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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 218, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108966

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate air leakage during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore potential risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent IMV in a single-center PICU in a tertiary referral hospital. Air leakage risk factors and factors associated with an improved outcome were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 548 children who underwent IMV were enrolled in this study. Air leakage occurred in 7.5% (41/548) of the cases in the PICU. Air leakage increased the duration of IMV and hospitalization time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of air leakage during IMV for PICU patients with acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 4.38), a higher pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) (OR = 1.08), or a higher peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (OR = 1.08), whereas the risk was lower for patients with central respiratory failure (OR = 0.14). The logistic model had excellent predictive power for air leakage, with an area under the curve of 0.883 and tenfold cross-validation. Patients aged between 1 and 6 years who were diagnosed with measles or pneumonia and had a low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high PaO2/FiO2 ratio were associated with improved outcomes. Patients diagnosed with central respiratory failure or congenital heart diseases were associated with less desirable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS, a higher PCIS at admission or a higher PIP were at higher risk of air leakage.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Intensive Care Units
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082155

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has infected millions of people worldwide over the past few years. The main technique used for COVID-19 detection is reverse transcription, which is expensive, sensitive, and requires medical expertise. X-ray imaging is an alternative and more accessible technique. This study aimed to improve detection accuracy to create a computer-aided diagnostic tool. Combining other artificial intelligence applications techniques with radiological imaging can help detect different diseases. This study proposes a technique for the automatic detection of COVID-19 and other chest-related diseases using digital chest X-ray images of suspected patients by applying transfer learning (TL) algorithms. For this purpose, two balanced datasets, Dataset-1 and Dataset-2, were created by combining four public databases and collecting images from recently published articles. Dataset-1 consisted of 6000 chest X-ray images with 1500 for each class. Dataset-2 consisted of 7200 images with 1200 for each class. To train and test the model, TL with nine pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) was used with augmentation as a preprocessing method. The network was trained to classify using five classifiers: two-class classifier (normal and COVID-19); three-class classifier (normal, COVID-19, and viral pneumonia), four-class classifier (normal, viral pneumonia, COVID-19, and tuberculosis (Tb)), five-class classifier (normal, bacterial pneumonia, COVID-19, Tb, and pneumothorax), and six-class classifier (normal, bacterial pneumonia, COVID-19, viral pneumonia, Tb, and pneumothorax). For two, three, four, five, and six classes, our model achieved a maximum accuracy of 99.83, 98.11, 97.00, 94.66, and 87.29%, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumothorax , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Artificial Intelligence
3.
Tanaffos ; 20(4): 368-372, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073854

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infection is a global health concern in 2020. Computerized tomography (CT) scan has an important role in diagnosis and follow-up with the course of the disease. The most common radiologic findings in patients are bilateral peripheral patchy ground-glass opacities and consolidations. Although in a few cases, as we reported, we encountered some rare manifestations such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema, which imply distinct concerns about the management and outcome of the disease. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema develops due to an increase in alveolar pressure or because of alveolar rupture, secondary to alveolar membrane damage by the virus and proceed to such a complication. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the complications of novel coronavirus infection in the deterioration of the disease.

4.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(4):491-496, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066907

ABSTRACT

Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is a therapeutic method that can produce a range of physiological effects in cells and tissues using certain wavelengths. The reparative benefits of PBM therapy include wound healing, bone regeneration, pain reduction, and the mitigation of inflammation. Advances in the development of laser instruments, including the use of high-intensity lasers in physiotherapy, have recently led to controllable photothermal and photomechanical treatments that enable therapeutic effects to be obtained without damaging tissue. The combination of PBM therapy with acupuncture may provide new perspectives for investigating the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture and promote its widespread application.

5.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:217-221, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first data for COVID-19 in pregnancy showed mild-to-moderate forms of the disease while the current data speak of severe forms in these subjects. Here, we present a case of a severe form of COVID-19 in a gemelar pregnant woman complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, during her hospital stay, in a late stage of disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old multiparous woman was referred to university hospital at 25 weeks of gemelar pregnancy. On admission, the patient presented with signs of moderate respiratory insufficiency, which after 12 h progressed further to severe ARDS. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Under these conditions, it was decided that the patient undergoes a cesarean section for termination of pregnancy. Remdesivir 200 mg/day and tocilizumab 8 mg/kg were administered, based on national guidelines. The patient’s fever subsided, but her SpO2 remained at 94%, even with a 15 L/min oxygen mask. After 12 days, the patient complains of a severe back pain and her respiratory condition rapidly worsened and reduced saturations up to 80% being under O2 therapy with facial mask with 15 l/min. Chest CT findings confirmed pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, which deteriorated the patient’s status. Thereafter, tube thoracostomy was performed. There was a clinical and ABG analysis parameter’s improvement. The patient was discharged 34 days after cesarean delivery with a proper general health. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights even more convincingly the fact that, in pregnancy, can be severe to life-threating forms of COVID-19. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are complications that can be encountered even in the late stages of severe forms cases with COVID-19 in pregnancy. Early diagnosis of these complications is essential in adequate management and treatment to avoid fatal outcome.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066352

