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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):372-373, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880020

ABSTRACT

Background: Published clinical and epidemiological data on individuals undergoing anonymous testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STI) in Germany are sparse. Here we report annual results of STI screenings and survey data from a large community based STI testing Checkpoint in Cologne, Germany in light of increased PrEP roll-out and the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From January 2017 to December 2020, data on STI screening, clinical, demographic, sexual information was anonymously recorded for individuals attending the Checkpoint in Cologne. Visitors were screened for HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea and hepatitis C using point of care testing kits. Positive tests were validated. Results: Overall, screening was performed on 15,153 visitors aged 16 to 85 years. Three main reasons were identified: recent HIV risk situation (40%), routine testing (23%), new relationship (21%). The largest visitor group represented MSM with a mean frequency of 40% across all years, followed by MSW (28%) and WSM (22%). Annual visitor numbers increased from 3,838 in 2017 by +3% and +6% for years 2018 and 2019, respectively. However, these figures declined by 40% in 2020 (COVID-19 lockdown). Frequency of MSM visitors declined from 46% in 2017 to 42%, 38%, and 35% in 2018 to 2020, respectively. In contrast, visitor numbers increased for all other groups from 2017 to 2020, with the highest relative change observed for WSW (+94%), followed by MSW (+25%) and MSW (+16%). Annual number of visitors screened for HIV declined from 55% in 2017 to 42% in 2020, with increasing test frequencies for chlamydia and gonorrhoea (17% in 2017 to 29% in 2020) and for HCV (4% in 2017 to 9% in 2020). Syphilis screening frequency remained constant at approximately 19% annually. MSM had the highest disease frequency but MSW and WSM showed a continuous increase in chlamydia infections from 2017 to 2020 (from 20% to 30% and 13% to 22%, respectively). Number of MSM visitors on PrEP increased from 2017 onwards, with +46% and +52% for years 2018 and 2019, and 7% for 2020 (COVID-19 lockdown). Conclusion: Checkpoint was able to detect relevant STIs in 5% of all visitors thereby underling the importance of community-based testing sites particularly with increased PrEP roll-out and despite COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Still, MSM remain at highest risk for contracting HIV highlighting the continuous need for educational activities as well as low-threshold and cost-free STI screening capacities.

2.
Indian Journal of Anesthesia ; 66(5):368-374, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879556

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become a very useful tool to quickly assess cardiorespiratory function in coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 patients. The objective of this study was to test the agreement between manual and automated B-lines counting, left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (LVOT-VTI) and inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI) in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients using AI integrated POCUS. In addition, we investigated the inter-observer, intra-observer variability and reliability of assessment of echocardiographic parameters using AI by a novice. Methods: Two experienced sonographers in POCUS and one novice learner independently and consecutively performed ultrasound assessment of B-lines counting, LVOT-VTI and IVC-CI in 83 suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases which included both manual and AI methods. Results: Agreement between automated and manual assessment of LVOT-VTI, and IVC-CI were excellent [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, P < 0.001]. Intra-observer reliability and inter-observer reliability of these parameters were excellent [ICC 0.96-0.99, P < 0.001]. Moreover, agreement between novice and experts using AI for LVOT-VTI and IVC-CI assessment was also excellent [ICC 0.95-0.97, P < 0.001]. However, correlation and intra-observer reliability between automated and manual B-lines counting was moderate [(ICC) 0.52-0.53, P < 0.001] and [ICC 0.56-0.69, P < 0.001], respectively. Inter-observer reliability was good [ICC 0.79-0.87, P < 0.001]. Agreement of B-lines counting between novice and experts using AI was weak [ICC 0.18, P < 0.001]. Conclusion: AI-guided assessment of LVOT-VTI, IVC-CI and B-lines counting is reliable and consistent with manual assessment in COVID-19 patients. Novices can reliably estimate LVOT-VTI and IVC-CI using AI software in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875516

ABSTRACT

Vertical flow assays (VFAs) or flow-through assays have emerged as an alternate type of paper-based assay due to their faster detection time, larger sample volume capacity, and significantly higher multiplexing capabilities. They have been successfully employed to detect several different targets (polysaccharides, protein, and nucleic acids), although in a limited number of samples (serum, whole blood, plasma) compared to the more commonly known lateral flow assays (LFAs). The operation of a VFA relies mainly on gravity, coupled with capillary action or external force to help the sample flow through layers of stacked pads. With recent developments in this field, multiple layers of pads and signal readers have been optimized for more user-friendly operation, and VFAs have achieved a lower limit of detection for various analytes than the gold-standard methods. Thus, compared to the more widely used LFA, the VFA demonstrates certain advantages and is becoming an increasingly popular platform for obtaining qualitative and quantitative results in low-resource settings. Considering the wide application of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in VFAs, we will mostly discuss (1) the design of GNP-based VFA along with its associated advantages/disadvantages, (2) fabrication and optimization of GNP-based VFAs for applications, and (3) the future outlook of flow-based assays for point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics.

