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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A2046, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060892

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Case Reports of Procedure Treatments Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Broncholiths are calcifications in the tracheobronchial tree that are most commonly associated with indolent infections. Disease manifestations range from asymptomatic stones in the airway to major complications such as massive hemoptysis or post-obstructive pneumonias. Depending on severity of the disease, patient management can range from conservative strategies to surgical interventions. We report successful reduction of a large obstructive broncholith in the right middle lobe via Holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser lithotripsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 55 year old male who presented with on going purulent cough, fever and pleuritic chest pain for 3 months. He had associated weight loss (>10 lbs in 3 months), malaise, increased fatigue, and scant hemoptysis. Initial chest x-ray was evident of right middle lobe consolidation. Respiratory infection panel, COVID PCR, AFB cultures and fungal cultures were negative. Subsequent CT of his chest showed right middle lobe opacities with areas of obstruction with a broncholith. Subsequently, patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy to allow for left sided airway protection via direct tamponade if patient develops massive hemoptysis. A bronchoscopic inspection was performed through the rigid scope that confirmed the broncholith. Obliteration of broncholith was then performed via Ho:YAG. After multiple laser treatments, we noted improvement in the size of the broncholith. Patient admitted to significant improvement in chest pain, hemoptysis and cough since the procedure. DISCUSSION: Broncholithiasis refers to calcified material eroding the tracheobronchial tree and causing inflammation and obstruction. Etiology of broncholiths include calcified peribronchiolar lymph nodes that erode into the airway lumen. Lymph node calcifications in the thorax are associated with lymphadenitis from fungal or mycobacterial infections. Management depends on the size of broncholiths. For larger stones, flexible bronchoscopy is often used to confirm diagnosis. When forceps extraction is not feasible, stone fragmentation with Ho:YAG is generally utilized, but they carry the risk of massive hemoptysis or bronchial injury. Surgical interventions, such as lobectomy or pneumonectomy, are reserved for patients with recurrent pneumonias, bronchiectasis, bronchial stenosis or broncho-esophageal or aorto-tracheal fistulas. In our case, we demonstrate successful reduction of a non-mobile broncholith by protecting the airway using rigid bronchoscopy by interventional pulmonology and subsequently avoiding surgical intervention in a patient with repeated post-obstructive pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Management of broncholiths should be individualized for symptomatic patients. A comprehensive assessment with appropriate imaging and involvement of interventional pulmonology can result in successful reduction of the stone and minimizing complications. Reference #1: Dakkak, M., Siddiqi, F., & Cury, J. D. (2015). Broncholithiasis presenting as bronchiectasis and recurrent pneumonias. Case Reports, 2015, bcr2014209035. Reference #2: Krishnan, S., Kniese, C. M., Mankins, M., Heitkamp, D. E., Sheski, F. D., & Kesler, K. A. (2018).Management of broncholithiasis. Journal of thoracic disease, 10(Suppl 28), S3419. Reference #3: Olson, E. J., Utz, J. P., & Prakash, U. B. (1999). Therapeutic bronchoscopy in broncholithiasis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 160(3), 766-770 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jalal Damani No relevant relationships by Joseph Gatuz No relevant relationships by Fereshteh (Angel) Yazdi

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A1764, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060857