ABSTRACT

Academics and the health community are paying much attention to developing smart remote patient monitoring, sensors, and healthcare technology. For the analysis of medical scans, various studies integrate sophisticated deep learning strategies. A smart monitoring system is needed as a proactive diagnostic solution that may be employed in an epidemiological scenario such as COVID-19. Consequently, this work offers an intelligent medicare system that is an IoT-empowered, deep learning-based decision support system (DSS) for the automated detection and categorization of infectious diseases (COVID-19 and pneumothorax). The proposed DSS system was evaluated using three independent standard-based chest X-ray scans. The suggested DSS predictor has been used to identify and classify areas on whole X-ray scans with abnormalities thought to be attributable to COVID-19, reaching an identification and classification accuracy rate of 89.58% for normal images and 89.13% for COVID-19 and pneumothorax. With the suggested DSS system, a judgment depending on individual chest X-ray scans may be made in approximately 0.01 s. As a result, the DSS system described in this study can forecast at a pace of 95 frames per second (FPS) for both models, which is near to real-time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung , Medicare , United States , X-Rays
7.
Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065698

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has attracted worldwide attention ever since the first case was identified in Wuhan (China) in December 2019 and was classified, at a later time, as a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 and as a pandemic in March 2020. The interstitial pneumonia caused by COVID-19 often requires mechanical ventilation, which can lead to pulmonary barotrauma. We assessed the relationship between pneumonia severity and the development of barotrauma in COVID-19-positive patients mechanically ventilated in an intensive care unit; we therefore analyzed the prevalence of iatrogenic barotrauma and its trends over time during the pandemic in COVID-19-positive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation compared to COVID-19-negative patients, making a distinction between different types of ventilation (invasive mechanical ventilation vs. noninvasive mechanical ventilation). We compared CT findings of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in 104 COVID-19-positive patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit and 101 COVID-19-negative patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the period between October 2020 and December 2021. The severity of pneumonia was not directly correlated with the development of barotrauma. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of complications due to barotrauma was observed in the group of mechanically ventilated COVID-19-postive patients vs. COVID-19-negative patients. A higher rate of barotrauma was observed in subgroups of COVID-19-positive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation compared to those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of barotrauma in COVID 19-positive patients showed a decreasing trend over the period under review. CT remains an essential tool in the early detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of the clinical course of SARS-CoV2 pneumonia; in evaluating the disease severity; and in the assessment of iatrogenic complications such as barotrauma pathology.

8.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A359-A360, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064045

ABSTRACT

Aims To describe a case of 3 weeks old neonate presenting with severe pulmonary hemorrhage due to COVID-19 infection and its outcome. Methods We report an interesting case of pulmonary hemorrhage presenting at a young age of 3 weeks, in a previously healthy neonate who was infected with COVID-19 virus;Literature review and investigation results are included. This is a 3-week-old female, a product of full-term pregnancy and an uneventful perinatal course. She was admitted from the emergency department initially as a case of late neonatal sepsis, where a full septic workup was done. Her presenting complaints were low-grade fever and a blocked nose for one day. She was hemodynamically stable in the emergency department except for tachycardia secondary to fever, which improved once the fever was controlled. Her initial blood workup, including blood gas and CSF study, was reassuring (table 1a). Her COVID PCR was positive with a CT value of 17.77. She was treated with IV antibiotics and supportive management. Later that day, the patient developed cardiopulmonary arrest, CPR was initiated, and the patient was intubated. The patient was found to have pulmonary hemorrhage as evident by the fresh blood coming out of the endotracheal tube and the chest X-Ray findings of ground-glass opacities and dense consolidation (figure 1). After initial brief stabilization, the patient started deteriorating requiring escalation of respiratory support to HFOV. The patient continued to deteriorate and developed bilateral pneumothorax requiring bilateral chest tube insertion. After chest tube insertion, there was a mild transient improvement in oxygenation. The patient was put on the maximum ventilatory settings, but she kept having frequent desaturation, requiring frequent manual bag to tube ventilation. Later, she started developing progressive hypotension, that required support with maximum doses of inotropes. Her urine output started decreasing, for which frusemide were started with no response. Blood investigations showed severe DIC picture (table 1b and 1c). She was empirically covered with Meropenem and Vancomycin along with Remdesivir and Dexamethasone for COVID 19 pneumonia. Eventually, the child developed progressive desaturation, hypotension, and poor perfusion. Shortly after that, she developed cardiac arrest and was declared dead. Results The clinical picture of COVID 19 infection is more indistinct in children than in adults, with the most common symptoms being fever, cough, dyspnea, and malaise. In the few published cases of COVID-19 in the neonate, the presentation was that of late neonatal sepsis;interestingly, the lung involvement was not described as frequently as in older age groups. Pulmonary hemorrhage has been reported in adults but rarely in children. Some reports in adults suggested that patients with COVID infection had an increased inflammatory state that led to the development of vasculitis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Up to our knowledge, this is the youngest age at which a patient with COVID-19 infection developed pulmonary hemorrhage with no other underlying cause of it. Conclusion While many of the cases of COVID infection in children are mild, fatal complications like pulmonary hemorrhage can be present. Adding new challenges to the management of this viral infection.

9.
Medical Journal Armed Forces India ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061666

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV2 pandemic has spread like wildfire and has affected all the countries worldwide. The virus mainly affects the lungs and has numerous manifestations. The development of spontaneous pneumatocele and pneumothorax has rarely been reported in the literature, especially in spontaneously breathing patients. We report two cases of COVID-19 patients who developed these complications after discharge from our hospital. These complications are uncommon but can be potentially fatal and the treating physician should keep these complications as differential while managing such cases.

