epidemiology to monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal, with a focus on sampling site selection. Sampling in wastewater collection systems ranged from locations that were highly granular (i.e., individual buildings) to large wastewater treatment plants with city-scale catchments. Potential data uses and major considerations for each sampling method are discussed. Our study demonstrates sampling at varying degrees of granularity to be viable tools for pandemic response, with both sampling location and data applicability varying significantly based on location type sampled. Wastewater treatment plant data allows for population level trending that provides an early warning sign of increased disease burden community wide. Sampling at individual buildings can facilitate a direct public health response through follow-up patient testing and/or providing early warning to allow an employer to respond to an outbreak at a warehouse or work camp. Sampling within the wastewater collection system presents a novel epidemiologic tool that could allow for early warning of neighbourhood outbreaks to inform local pandemic response(s) and enable case-finding. © 2023, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering.

19.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 12(4-s):101-111, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056786

ABSTRACT

In-silico Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) often comprehends virtual screening (VS) of datasets of natural pharmaco-active compounds for drug discovery protocols. Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) still, remains to be a prime source of pharmaco-active compounds due to their unique chemical structural scaffolds and functionalities with distinct chemical characteristic feature from natural source that are much acquiescent to drug metabolism and kinetics. In the Post-COVID-Era number of publications pertaining to PBNPs and publicly accessible plant based natural product databases (PBNPDBs) has significantly increased. Moreover, PBNPs are important sources of inspiration or starting points to develop novel therapeutic agents. However, a well-structured, indepth ADME/Tox profile of PBNPs has been limited or lacking for many of such compounds, this hampers the successful exploitation of PBNPs by pharma industries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties play key roles in the discovery/ development of drugs, pesticides, food additives, consumer products, and industrial chemicals. In the present study, ADMET-informatics of Tetradecanoic Acid (Myristic Acid) from ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves to predict drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) outcomes has been taken up. This work contributes to the deeper understanding of Myristic acid as major source of drug from commonly available medicinal plant - Moringa oleifera with immense therapeutic potential. The data generated herein could be useful for NP based lead generation programs.

20.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):80-96, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056737

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2'-O-methyltransferase is responsible for the capping of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and consequently the evasion of the host's immune system. This study aims at identifying prospective natural inhibitors of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 2'O-methyltransferase (2'-OMT) through an in silico approach. Materials and Method: The target was docked against a library of natural compounds obtained from edible African plants using PyRx - virtual screening software. The antiviral agent, Dolutegravir which has a binding affinity score of -8.5 kcal mol-1 with the SARS-CoV-2 2'-OMT was used as a standard. Compounds were screened for bioavailability through the SWISSADME web server using their molecular descriptors. Screenings for pharmacokinetic properties and bioactivity were performed with PKCSM and Molinspiration web servers respectively. The PLIP and Fpocket webservers were used for the binding site analyses. The Galaxy webserver was used for simulating the time-resolved motions of the apo and holo forms of the target while the MDWeb web server was used for the analyses of the trajectory data.

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