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) is a subset of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis occurring in patients actively infected with or recovering from COVID-19. It has mostly been described in immunocompromised or severely ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation[1-6]. The authors report a case of CAPA infection in an ambulatory and immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old male presented to a Comprehensive Cancer Center for fever and hemoptysis. He carried a diagnosis of metastatic germ cell tumor to his lungs, status post left upper-lobe wedge resection. He had completed bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy one year earlier. He was recently diagnosed with COVID-19 one month prior to admission and treated as an outpatient with monoclonal antibodies. He reported ongoing cough productive of clear sputum since his diagnosis, which had worsened over the previous two days and was now blood-tinged. He had been afebrile for weeks before noting new fevers over the same period. Physical examination was notable for fever to 38.6°C and lungs clear to auscultation. His labs were significant for a WBC of 14.5 K/mcl (82.5% neutrophils), Cr 2.1 mg/dL (baseline 1.5 mg/dL), and normal platelets and coagulation studies. Serum Aspergillus galactomannan was normal. Repeat SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative. Chest x-ray was unchanged. V/Q scan showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism. Non-contrast CT chest performed on hospital day #4 revealed a partial opacification and increased wall thickness of patient's largest left upper lobe surgical cavitation (see Image 1). A bronchoscopy was performed day #6, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan >5.56 (normal <0.5)7;fungal culture was significant for septate hyphae. He was started on voriconazole with improvement in his symptoms and discharged day #9. DISCUSSION: Immunocompromised patients with prolonged neutropenia, solid-organ or stem cell transplants, and patients with advanced AIDS are at highest risk of contracting PA[8-9]. ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia is also a common precipitant in immunocompetent patients[1-6,10,11]. The exact mechanism of this association remains unknown, but it is postulated to occur due to multiple factors, including host immune dysregulation[1,2], widespread exposure to corticosteroids[1,2], concomitant lung disease[1], and viral-induced lymphopenia[2]. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection recovering from COVID-19 who experienced a secondary worsening of symptoms ultimately found to have CAPA to further highlight the link between these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: While many of CAPA case reports describe patients with typical risk profiles for CAPA, this case suggests that clinicians should consider structural lung disease alone in an otherwise immunocompetent, ambulatory individual to be a potential risk factor. Reference #1: See Image 2 for full list of references. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Raphael Rabinowitz No relevant relationships by Matthew Velez

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A1009, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060750

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: PAP is a rare entity that can occur secondary to infection, malignancy, or trauma. Mucormycosis in the setting of Covid-19 pneumonia has been increasingly recognized but PAP has only recently been reported in this setting. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44 year-old man with type 2 diabetes, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, and ulcerative colitis presented with dyspnea and cough in July 2021. He was diagnosed with Covid-19 pneumonia and initially treated with molnupiravir. Eight days later he presented to the emergency room with worsening dyspnea, hypoxemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. He required 3L of oxygen and was intubated for airway protection. CT chest revealed mild bilateral patchy opacities and dexamethasone was started. Unfortunately, persistent fevers and worsening respiratory status ensued and repeat chest CT on hospital day (HD) 8 showed a new large left upper lobe (LUL) cavitary lesion. Cultures ultimately grew Rhizopus microsporus and he was started on amphotericin then isavuconazole after acute kidney injury developed. Dexamethasone was discontinued and interval imaging after ten days showed dramatic growth of the cavitary lesion (9 x 6 x 3 cm) with new extension through the chest wall, infiltrating the intercostal spaces and pectoralis muscle. Due to ventilator dependency a tracheostomy was performed on HD 24. Despite anti-fungal therapy the cavitary lesion persisted, with evidence of osseous destruction of the third and fourth ribs, as well as new fluid collections within the cavity and hilar extension. On HD 46 he was transferred to our institution for Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Radiology (IR) evaluations. Percutaneous drain placement followed by pneumonectomy vs. staged cavernostomy was considered;however, on HD 50, the patient suddenly developed massive hemoptysis. CTA of the chest showed a 1.6 x 1.5 cm PAP with active hemorrhage from the LUL anterior segmental artery with dispersion into the cavity. Urgent coil and glue embolization was successfully performed by IR. Ultimately, thoracic surgical intervention was deemed too high risk and thus he was medically managed with a regimen of isavuconazole, amphotericin, and terbinafine. Hemoptysis did not recur and he was eventually discharged from the hospital and liberated from both mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Chest CT 6 months from the initial diagnosis has shown stable to mildly decreased size of the cavitary lesion. DISCUSSION: This is the first case to our knowledge of PAP as a complication of Covid-19 and Mucor superinfection in the United States. Five cases of this combination have been recently reported in other countries. Risk factors for Mucor infection after Covid appear to be uncontrolled diabetes, DKA, and steroid administration. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion should be maintained in patients with these risk factors, as PAP can present as massive hemoptysis and is often fatal. Reference #1: Hoenigl M, Seidel D, Carvalho A, et al. The emergence of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis: a review of cases from 18 countries [ 2022 Jan 25]. Lancet Microbe. 2022;10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00237-8. doi:10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00237-8 Reference #2: Pruthi H, Muthu V, Bhujade H, et al. Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm in COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Mucormycosis: Case Series and Systematic Review of the Literature. Mycopathologia. 2022;187(1):31-37. doi:10.1007/s11046-021-00610-9 Reference #3: Coffey MJ, Fantone J 3rd, Stirling MC, Lynch JP 3rd. Pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery in mucormycosis. Radiographic characteristics and management. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145(6):1487-1490. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/145.6.1487 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kevin Patel No relevant relationships by Clifford Sung