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A2637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060976

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Chest Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: (1) Assess the characteristics of COVID-19 patients who developed pulmonary cysts, bullae, blebs, and pneumatoceles. (2) Investigate outcomes of patients who developed cystic lung disease from COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search using Pubmed, Cochrane, and Embase was performed for case reports from 2020 to 2022 describing COVID-19 patients who developed lung cysts, bullae, blebs and pneumatoceles. The following data were extracted: patient demographics, presence of underlying lung disease, history of smoking, maximum oxygen requirements during acute illness, imaging findings, complications, and patient mortality. RESULTS: 65 publications (11 case series and 54 case reports) with a total sample size of 76 patients were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 52.2 ± 15.8 years. A majority of the cases were males (n=67, 88.2%). Twelve (15.8%) cases had an underlying lung disease, such as COPD or asthma, and 16 (21.1%) cases had a history of smoking tobacco. We categorized severity of illness based on the levels of oxygen requirement defined as: (1) mild - 0 to 2 liters of oxygen, (2) moderate - greater than 2 liters of oxygen to face mask/venturi mask and (3) severe - high flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation, or mechanical ventilation. The majority of patients (n=40, 52.6%) had severe illness while 7 (9.2%) and 17 (22.4%) presented with mild and moderate disease, respectively. Of the 25 (32.9%) patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of ventilator days was provided for 14 patients, with a median of 40 days (interquartile range=54). Twenty-one (27.6%) patients were found to have cysts on imaging, 26 (34.2%) were found to have bullae, 3 (3.9%) were found to have blebs, 15 (19.7%) were found to have pneumatoceles, and 11 (14.5%) were found to have more than one of the aforementioned findings. A total of 53 (69.7%) patients developed pneumothorax and 12 (15.8%) developed pneumomediastinum. Seventeen (22.4%) patients were on the mechanical ventilator while pulmonary complications occurred. Additionally, 41 (53.9%) required chest tube placement, 16 (21.1%) required surgical intervention including open thoracotomy or video assisted thoracoscopy. A total of 47 (61.8%) cases reported either resolution of symptoms and complications, or improved imaging findings following interventions. The rate of inpatient mortality was 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COVID-19 may have a higher risk for developing cystic lung disease, hence, increasing the risk for complications such as pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients who had severe COVID-19 may benefit from closer follow up and serial imaging for early detection of cystic lung disease. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kavita Batra No relevant relationships by Rajany Dy No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Wilbur Ji No relevant relationships by Max Nguyen No relevant relationships by Omar Sanyurah

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A2281, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060930

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Impact of Health Disparities and Differences SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: To address rural healthcare disparities by providing access to home based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) program for eligible veterans at the Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) who reside in remote areas or those with barriers of long travel time and transportation hardship. METHODS: The Pulmonary Section at the Salem VAMC received a grant from the Office of Rural Health to establish HBPR program for eligible veterans. Its goal was to improve quality of life and potentially reduce COPD hospitalizations and exacerbations (AECOPD). Under the direction of pulmonologists, the program was run by an exercise physiologist (EP). Referrals were received from inpatient and outpatient providers. After an initial in-person evaluation, weekly telehealth meetings (telephone, video) occurred over 12 weeks. Veterans were provided with the equipment, and an individualized targeted exercise program along with education and counseling on tobacco cessation, nutrition, oxygen compliance, stress management, medication adherence. Follow up appointments were scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months post completion. RESULTS: Between September 2020 and January 2022, 312 consults were received, 206 consults were scheduled and 175 veterans enrolled. To date, 100 have completed the program with 24 ongoing. 30% declined service, citing: comorbidities, physical debility, difficulty remembering scheduled appointments, lack of motivation, social reasons, worsening health status. Mean age was 71, male predominance (95%). Referral diagnoses included: COPD (86%), chronic hypoxic respiratory failure (55%), COVID-19 (11%), Interstital Lung Diseases (10%). Mean FEV1 was 57% predicted, mean MMRC Dyspnea Scale 2.5, mean BODE score 5. 20% of enrolled veterans were active smokers, 72% were former smokers. 6 minute walk test increased from 156 meters on enrollment to 216 meters on completion. 45 veterans required hospitalization for pulmonary issues during their participation in the program. EP identified on weekly appointments 20 AECOPD that were treated as outpatient, 1 spontaneous pneumothorax that led to hospitalization, and facilitated the refill of inhalers or adjustment of medical regimen. Patient satisfaction score, including perception of benefit post completion was 29.4/30. CONCLUSIONS: HBPR at the Salem VAMC provided access to eligible veterans, overcoming barriers of rurality, transportation hardship and lack of nearby conventional programs. It also offered off business hours PR to veterans who continue to work. It allowed decrease in community care referrals thus establishing useful and cost effective service. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Pulmonary Rehabilitation has been shown to reduce morbidity, improve functional status and have mortality benefit. Healthcare discrepancies and disparities have been a major obstacle for enrollment. HBPR would address these issues and contribute to decreased health service utilization and costs. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nathalie Abi Hatem No relevant relationships by Brittany Frost No relevant relationships by Mitchell Horowitz No relevant relationships by Deepa Lala

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A2079-A2080, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060895

