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1.
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering ; 5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1670396

ABSTRACT

Water is considered a natural resource of high importance to the society whose availability and quality are in great demand. The water that reaches homes may contain different species, among them microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa and viruses that can contaminate and compromise the health and safety of the population. Thus, frequent water analysis would allow the monitoring of potentially harmful and/or toxic species that can be found in water resources. The application of point-of-care devices (POCs) for monitoring water ensures faster on-site analysis. The use of electrochemistry as a detection technique for a specific analyte presents itself as a promising way, being able to serve different targets reporting fast, selective and reproducible responses. After the COVID-19 outbreak in the world, the necessity of the development of such devices that may monitor species quickly, even at low concentrations was evidenced. The conventional methods of water analysis are still the most widely employed, despite the existence of already well-established modes of detection of target species by electrochemical techniques allowing on-site detection with POCs. In the quest to elucidate such issues, this review aims to show some biosensors devices developed for the detection of bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, attempting to understand what would still be needed for the large-scale application of these devices in water monitoring, identifying the innovative features and shortcomings of POCs. © 2022 The Authors

2.
J Clin Virol ; 147: 105062, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670705

ABSTRACT

Since diagnostic sampling material must be considered as infectious, we evaluated whether extraction buffers of SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test kits may inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Of concern, seven of nine tested buffers lacked potent virucidal activity. To reduce risk of infection during assay performance, virucidal antigen extraction buffers that efficiently inactivate virus should replace the extraction buffers in these commercially available point-of-care devices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Point-of-Care Systems
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 383-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076350

ABSTRACT

Advancements in analytical diagnostic systems for point-of-care (POC) application have gained considerable attention because of their rapid operation at the site required to manage severe diseases, even in a personalized manner. The POC diagnostic devices offer easy operation, fast analytical outcome, and affordable cost, which promote their advanced research and versatile adoptability. Keeping advantages in view, considerable efforts are being made to design and develop smart sensing components such as miniaturized transduction, interdigitated electrodes-based sensing chips, selective detection at low level, portable packaging, and sustainable durability to promote POC diagnostics according to the needs of patient care. Such effective diagnostics systems are in demand, which creates the challenge to make them more efficient in every aspect to generate a desired bio-informatic needed for better health access and management. Keeping advantages and scope in view, this mini review focuses on practical scenarios associated with miniaturized analytical diagnostic devices at POC application for targeted disease diagnostics smartly and efficiently. Moreover, advancements in technologies, such as smartphone-based operation, paper-based sensing assays, and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) which made POC more sensitive, informative, and suitable for major infectious disease diagnosis, are the main focus here. Besides, POC diagnostics based on automated patient sample integration with a sensing platform is continuously improving therapeutics interventions against specific infectious disease. This review also discussed challenges associated with state-of-the-art technology along with future research opportunities to design and develop next generation POC diagnostic systems needed to manage infectious diseases in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Testing , Precision Medicine/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Smartphone
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112752, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893622

ABSTRACT

A fast and accurate self-testing tool for COVID-19 diagnosis has become a prerequisite to comprehend the exact number of cases worldwide and to take medical and governmental actions accordingly. SARS-CoV-2 (formerly, 2019-nCoV) infection was first reported in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, and then it has rapidly spread around the world, causing ~14 million active cases with ~582,000 deaths as of July 2020. The diagnosis tools available so far have been based on a) viral gene detection, b) human antibody detection, and c) viral antigen detection, among which the viral gene detection by RT-PCR has been found as the most reliable technique. In this report, the current SARS-CoV-2 detection kits, exclusively the ones that were issued an "Emergency Use Authorization" from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, were discussed. The key structural components of the virus were presented to provide the audience with an understanding of the scientific principles behind the testing tools. The methods that are still in the early research state were also reviewed in a subsection based on the reports available so far.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118207, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696173

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID 19 outbreak many studies are being conducted for therapeutic strategies and vaccines but detection methods play an important role in the containment of the disease. Hence, this systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the molecular detection techniques in COVID-19. For framing the systematic review 6 literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant studies and articles were screened for relevant content till 25th April 2020. Observations from this systematic review reveal the utility of RT-PCR with serological testing as one such method cannot correlate with accurate results. Availability of point of care devices do not conform to sensitivity and specificity in comparison to the conventional methods due to lack of clinical investigations. Pivotal aim of molecular and serological research is the development of detection methods that can support the clinical decision making of patients suspected with SARS-CoV-2. However, none of the methods were 100% sensitive and specific; hence additional studies are required to overcome the challenges addressed here. We hope that the present article with its observations and suggestions will assist the researchers to realize this vision in future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Point-of-Care Testing , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(15)2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693345

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have received global concern since 2003, when an outbreak caused by SARS-CoV emerged in China. Later on, in 2012, the Middle-East respiratory syndrome spread in Saudi Arabia, caused by MERS-CoV. Currently, the global crisis is caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the same lineage of SARS-CoV. In response to the urgent need of diagnostic tools, several lab-based and biosensing techniques have been proposed so far. Five main areas have been individuated and discussed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The cell-culture detection and the microneutralization tests are still considered highly reliable methods. The genetic screening, featuring the well-established Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), represents the gold standard for virus detection in nasopharyngeal swabs. On the other side, immunoassays were developed, either by screening/antigen recognition of IgM/IgG or by detecting the whole virus, in blood and sera. Next, proteomic mass-spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies have also been proposed for the analysis of swab samples. Finally, virus-biosensing devices were efficiently designed. Both electrochemical immunosensors and eye-based technologies have been described, showing detection times lower than 10 min after swab introduction. Alternative to swab-based techniques, lateral flow point-of-care immunoassays are already commercially available for the analysis of blood samples. Such biosensing devices hold the advantage of being portable for on-site testing in hospitals, airports, and hotspots, virtually without any sample treatment or complicated lab precautions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proteomics/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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