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A448, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060598

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Since the start of Covid-19 pandemic, several respiratory microorganisms have been identified that cause coinfection with Sars-Cov-2. Bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and viruses like influenza are some of the identified pathogens. Rarely, fungal infections from Aspergillus are also being reported. CASE PRESENTATION: 59-year-old male with past medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia was admitted for shortness of breath and was found to be positive for Covid-19. He received Remdesivir, dexamethasone & tocilizumab. He required non-invasive ventilation via continuous positive airway pressure but continued to remain hypoxemic with elevated procalcitonin, he was treated with cefepime for bacterial pneumonia. Patient required emergent intubation and eventually underwent tracheostomy. He developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia for which he received vancomycin. He was eventually discharged to long term acute care facility. Patient was readmitted after 2 months due to worsening respiratory status. Computed Tomography Angiography of chest was negative for pulmonary embolism but showed pleural effusion. He underwent thoracentesis which showed exudative effusion with negative cultures. Echocardiogram showed right heart failure. Patient's symptoms were believed to be due to Covid-19 fibrosis. He required home oxygen and also received pulmonary rehabilitation. One year after the initial Covid-19 infection, he developed pulmonary hypertension and was referred for lung transplant consultation. However, he developed severe hemoptysis requiring intubation and vasopressors. Galactomannan was positive, Karius digital culture revealed Aspergillus Niger for which he received voriconazole. He was not deemed a suitable candidate for lobectomy. Patient developed arrhythmia and had prolonged QT interval so voriconazole was switched to Isavuconazole. He continued to have hemoptysis and his condition did not improve so family requested to transition care and patient passed away. DISCUSSION: Several studies have proven co-infection of Aspergillus with Covid-19. This case highlights Aspergillus infection approximately 1 year after initial Covid-19 infection. Sars-Cov-2 causes damage to airway lining which can result in Aspergillus invading tissues. IL-6 is increased in severe Covid-19 infection. Tocilizumab is an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody that has been approved for treatment of Covid-19 pneumonia. However, IL-6 provides immunity against Aspergillus so use of tocilizumab decreases protection against Aspergillosis which is usually the reason for co-infection. However, in this case patient developed fungal infection later during Covid-19 fibrosis stage. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing fungal etiology early on is important in Covid-19 patients as mortality is high and appropriate intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality. Some patient may eventually require lung resection. Reference #1: Kakamad FH, Mahmood SO, Rahim HM, Abdulla BA, Abdullah HO, Othman S, Mohammed SH, Kakamad SH, Mustafa SM, Salih AM. Post covid-19 invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis: a case report. International journal of surgery case reports. 2021 May 1;82:105865. Reference #2: Nasrullah A, Javed A, Malik K. Coronavirus Disease-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Devastating Complication of COVID-19. Cureus. 2021 Jan 30;13(1). Reference #3: Dimopoulos G, Almyroudi MP, Myrianthefs P, Rello J. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Journal of Intensive Medicine. 2021 Oct 25;1(02):71-80. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Maria Haider Baig

5.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109:vi104, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2042563

ABSTRACT

As the number of post-COVID-19 patients requiring surgery increases, it becomes pressing to develop guidelines outlining time requirements between active COVID-19 infection and surgery. We present a case of successful pulmonary segmentectomy 6 weeks following an acute COVID-19 infection in a 65-year-old female. The case patient was scheduled for a robotic assisted left upper lobectomy for radiologically diagnosed early-stage lung cancer. Unfortunately, prior to surgery she contracted Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), resulting in the operation being rescheduled for 6 weeks' time. She was managed in the community for COVID pneumonitis and developed significant shortness of breath. At admission, with resolution of breathlessness, a repeat chest computed tomography scan showed the nodule had increased in size from 2 to 2.5cm, and widespread interstitial pneumonitis. The patient was saturating at 91% on air with no respiratory compromise. On balance of risk, surgery went ahead as planned due to concerns over tumour progression. A smaller lung resection was undertaken, with robot-assisted left upper division segmentectomy preferred to lobectomy. Post-operatively the patient received aggressive physiotherapy and high flow nasal oxygen to aid sputum expectoration. Chest tube was removed on day 2 post-operatively and the patient discharged 5 days following surgery without complication. Final histology confirmed a fully resected stage T1cN0M0 adenocarcinoma of the lung. This case highlights the importance of timing surgery correctly in post-COVID-19 patients to achieve the most favourable outcomes. We must balance clinical priority and the risk of disease progression against the severity of COVID-19 infection and the patient's comorbid status.