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Great Procedural Cases: Fire, Ice, Struts, Valves, and Glue SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes commonly occur in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be complicated by persistent air leak (PAL) due to bronchopleural or alveolopleural fistula. More recently, bronchoscopic placement of one-way endobronchial valves (EBV) for PAL have been explored. We present the first case series of patients with CF who developed secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes and were successfully treated with EBV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old female with CF (F508del/dupex6B-10) and history of pneumothorax, presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. She was found to have a right-sided pneumothorax. A chest tube was placed, with a continuous air leak for 4 days. She was a suboptimal surgical candidate given extensive apical lung disease, making localization of the air leak difficult. In addition, the increased tissue density would have made wedge resection challenging. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent placement of 5 Zephyr EBV (Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, CA) for PAL. The lung had re-expanded, but there was still an intermittent air leak. She underwent pleurodesis with betadine. Her chest tube was removed 2 days later, and she was discharged. She was seen in the pulmonary clinic 5 days after being discharged and was noted to have recurrent right pneumothorax. She underwent chest tube placement with flutter valve. The chest tube was removed after 10 days. The patient was scheduled for removal of EBV 6 weeks after placement, but the procedure was delayed to symptomatic COVID-19 infection. EBV were eventually removed 12 weeks after placement. Pneumothorax has not recurred 6 weeks post EBV removal. A 53-year-old female with CF (394delTT/3272-26A-G) and a small right apical secondary spontaneous pneumothorax 3 months prior to hospitalization presented with progressive dyspnea. Imaging showed that the pneumothorax had enlarged. A chest tube was placed with continuous air leak. After a multidisciplinary discussion, 5 Zephyr EBV were placed 2 days later. There was immediate improvement of the pneumothorax, with almost no air leak. Her chest tube was removed 48 hours after placement of EBV, and patient was discharged on day 4. The EBV were removed 8 weeks later with no recurrence of pneumothorax 1 month after valve removal. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the use of Zephyr EBV in CF patients with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax complicated by PAL. Although previous guidelines still recommend surgery and/or pleurodesis for PAL, this may not be the best option for patients with CF who may require lung transplantation. EBV are currently FDA approved for lung volume reduction to treat emphysema, but it is likely a viable non-surgical alternative for PAL. CONCLUSIONS: EBV is a well-tolerated treatment option for PAL due to secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes. Reference #1: Bongers KS, De Cardenas J. Endobronchial valve treatment of persistent alveolopleural fistulae in a patient with cystic fibrosis and empyema. J Cyst Fibros. 2020 Sep;19(5):e36-e38. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.03.014. Epub 2020 Apr 18. PMID: 32312675. Reference #2: Travaline JM, McKenna RJ Jr, De Giacomo T, Venuta F, Hazelrigg SR, Boomer M, Criner GJ;Endobronchial Valve for Persistent Air Leak Group. Treatment of persistent pulmonary air leaks using endobronchial valves. Chest. 2009 Aug;136(2):355-360. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2389. Epub 2009 Apr 6. Erratum in: Chest. 2009 Sep;136(3):950. PMID: 19349382. Reference #3: Dugan KC, Laxmanan B, Murgu S, Hogarth DK. Management of Persistent Air Leaks. Chest. 2017 Aug;152(2):417-423. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.02.020. Epub 2017 Mar 4. PMID: 28267436;PMCID: PMC6026238. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Bryan Benn no disclosure on file for Julie Biller;No relevant relationships by Rose Franco Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Biodesix Please note: 2018 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria Consultant relationship with Level Ex Please note: 2018 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Medtronic Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Pinnacle Biologics Please note: 2020 - present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Boston Scientific Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Cook Medical Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Erbe Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria research panel relationship with Intuitive Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria Removed 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman Consultant relationship with Pulmonx Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Travel relationship with Ambu Please note: 2021-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Travel Removed 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman Consultant relationship with Ambu Please note: 2022-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Veracyte Please note: 2021-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Shreya Podder

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A2072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060894

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Tales in Bronchoscopy SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Peripheral pulmonary nodule biopsy can be challenging based on its location and size. Robotic bronchoscopy is augmenting peripheral navigation, allowing for approximation of peripheral nodules. The diagnostic yield is variable and is primarily dependent upon operator experience, selection of biopsy equipment and nodule texture. Hard pulmonary nodules are difficult to biopsy with a needle, brush and forceps. We report a case of utilizing combined disposable 1.1 mm cryoprobe and robotic bronchoscopy to diagnose a right lower lobe nodule. CASE PRESENTATION: A 83-year-old woman with a remote history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with dyspnea and fatigue. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a 2.7 cm hypermetabolic nodule with central photopenia in the right lower lobe (RLL) along with patchy bilateral ground-glass opacities related to COVID-19 infection. After a few weeks, robotic navigation was used for approximation of the RLL superior segment nodule. Under fluoroscopic and radial guidance with circumferential signal, 6 forcep biopsies and 5 fine needle aspirations with 21-gauge needle yielded a non-diagnostic sample. A decision was made to utilize a 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe, which was inserted through the opening made by the forceps into the target lesion. Six cryo biopsies were obtained with 4-6 seconds freeze time. Minimal bleeding was encountered and no pneumothorax occurred. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of combination 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe biopsy with robotic bronchoscopy. Interventional pulmonologists are primarily using cryo probe for mechanical tumor debulking and peripheral lung biopsy for diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. The use of a 1.1 mm cryoprobe under robotic guidance allows for well-preserved tissue samples and possibly boosting diagnostic yield. The advantage of the 1.1 mm cryoprobe lies with its size and excellent flexibility. The robotic platform also corrects for any unwanted deflection. One limitation of using a flexible cryoprobe is its blunt tip, requiring an additional step in gaining access to nodules located outside the airway with either the biopsy needle or forceps. Future improvements in cryoprobe design with a sharp tip may address this limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Combining 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe with robotic bronchoscopy is safe and can be considered as an adjunct to conventional biopsy, allowing for well-preserved tissue. Further prospective studies to evaluate its performance and safety is warranted. Reference #1: Kho SS, Chai CS, Nyanti LE, et al. Combination of 1.1 mm flexible cryoprobe with conventional guide sheath and therapeutic bronchoscope in biopsy of apical upper lobe solitary pulmonary nodule. BMC Pulm Med. 2020. 158(20). doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01199-3 Reference #2: Chen AC, Pastis NJ Jr, Mahajan AK, et al. Robotic Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Multicenter Pilot and Feasibility Study (BENEFIT). Chest. 2021;159(2):845-852. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.2047 Reference #3: Sahajal Dhooria, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ashutosh NA Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Cryoprobe Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Respiratory Care. 2016. 61(5):700-712. doi.org/10.4187/respcare.04488 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sailendra Chundu No relevant relationships by Moiz Javed No relevant relationships by Abid Khokar No relevant relationships by Ali Saeed No relevant relationships by Andrew Talon No relevant relationships by Melinda Wang

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2040-A2041, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060891

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pneumothorax, Chylothorax, and Pleural Effusion Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Chest tube placement is generally done to drain air (Pneumothorax) or fluid (Effusion or Hemothorax) from the pleural cavity. The incidence of complications related to such intervention varies between 1 to 6 percent (1), and includes but not limited to malposition, injuring chest wall structures, injuring intrathoracic structures, bleeding, and infection. In this case we present an unusual complication to surgical chest tube placement. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient is a 59-year-old male, long term resident of a nursing facility with past medical history of alcohol use disorder in remission, alcoholic cirrhosis, seizure disorder, protein-calorie malnutrition and a recent COVID-19 infection. He presented with worsening shortness of breath and was admitted with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Initial CT scan showed fibrotic, reticular and cystic changes, traction bronchiectasis and diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities. He was admitted to the medical ICU;he was treated initially with broad spectrum antibiotics and diuresis with minimal response. Eventually steroid therapy was started for Covid related organizing pneumonia, and he improved. Later in his hospital state he developed bilateral small pneumothoraxes that enlarged overtime and a surgical chest tube was placed on the right side. Post procedure chest x ray showed that the tube was kinked, and the pneumothorax was still present. A follow up CT chest confirmed the presence of an extra-pleural hematoma with the tube kinked inside it. CT angiography of the chest was done and showed active extravasation of contrast into the extra-pleural space likely from the intercostal arterial branches. Interventional radiology took the patient to see if they could cauterize the bleeding vessel but they were unable to identify the source of bleeding. Thoracic surgery was also consulted and was planning to take the patient to the OR, remove the tube, evacuate the hematoma and control the bleeding. However, the patient opted against this. DISCUSSION: Extra-pleural hematoma is a rare complication of surgical chest tube placement. It is usually seen after blunt trauma or rib fracture, but can still occur after subclavian vein central line placement or chest tube placement. Bleeding is usually arterial in origin and treatment is often surgical. Radiological characteristics include biconvex shape and the extra-pleural fat sign (2,3,);hypodense rim medial to the hematoma due to the inward displacement of the extra-pleural fat by the hematoma. CONCLUSIONS: Chest tube placement remains a routine procedure that is done in emergency departments and hospital wards. Generally, a safe intervention but clinicians should be aware of the possible complications and their management including extra-pleural hematomas. Reference #1: Pleural procedures and thoracic ultrasound: British Thoracic Society pleural disease guideline 2010 Tom Havelock1, Richard Teoh2, Diane Laws3, Fergus Gleeson4 on behalf of the BTS Pleural Disease Guideline Group. Correspondence to Dr Tom Havelock, Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK;t.havelock@soton.ac.uk Reference #2: Journal of Trauma and Injury 2017;30(4): 202-205. Published online: December 30, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.202 Traumatic Extrapleural Hematoma Mimicking Hemothorax Yong Seon Choi, M.D., Soon Jin Kim, M.D., Sang Woo Ryu, Seung Ku Kang Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Mokpo Hankook Hospital, Mokpo, Korea Correspondence to: Soon Jin Kim, M.D., Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Mokpo Hankook Hospital, 483 Yeongsan-ro, Mokpo 58643, Korea, Tel: +82-61-270-5574, Fax: +82-61-277-0199, E-mail : innocent-blood@hanmail.net Reference #3: The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 51, Issue 2, August 2016, Pages 159-163 Nonoperative Management of a Large Extrapleural Hematom after Blunt Chest Trauma LuisGorospe MD, María Ángeles Fernández-Méndez MD, AnaAyala-Carbonero MD, AlbertoCabañero-Sánchez MD, Gemma MaríaMuñoz-Molina MD, PhD DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ahmad Allaham No relevant relationships by Elyce Sheehan

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A1999, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060884