6.
Revista do Colegio Brasileiro de Cirurgioes ; 49, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032681

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 pandemic required optimization of hospital institutional flow, especially regarding the use of intensive care unit (ICU) beds. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individualization of the indication for postoperative recovery from pulmonary surgery in ICU beds was associated with more perioperative complications. Method: retrospective analysis of medical records of patients undergoing anatomic lung resections for cancer in a tertiary hospital. The sample was divided into: Group-I, composed of surgeries performed between March/2019 and February/2020, pre-pandemic, and Group-II, composed of surgeries performed between March/2020 and February/2021, pandemic period in Brazil. We analyzed demographic data, surgical risks, surgeries performed, postoperative complications, length of stay in the ICU and hospital stay. Preventive measures of COVID-19 were adopted in group-II. Results: 43 patients were included, 20 in group-I and 23 in group-II. The groups did not show statistical differences regarding baseline demographic variables. In group-I, 80% of the patients underwent a postoperative period in the ICU, compared to 21% in group-II. There was a significant difference when comparing the average length of stay in an ICU bed (46 hours in group-I versus 14 hours in group-II-p<0.001). There was no statistical difference regarding postoperative complications (p=0.44). Conclusions: the individualization of the need for ICU use in the immediate postoperative period resulted in an improvement in the institutional care flow during the COVID-19 pandemic, in a safe way, without an increase in surgical morbidity and mortality, favoring the maintenance of essential cancer treatment.

7.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 17(9):S306-S307, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031524

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Due to restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, elective procedures were canceled or postponed. This study aims to compare the epidemiological profile of cases from Brazilian’s Public Healthcare System (SUS) and Private Healthcare (PH) in a teaching single-center facility between 2019 and 2021. Methods: Data were gathered from patients who underwent lung resection (LR) by PUCRS’s Sao Lucas Hospital Thoracic Surgery team between 2019 and 2021. Data were obtained by retrospective review of electronic charts in March 2022. A retrospective analysis was made. Results: There were 212 procedures performed, being 80 in 2019, 66 in 2020 and 66 in 2021. In 2019, there were 45 (56.2%), in 2020, 43 (65.1%), and in 2021, 34 (51,5%) LR on SUS. Lobectomies on SUS in 2019 were 19 (42.2%), in 2020, 13 (30.2%), and in 2021, 17;on PH were 19 (54.2%) in 2019, 12 (52.1%) in 2020, and 18 in 2021. On SUS, in 2019 were performed 41 (91%) open thoracic surgeries and in 2020, there were 33 (76%);on PH, in 2019 video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was done in 24 (68.5%) patients, 17 (73.9%) in 2020 and 29 (75%) in 2021. Procedures for oncological disease (primary or metastatic) on SUS in 2019 were performed in 27 (60%) patients, 23 (53.4%) in 2020, and 13 (44,8%) in 2021;on PH, in 2019, there were 23 (65.5%) patients, in 2020 were 15 (65.2%), and 16 (55,2%) in 2021. On SUS there were 24 women in 2019 (53%) and in 2020 (55%);on PH, there were 23 (65%) men in 2019 and 13 (56%) in 2020. The mean age of patients on SUS was 59, and 66 on PH. Clinical staging (CS) for primary lung cancer on SUS in 2019 was 12 (50%) CS I, 8 CS II, 3 CS III, and 1 CS IV;in 2020 was 8 (47%) CS I, 6 CS II, and 3 CS III. On PH, in 2019, there were 12 (66.6%) CS I, 4 CSII, and 2 CS IV;in 2020, 11 (84.6%) CS I and 2 CS II. Conclusions: We found maintenance in the numbers of procedures in 2020 and 2021, but a global reduction in the number of LR on SUS, mainly because the pandemic became worst in its second year, leading to the closure of surgery centers. And a reduction of 17.5% in the number of LR in 2020, compared with 2019. Lobectomies lowered 36.8% on PH and 31.5% on SUS between 2019 and 2020. Albeit there was a reduction in general incidence, LR for oncological reasons predominated. In 2021 it represented 82,8%, with 44,8% on SUS, and 52,2% on PH. There was a higher average age on PH. Open thoracic surgery was most frequent on SUS due to limitations on offered equipment, while VATS predominated on PH (difference: 44.5%). The predominant CS remained equal on both healthcare systems, CS I, which indicates maintenance of early-stage diagnoses. Nevertheless, the overall incidence has diminished (33.33% [SUS] and 8.3% [PH]), a probable reflection of the pandemic. Keywords: COVID-19, Thoracic Surgery, Lung Cancer

8.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 17(9):S304-S305, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031522

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The best treatment modality for lung cancer patients relies on survival estimates to weigh risks and benefits of treatments. However, patients who had pneumonectomy may have inherent oncologic or physiologic survival challanges. We aimed to analyzed the physiologic and survivability consequences of COVID-19 in these patients. Methods: A total of 111 of 898 patients(12.3%) who underwent resection in our clinic between 2001-2021 underwent pneumonectomy. Data of 70 patients were completed and the remaining 41 patients were excluded from the study for various reasons. The patients' survival, daily physical activities, comparison of preoperative and postoperative physical activity, and the general condition of those who had COVID-19 were questioned. Results: Sixty-seven patients were male (95.7%), three patients were female (4.3%). Forty patients (57.14%) had left pneumonectomy whereas 30 patients (42.85%) had right pneumonectomy. While 26 people (37.1%) were alive, 44 patients (62.9%) died. Four patients were suffered from COVID-19 infection and two of them died. Mortality was 50.0% whereas 1 (3.8%) and 2 (7.7%) patients had had extremely poorer and poorer physical activity compared to those of before pneumonectomy respectively, 9 patients (34.6%), 10 (38.5%) and 4 (15.4%) had same, better and extremely better physical activity compared to those of prior to pneumonectomy respectively. Estimated survival of all patients was 106 months (at the (95% confidence interval [CI]:58.69-153.30 months). The median survival of patients with right pneumonectomy was 103 months (95% CI:56.0-150.0 months) whereas it was 110 months (95% CI:45.5-174.5 months) in patients who had left pneumonectomy (p=0.859). Conclusions: The mortality due to Covid-19 was very high following pneumonectomy although the prevalence of COVID-19 seemed low in those patients. The physical activity was found to be worsened in small fraction of patients after pneumonectomy. Pneumonectomy seems safe and not debilitating in select patients even in Covid-19 era. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Keywords: Covid-19, Pneumonectomy, Quality of Life

9.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 17(9):S303, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031521

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the Covid-19 pandemic, less invasive alternatives to surgery were recommended to minimise the risk of patient exposure to the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of covid-19 on lung cancer resections. Methods: We retrospectively analysed lung resections between March 2019 and May 2021. Eligibility criteria included patients with confirmed non-small cell lung cancer. We divided the patients into Group A (lung cancer resection between March 2019 and February 2020 and Group B (lung cancer resection between March 2020 and May 2021. The WHO declared Covid-19 a pandemic on 11th March 2020. The outcome measures were (1) the number of lung resections, (2) the completed waiting period and (3) Survival between the two groups Results: In Group A, 192 (78.7%) were for primary lung cancer, while in Group B, 133 (71%) were for primary lung cancer (p<0.05). The mean completed waiting period for Group A patients was 71.85±60 days (median 58 days;R 5-449 days), while the mean completed waiting period in Group B patients was 45.2±34 days (median 38 days;R 4-213 days) (p<0.0001). The mean survival times for Group A & B were 17.8 and 18.7 months, respectively (Logrank = 0.015). In Group A, survival at 30-days, 90 days and 1-year was 99.48%, 98% and 91.67%) respectively. In Group B, survival was 100%, 99.25%, and 97.1% at 30-days, 90 days, and 1-year Conclusions: We found a 30.7% decrease in the lung cancer resection volume. Also, the completed waiting times for lung cancer resection decreased by 26.51 days during the study period. Early survival was better in Group B patients than Group A. Recoded staging figures reflected higher pathological stages in the latter group (p=0.04). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that we operated on more stage-1 lung cancers in Group B vs Group A (63.4% vs 54.2%). [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Keywords: Lung cancer resection, Covid-19, Survival