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Cases SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Sodium hydroxide and ammonium salt vapor exposure are known to cause epithelial necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree, but no pathologic descriptions exist of subsequent inflammatory pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with 2 months of progressive scant hemoptysis and dyspnea on exertion. He had a mild smoking history, a history of longstanding stable UC, and had a history significant only for recently performing multiple weeks of cleaning work on a large, enclosed HVAC system with chemicals containing sodium hydroxide and ammonium. He wore no respiratory protection at work. CXR was significant for streaky bilateral lower lobe opacities and CT Chest revealed bilateral basilar ground-glass opacities with a small left pneumothorax. His PFT demonstrated mild restriction with a diffusion defect. Infiltrates persisted after treatment with levofloxacin. A broad autoimmune panel was normal. Bronchoscopy with cryobiopsy showed organizing pneumonia with foreign body reaction. BAL showed primarily mast cells and no organisms were found. Prednisone at 60mg daily with Bactrim prophylaxis and a subsequent prolonged wean was initiated with marked improvement. DISCUSSION: Industrial HVAC cleaning agents are widely used with the proliferation of HVAC systems in the post-COVID world. Other examples exist of prolonged cleaning product use and lung function decline (Svanes et al). Our case report hypothesizes a link between inhalational exposure to sodium hydroxide and ammonium salts with organizing pneumonia with foreign body features, a previously unknown effect. Prednisone led to improvement. CONCLUSIONS: High suspicion for occult pneumonitis should exist when patients present with prolonged exposure to cleaning/noxious chemical vapors exist. Respiratory protection should be emphasized as a public health policy to prevent lung damage among any type of cleaner use including high-skilled (HVAC) cleaners. Reference #1: Advenier, A., & Grandmaison, G. (2022). PULMONARY ACUTE LESIONS AFTER CAUSTIC EXPOSURE. Retrieved 31 March 2022, from https://www.lungdiseasesjournal.com/articles/pulmonary-acute-lesions-after-caustic-exposure.html Reference #2: Svanes, Ø., Bertelsen, R. J., Lygre, S., Carsin, A. E., Antó, J. M., Forsberg, B., García-García, J. M., Gullón, J. A., Heinrich, J., Holm, M., Kogevinas, M., Urrutia, I., Leynaert, B., Moratalla, J. M., Le Moual, N., Lytras, T., Norbäck, D., Nowak, D., Olivieri, M., Pin, I., … Svanes, C. (2018). Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 197(9), 1157–1163. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201706-1311OC Reference #3: Gorguner, M., & Akgun, M. (2010). Acute inhalation injury. The Eurasian journal of medicine, 42(1), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.5152/eajm.2010.09 DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Ai-Yui Maria Tan;No relevant relationships by Sudha Misra No relevant relationships by Amrik Ray

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A1990-A1991, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060882

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Dirty Jobs: Occupational Lung Diseases SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) is a group of immunologically mediated lung diseases. It develops in susceptible individuals with exposure to provoking antigens along with influence from genetic and environmental factors. There remains no standardized approach for assessing the various forms of HP and the diverse nature of the disease makes it difficult and often underdiagnosed. Cystic disease is not uncommon in HP, but the advanced cystic disease seen in our young patient was unique and likely compounded by her pregnancy as well as a previous illness with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old female construction worker at 12 weeks gestation, with a past medical history of polysubstance abuse and previous COVID-19 infection ten months prior, presented with progressively worsening dyspnea of 9 months. She was admitted with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to recurrent right pneumothorax requiring multiple thoracenteses and eventually chest tube placement. CT Chest demonstrated severe cystic interstitial fibrosis with emphysematous changes. Initial lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis as a possible sequela of COVID-19. Due to her pregnancy and medical complications, she was transferred to a transplant center where she continued to have recurrent pneumothoraces requiring video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Autoimmune workup, HP panel, and extended myositis panel were negative. However, a repeat lung biopsy pointed to subacute HP. Despite steroid and immunosuppressant initiation, her hospital course was complicated by cardiac arrest and brain death. She went on to become an organ donor. DISCUSSION: Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by parenchymal destruction of the airway walls leading to expansion of the distal airspaces forming multi-lobular cysts. A broad differential diagnosis for this exists including infection, Langerhans histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, interstitial pneumonia, and HP. The first step to evaluate HP is a detailed history of potential exposures. Our patient worked in construction and was exposed to commonly demonstrated antigens used in paint, plastic, and wood manufacture. Pregnancy appears to trigger symptoms in some patients, seen in prior case reports. Our patient's symptoms began after her COVID infection. Though not clearly studied, some studies have proposed that dysregulation of COVID - 19 immune response triggers interstitial fibrosis as a long-term sequela. Early diagnosis and treatment with steroids are vital to the treatment and prevention of complications such as recurrent pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 is an emerging risk factor for the propagation of various immune-mediated diseases. Progression of disease may occur even after the infection has been cured and limited data is available regarding its relation. Early recognition and treatment can be effective life-saving measures in these patients. Reference #1: Baldi BG, Carvalho CRR, Dias OM, Marchiori E, Hochhegger B. Diffuse cystic lung diseases: differential diagnosis. J Bras Pneumol. 2017;43(2):140-149. Reference #2: Densem C, Niven R, Barber P, Bishop P. Development of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis during pregnancy. J R Soc Med. 1998;91(11):591-593. Reference #3: Ambardar SR, Hightower SL, Huprikar NA, Chung KK, Singhal A, Collen JF. Post-COVID-19 Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Sequelae of the Current Pandemic. J Clin Med. 2021;10(11):2452. Published 2021 Jun 1 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Anastasia Brit No relevant relationships by Steven Colby No relevant relationships by Patrick Koo No relevant relationships by Vishruth Vyata No relevant relationships by Harika Yadav

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A1961-A1962, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060881