10.
Innovative Medicine of Kuban ; - (1):27-37, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026655

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the features of the coronavirus infection course in cardiosurgical and thoracic patients to determine the factors potentially affecting the possibility of lethal outcome. To identify the predictors of fatal outcome based on the analyses of the features of the coronavirus infection course in this category of patients. Material and methods: During the analyzed period 80 patients from the departments of thoracic surgery and cardiac surgery were transferred to the infectious diseases department: 20 patients from the cardiac surgery department (CSD) – group 1;60 patients from the thoracic surgery departments (TSD) – group 2. A control group number 3 consisting of 59 non-thoracic and non-cardiosurgical patients was also formed. According to the disease outcome the patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – fatal outcome, group 2 – recovery. Results: Out of 80 patients, lethal outcome was recorded in 25 cases: 22 patients of the thoracic profile (36% of the total number of transferred from this department) and 3 patients of the cardiosurgical profile (15% of the total number of those transferred from the cardiac surgery department). 20 out of 20 cardiac patients had been operated on the day before, 49 out of 60 thoracic patients also underwent surgery. 3 people from the group of non-operated patients transferred from departments of thoracic surgery died. Moreover, after pneumonectomy, fatal outcome was recorded in 7 out of 8 cases (87.5%). Conclusion: During the analyses of indicators it was revealed that the number of fatal outcomes in patients of the thoracic profile with COVID-19 infection is higher than of the cardiosurgical profile and in the infectious diseases department. Presumably, this is due to the fact that coronavirus infection affects the lungs to a greater extent, and in patients with a thoracic profile (in particular, those who have undergone resection interventions), the volume of the lung parenchyma is initially reduced. This is confirmed particularly by the highest percentage of fatal outcomes after pneumonectomy. Cardiosurgical patients after surgical interventions do not have a reduction in the functioning lung parenchyma, which creates an additional “reserve” for recovery. Moreover, men predominate among patients of the thoracic profile, with the survival rate lower in all groups compared to women. Patients transferred from thoracic departments showed higher rates of systemic inflammation, which indicates a more severe course of the viral infection and the possible development of complications. When analyzing the predictors of lethal outcome, the following factors were identified: male gender and, in general, a more severe course of a viral infection (low saturation, a high percentage of lung lesions on CT, more pronounced changes in laboratory screening). The studied factors are associated with a large number of fatal outcomes in thoracic and cardiac surgery patients. Among the factors that do not affect the prognosis are diabetes mellitus, stroke and myocardial infarction in history. Thus, patients diagnosed with coronavirus infection that developed after thoracic surgery had the most unfavorable prognosis. The revealed patterns are of interest for optimizing the routing of this category of patients in order to prevent coronavirus infection. © 2022 Scientific Research Institute — Ochapovsky Clinical Regional Hospital no. 1. All Rights Reserved.

11.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(3): 548, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024397

ABSTRACT

Regarding the pleural space after pneumonectomy for malignancy, a vast number of studies have assessed early drop in the fluid level, suggesting a broncho-pleural fistula, but only a small number of studies reported on the abnormal increase in the fluid level-a potentially lethal complication. In the present study, the available databases worldwide were screened and 19 cases were retrieved, including 14 chylothorax and 3 hydrothorax cases, 1 pneumothorax and 1 haemothorax case. Tension chylothorax is caused by mediastinal lymph node dissection as an assumed risk in radical cancer surgery. For tensioned haemothorax, the cause has not been elucidated, although lymphatic stasis associated with deep venous thrombosis was suspected. Tensioned pneumothorax was caused by chest wall damage after extrapleural pneumonectomy combined with low aspiration pressure on the chest drain. No cause was determined for none of the tensioned hydrothorax-all 3 cases had the scenario of pericardial resection in addition to pneumonectomy in common. Tensioned space after pneumonectomy for cancer manifests as cardiac tamponade. Initial management is emergent decompression of the heart and mediastinum. Final management depends on the fluid type (chyle, transudate, air, blood) and the medical context of each case. Of the 19 cases, 12 required a major surgical procedure as the definitive management.

12.
Rhode Island Medical Journal ; 105(7):42-45, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2010931

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man with a history of right pneumonectomy for squamous cell lung cancer who presented with dyspnea and hypotension, was found to have pericardial effusion complicated by cardiac tamponade, associated with pembrolizumab therapy. Pericardiocentesis could not be safely attempted due to presence of right-sided mediastinal tissue shift in the setting of previous right pneumonectomy. The patient improved significantly with surgical placement of pericardial window. Analysis of the pericardial fluid was negative for malignancy and was consistent with acute inflammation. Pembrolizumab and other immune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with cardiovascular toxicity, including pericardial effusion and in rare cases, cardiac tamponade. Treatment of cardiac tamponade in post-pneumonectomy patients may be subject to anatomical limitations precluding percutaneous pericardiocentesis and requires early recognition as well as availability of surgical intervention.

13.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009578

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented various challenges for the healthcare system. This study aims to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Lung Cancer Screening (LCS), Lung Resections (LR), and Outpatient Visits (OPV). Methods: This is a longitudinal quasi-experimental time-series analysis using data from the institutional electronic medical records (EMR) from January 2018 to December 2021, considering the first and second waves of COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts;March, and November 2020, respectively. The main outcomes were (A) Monthly LCS exams, (B) Monthly LR surgeries, (C) Monthly Overall-cancer-OPV. Results: 9,057 LSC exams, 333 LR surgeries, and 5,918 outpatient visits were analyzed. The average patient age that underwent LCS was 64;48.9% were female and 91.4% White. LR was performed in patients 67 years old on average, 67.7% female and 93.6% White. The Overall-cancer-OPV was 58.1% for female patients, 89.4% for White patients, and the overall average patient age was 68 years. The monthly number of LCS (A) presented a statistically significant reduction in the first wave (p = 0.001) with a significant recovery in the following months with a monthly increase rate of 26 exams per month (p = 0.002). The second wave did not represent a sharp reduction in the LCS. Nevertheless, a significant monthly reduction of 44 exams was found. There was no statistical decline for the monthly LR surgeries (B). However, an increase in time from the first visit to the surgery was observed. The COVID-19 surges did not significantly impact the (C) Monthly Overall-cancer-OPV, and it was due to the implementation of telehealth services. The use of telehealth prevented a decline in OPV of 59% (p = 0.001) overall and 40% (p = 0.0190) for cancer. Telehealth visits accounted for 27.7% of cancer-related visits. Female patients were more likely to have a telehealth appointment. White, Black, and Asian patients presented with a similar percentage of telehealth use (26.3%, 25.0%, and 26.8%), while Latinos were less likely to have a telehealth appointment when compared with non-Latinos (18%, p < 0.02). Age was not significantly different between telehealth and non-telehealth appointments. However, for those who preferred a phone appointment, the average age was 67 years old, while for those who used video appointments, the age was 63 (p-value < 0.05). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic affected significantly LCS while lung resections were stable over time;nonetheless, the time from the first visit to surgery increased. The use of telehealth technology allowed patients with cancer to safely receive care throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic. The adoption of telehealth can expand access to care in the pandemic context in low-resource areas. Still, future studies should assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on staging at diagnosis, time to treatment initiation, and survival, especially for the underserved population.

14.
J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg ; 27(4): 500-502, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975098

ABSTRACT

Bronchial carcinoid is the most common primary malignant lung tumor in children; however, it remains a very rare diagnosis due to the overall low incidence of childhood lung malignancies. We report a case of a 17-year-old girl with respiratory symptoms who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of COVID pneumonia. She was later detected to have a right mainstem bronchial carcinoid which was managed successfully by a multi-disciplinary team.

15.
Acta Medica Bulgarica ; 49(2):39-42, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957141

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a male patient who underwent right-sided pneumonectomy due to central low-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung, chemo-, radio-, and immunotherapy. However, the disease progressed. In addition the patient got SARSCoV-2 pneumonia in the left lung, followed by postpneumonectomy empyema. Right-sided uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopy, debridement, and definitive drainage of the pleural cavity were performed.