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Obstructive Lung Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Individual cases of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema have been reported in asthma attacks, but rarely coincide. Pathophysiology is secondary to obstruction in the minor airways leading to air-trapping and barotrauma of distal airways with subsequent alveolar rupture. This case illustrates a case of asthma exacerbation with a synchronous triad of rare complications. CASE PRESENTATION: 65-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, asthma and hypertension presented with shortness of breath, wheezing, and productive cough since four days ago. Vital signs were remarkable for tachypnea and saturation of 91%. Physical examination revealed respiratory distress, and auscultation disclosed diffuse inspiratory and expiratory wheezing. Limited bedside ultrasound showed B-lines compatible for pulmonary edema. Arterial blood gases were compatible with respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia. Laboratories showed leukocytosis, hypotonic hyponatremia, normal brain natriuretic peptide, and negative COVID-19 PCR test. Chest Xray (CXR) demonstrated changes concerning for pneumonia with superimposed pleural effusion. The patient was admitted with the impression of asthma exacerbation versus community acquired pneumonia. Initially, the patient was placed in bi-level positive airway pressure to aid in respiratory discomfort, broad spectrum antibiotic regimen, and diuresis therapy. On follow up, she was found hypoxic with periorbital edema, dyspnea, and subcutaneous emphysema in neck, upper extremities, and thorax for which emergent intubation was performed. CXR and Thoracic CT confirmed pneumomediastinum, large right sided pneumothorax and a moderate left sided pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy. At the Intensive Care Unit, treatment included combination therapies with levalbuterol, ipratropium, terbutaline, theophylline, budesonide, IV steroids and magnesium without appropriate response. Mechanical ventilator was set to protective lung parameters to avoid worsening barotrauma. Subsequently, she was paralyzed for 48 hours to aid in synchrony and allow adequate pulmonary gas exchange. Nonetheless, severe bronchoconstriction was persistent along with depressed neurological status. Two months later, the patient passed away. DISCUSSION: We believe our patient developed barotrauma secondary to a cough attack combined with positive airway pressure. Similarities in presentation such as dyspnea, tachycardia, and hypoxia may prove difficult in differentiation. Although each of these pathologies separately can generally be self-limiting depending on size and hemodynamic compromise, the combination can be mortal and clinical suspicion is important in fast diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our case demonstrates the importance of suspicion of barotrauma in patients with asthma attacks not responding adequately to therapy or developing worsening hypoxia which can be detrimental. Reference #1: Franco, A. I., Arponen, S., Hermoso, F., & García, M. J. (2019). Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as a complication of an asthma attack. The Indian journal of radiology & imaging, 29(1), 77–80. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_340_18 Reference #2: Zeynep Karakaya, Şerafettin Demir, Sönmez Serkan Sagay, Olcay Karakaya, Serife Özdinç, "Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, and Subcutaneous Emphysema: Rare and Fatal Complications of Asthma", Case Reports in Emergency Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 242579, 3 pages, 2012.https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/242579 Reference #3: Subcutaneous Emphysema in Acute Asthma: A Cause for Concern? Patrick D Mitchell, Thomas J King, Donal B O'Shea Respiratory Care Aug 2015, 60 (8) e141-e143;DOI: 10.4187/respcare.03750 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Juan Adams-Chahin No relevant relationships by Gretchen Marrero No relevant relationships by natalia Mestres No relevant relationships by Are is Morales Malavé No relevant relationships by Carlos Sifre No relevant relationships by Paloma Velasco No relevant relationships by Mark Vergara-Gomez

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A1854-A1855, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060873

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Diagnosis of Lung Disease through Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: This report describes the case of a patient presenting with pneumothorax and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus-2 (SARS-cov-2) infection leading to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, with worsening presentation, later found to have underlying Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis (PPFE). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old male with a past medical history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes presented to his primary care clinic with shortness of breath. He underwent a Chest X-Ray as an outpatient which revealed a moderate right-sided pneumothorax (PTX), and he was sent to the Emergency Department by his primary care provider. He was found to be COVID positive on initial workup, also requiring supplemental oxygen. Other routine laboratory tests did not reveal any significant abnormalities. His shortness of breath worsened and on repeat X-rays his pneumothorax increased in size therefore a chest tube was placed by Cardiothoracic Surgery. Computerized Tomography of the chest revealed moderate right pneumothorax, bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities and pulmonary micronodules [Figure 1]. The patient had mild initial improvement and the chest tube was removed but he had recurrence of the PTX and he underwent urgent Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS), with right upper lobe wedge resection and talc pleurodesis. A biopsy of the resected lung revealed a benign lung with fibroelastotic scarring, diffusely involving subpleural tissue and prominently extending into and entrapping areas of underlying alveolated tissue, with no inflammation, granulomas or pneumonia noted. Workup for tuberculosis, autoimmune disorders, HIV was negative. He eventually was discharged home with close pulmonology and cardiothoracic surgery follow ups, planned for disease surveillance and malignancy workup. DISCUSSION: PPFE is a rare entity, and classified amongst rare causes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) [1]. It is characterized by upper lobe fibrosis, supleural and parenchymal scarring. It can occur at any age, and the usual presentation is of pneumothorax in a thin male, with a shortened anteroposterior diameter of the chest. Radiographic findings typically include subpleural nodular or reticular opacities in the upper lobes, usually sparing the middle and lower lobes. Pathology reveals increased elastic tissue and dense collagen fibers, along with subpleural fibrosis [2]. Pulmonary function testing reveals a restrictive pattern with reduced diffusion capacity and it is usually resistant to steroids [3]. CONCLUSIONS: PPFE is an uncommon cause of insidious, slowly progressive fibrotic lung disease often limited to the upper lobes. It should be suspected in any person presenting with recurrent pneumothorax or blebs without other known inciting causes. Lung biopsy helps establish the diagnosis. Patients with this condition need close pulmonology follow up to assess progression. Reference #1: Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM, King TE Jr, Lynch DA, Nicholson AG, Ryerson CJ, Ryu JH, Selman M, Wells AU, Behr J, Bouros D, Brown KK, Colby TV, Collard HR, Cordeiro CR, Cottin V, Crestani B, Drent M, Dudden RF, Egan J, Flaherty K, Hogaboam C, Inoue Y, Johkoh T, Kim DS, Kitaichi M, Loyd J, Martinez FJ, Myers J, Protzko S, Raghu G, Richeldi L, Sverzellati N, Swigris J, Valeyre D;ATS/ERS Committee on Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep 15;188(6):733-48. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201308-1483ST. PMID: 24032382;PMCID: PMC5803655. Reference #2: Frankel SK, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Brown KK. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: description of a novel clinicopathologic entity. Chest. 2004 Dec;126(6):2007-13. doi: 10.1378/chest.126.6.2007. PMID: 1559 706. Reference #3: Watanabe K. Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis: Its Clinical Characteristics. Curr Respir Med Rev. 2013 Jun;9(4):299-237. doi: 10.2174/1573398X0904140129125307. PMID: 24578677;PMCID: PMC3933942. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by FNU Amisha No relevant relationships by Perminder Gulani No relevant relationships by Hyomin Lim No relevant relationships by paras malik No relevant relationships by Divya Reddy