16.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S142-S143, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857636

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims at reporting the surgical outcomes of COVID Associated Pulmonary Mucormycosis (CAPM) with special emphasis on surgical mortality. This study also compares the surgical outcomes between Non-COVID Pulmonary Mucormycosis (NCPM) and CAPM. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a dedicated thoracic surgical unit in Gurugram over 18 months which includes 25 patients. An analysis of demography, perioperative variables including complications were carried out. Various parameters were analysed to assess the factors affecting mortality. Results: Out of 25 patients, male-female ratio was 16:9 (64%:36%), with a mean age of 54.8 years (range, 33-72 years). Diabetes was the most common predisposing factor in 17 patients (68%). A total of 8 patients (32%) were on supplemental oxygen (1-4 lit/min) at the time of surgery. Extent of surgery was non-anatomical wedge resection in 5 patients (20%), lobectomy/bi-lobectomy in 18 patients (72%) and pneumonectomy in 2 patients (8%). Commonest complication was prolonged air leak (> 7 days) in 5 patients (20%). There were 5 peri-operative deaths (20%), all due to persistent fungal sepsis. ECOG scale > 2 (P = <0.001) and pneumonectomy (P = 0.02) were the predictors of mortality. On comparison with NCPM, no difference in the postoperative complications (P = 1.00) and mortality (P = 1.00) was observed. Conclusion: Aggressive surgical resection with clear margins should be offered in CAPM whenever feasible. In appropriately selected patients, surgical resection is safe and efficacious. Surgery for CAPM was not associated with higher post-operative complications including mortality compared to NCPM.

17.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S136-S137, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857457

ABSTRACT

Background: Mucormycosis is an invasive-fungal infection, often associated with extremely severe complications in immuno-compromised patients. The prevalence of mucormycosis in India is about 80 times higher than other developed countries. But the clinical presentation of pulmonary mucormycosis has wide diversity. Case Study: We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old man admitted to our side as a case of post-COVID sequelae in the setting of a new left sided loculated pyo-pneumothorax. He is a known case of type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism for 1.5 years and 3 years respectively. Prior to our rescue, he underwent pigtail insertion in the loculated collection, but there was no output. So, the drain was removed and the patient was planned for pneumonectomy. On visiting to our side, appropriate investigation and interventions were done. On bronchoscopy a large fungating fragile blackish growth was seen coming out from left main bronchus. Histopathological report of the endobronchial biopsy revealed mucormycosis. The patient was planned for Liposomal Amphotericin-B (LAMB) but unfortunately developed anaphylaxis. He was managed accordingly and was taken on oral Posaconazole therapy. On follow up visit remarkable clinical and radiological improvement was noted. Discussion: The above-mentioned case showed the management of a not so mimicking case of usual pulmonary mucormycosis without opting for surgical intervention. Thus, limiting the patient from the postsurgical complications. Conclusion: This case illustrates the heterogeneousness of mucormycosis, regardless of patient profile. Bronchoscopic findings and mycology report helped us to rule out other differential diagnosis.

18.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(6):1048-1051, 2021.
Article in Spanish | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1553211

ABSTRACT

The most common symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are fever, cough, odynophagia, headache, myalgia, and diarrhea. A much smaller percentage have dizziness, rhinorrhea, and hemoptysis as associated symptoms. However, the great magnitude that this second wave acquired, can make this last complication appear more frequently. This report describes the case of a 49-year-old patient with a history of recent COVID-19 infection with requirement of mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure, who developed during hospitalization in the general ward with parapneumonic pleural effusion and episodes of persistent hemoptysis that required surgical treatment. During surgery, a significant fibro-adhesion process and a congestive lung with focal increased consistency and areas of necrosis were found.

19.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(5): 554-556, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453868

ABSTRACT

We describe a novel technique for the creation of a pleural tent and pleurectomy via the use of a laparoscopic hernia balloon. In this method a Spacemaker™ Structural Balloon Trocar (Covidien, USA) is tunnelled under the pleura at the site of thoracotomy or video assisted thoracoscopic surgery port and incrementally inflated under vision. This method is less traumatic than traditional methods, is more likely to provide an intact pleural tent, and allows the surgeon to operate in a near bloodless operative field.


Subject(s)
Osteosarcoma/surgery , Pleura/surgery , Pleural Neoplasms/surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/methods , Thoracotomy/methods , Dissection , Humans , Male , Osteosarcoma/secondary , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/instrumentation , Thoracotomy/instrumentation , Young Adult
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