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A1814, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060869

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Outcomes Across COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema are reported as rare complications of COVID-19 pneumonia in various observational studies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of these complications and their outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, at our inner-city hospital system in Central Pennsylvania. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of the patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia from March 2020 to March 2021 in 3 different hospitals located in central Pennsylvania. Data on their demographics, pre-existing comorbidities, inpatient location, radiologic findings, timeline of events, mode of oxygenation and ventilation, hematology, chemistry profile and inflammatory markers were obtained. Patients with known inciting events for barotrauma, other than COVID-19 pneumonia were excluded from our analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of patient cohort was 66 years (SD 14.07). Almost fifty two percent were obese with BMI more than 30 kg/m2 and 69.5% were male. Only 11.4% of the study population had history of COPD and majority (63.6%) did not have history of smoking. Out of 31,260 inpatients, only 44 (0.0014 %) patients spontaneously developed thoracic free air. Among them, 33 (75%) had pneumothorax, and 22 (50%) needed chest tube for the management. 18 (40.9%) had pneumomediastinum, and 20 (45.5%) had subcutaneous emphysema. These are not exclusive findings and some patients had free air in more than one location. Thirty (68.2%) patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive Care Unit), 20 (45.5%) patients needed invasive ventilation and 26 (61.4%) had in-hospital mortality. Mortality in ICU was significantly high (86.67%) compared to non-ICU patients (7.14%). The average duration of hospitalization was 28.18 days (SD 25.46). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of spontaneous thoracic free air complication in COVID –19 pneumonia is a rare phenomenon. In our patient cohort, occurrence of these events was seen irrespective of type of oxygen delivery and ventilation. However, patients having these complications had a high rate of ICU admission. Mortality is significantly high especially in patients admitted to ICU. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Spontaneous thoracic free air complication in COVID-19 pneumonia is rare but can be a marker of poor prognosis. Vaccination status of study population was unknown, therefore the role of vaccination to prevent these complications and their outcome needs to be explored. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Yi-Ju Chen No relevant relationships by Anatoliy Korzhuk No relevant relationships by Rajan Pathak No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh No relevant relationships by Michaela Sangillo

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A1578, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060843

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Pulmonary Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumatoceles are air-filled cavitary lesions that are rarely seen in the lung after infection, trauma, or as part of a more diffuse cystic disease process. Several infectious agents have been associated with pneumatoceles, one of them being Pneumocystis Jirovecii, a potentially life-threatening fungus commonly seen as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of bilateral extensive pneumatocele in a newly diagnosed HIV patient found to be positive for Pneumocystis pneumonia CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old female presented to the emergency room for 2 months of shortness of breath, body aches, and chills. She was saturating at 86% on room air on arrival. Initial chest x-ray showed bilateral airspace disease. Had additional history of daily smoking, polysubstance abuse, and poor follow-up with doctors’ appointments due to social issues. She was started on oxygen support, steroids, antibiotics, and IV fluids. Labs were notable for normal overall WBC count but low lymphocyte count of 0.4. A CT Angiogram of the chest showed moderate to severe diffuse bilateral gas-filled cystic structures throughout the lungs, consistent with pneumatoceles. Infectious workup performed: COVID PCR, Influenza A/B antigen, legionella antigen, strep. pneumoniae antigen, B-D-glucan assay, histoplasma and blastomyces antigens, and HIV antibody. HIV antibody, strep pneumo antigen, and B-D-glucan assay came positive. She did not have a known diagnosis of HIV prior to this admission. Antibiotic regimen was changed to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, Bactrim, and fluconazole. Bronchoscopy with lavage was performed. Lavage samples were sent for cytology and found to be positive for Pneumocystis on GMS stain HIV viral load was checked and found to be at 1.4 million copies. CD4 count was less than 25 Patient was started on antiretroviral therapy in addition to prolonged course of Bactrim. She was ultimately discharged from the hospital in stable condition with pulmonary and infectious disease follow-up. At this time her pneumatoceles have improved on follow-up imaging. DISCUSSION: Pneumatoceles can rarely present as a complication of PCP pneumonia and can be a marker of more advanced disease. In our patient, pneumatoceles were identified first followed by diagnosis of HIV and PCP pneumonia. Overall incidence of post-infectious pneumatoceles is low at 2-8%. Prompt treatment and careful monitoring is needed due to risk of mortality from underlying infection and progression to pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: HIV with PCP infection complicated by pneumatocele formation is much less common due to improvements in HIV detection and screening for opportunistic infection, but should remain an important consideration in patients with unexplained cystic lung disease patterns, especially in patients without established outpatient follow-up or who don't see medical providers often. Reference #1: Thomas CF Jr, Limper AH: Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004;350: pp. 2487-2498. Reference #2: Albitar, Hasan and Saleh, Omar M. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Complicated by Extensive Diffuse Pneumatoceles. Am J Med. 2019 May;132(5):e562-e563. Epub 2019 Jan 16. Reference #3: Ryu, Jay et al. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases. Frontiers of Medicine volume 7, pages 316–327 (2013) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Clifford Hecht

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