4.
J Clin Microbiol ; : e0009222, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874496

ABSTRACT

Clinical Microbiology Open (CMO), a meeting supported by the American Society for Microbiology's Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Committee (CPHMC) and Corporate Council, provides a unique interactive platform for leaders from diagnostic microbiology laboratories, industry, and federal agencies to discuss the current and future state of the clinical microbiology laboratory. The purpose is to leverage the group's diverse views and expertise to address critical challenges, and discuss potential collaborative opportunities for diagnostic microbiology, through the utilization of varied resources. The first and second CMO meetings were held in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Discussions were focused on the diagnostic potential of innovative technologies and laboratory diagnostic stewardship, including expansion of next-generation sequencing into clinical diagnostics, improvement and advancement of molecular diagnostics, emerging diagnostics, including rapid antimicrobial susceptibility and point of care testing (POCT), harnessing big data through artificial intelligence, and staffing in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Shortly after CMO 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic further highlighted the need for the diagnostic microbiology community to work together to utilize and expand on resources to respond to the pandemic. The issues, challenges, and potential collaborative efforts discussed during the past two CMO meetings proved critical in addressing the COVID-19 response by diagnostic laboratories, industry partners, and federal organizations. Planning for a third CMO (CMO 2022) is underway and will transition from a discussion-based meeting to an action-based meeting. The primary focus will be to reflect on the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic and better prepare for future pandemics.

5.
Australasian Medical Journal (Online) ; 15(3):359-360, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871794

ABSTRACT

In this context the Australian College for Emergency Medicine in alignment with National and International guidelines has issued recommendations that include care against risk of infection during treatment, usage of personal protection equipment, recognition of the fact that under community transmission COVID-19 is not essentially linked to cardiac arrest and depletion of the hospital resources. Point of care ultrasound due to its superiority over chest Xray and equivalence to computerized tomography for COVID-19 diagnosis and minimization of disease cross infection were suggested for use in emergency department but with regular disinfection. Bloomer MJ, Bouchoucha S. Australian College of Critical Care Nurses and Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control position statement on facilitating next-of-kin presence for patients dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit.

6.
Talanta ; 248: 123594, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867806

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has erupted and quickly swept across the globe, causing huge losses to human health and wealth. It is of great value to develop a quick, accurate, visual, and high-throughput detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we developed a biosensor based on CRISPR/Cas13a combined with recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect S and Orf1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min. Most important of all, we developed an automated, portable, and high-throughput fluorescence analyzer (APHF-analyzer) with a 3D-printed microfluidic chip for sensitively detecting SARS-CoV-2, which addressed aerosol contamination issue and provided a more accurate and high-throughput detection during the on-site detection process. The detection limits of S gene and Orf1ab gene were as low as 0.68 fM and 4.16 fM. Furthermore, we used the lateral flow strip to realize visualization and point of care testing (POCT) of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, profit from the efficient amplification of RPA and the high specificity of CRISPR/Cas13a, APHF-analyzer and the lateral flow strip to simultaneous detection of S gene and Orf1ab gene would be applied as a promising tool in the field of SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombinases , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
U.S. Pharm. ; 46:31-35, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1866164

ABSTRACT

Very little data are available on how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will affect influenza, and although new information is emerging daily, much remains to be learned. Infection-control measures undertaken as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly impacted the annual influenza season, with a substantial drop in positive influenza cases compared with previous years. Despite the lack of influenza circulation, data suggest that coinfection with influaenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 worsens disease severity and worsens prognosis. Although the spread of influenza decreased, misinformation has widely increased. Pharmacists have proven to be essential in the community, offering support not only in vaccine administration and point-of-care testing but also in combating misinformation through education.

8.
Drug Topics ; 165(8):4, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1865961
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 178-187, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication of COVID-19 severity will potentially improve patient care. Biomarkers, such as TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP), might represent possible tools for point-of-care testing and severity prediction. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed serum levels of TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP in patients with COVID-19, compared them with control subjects, and investigated the association with disease severity. RESULTS: A total of 899 measurements were performed in 132 patients (mean age 64 years, 40.2% females). Among patients with COVID-19, TRAIL levels were lower (49.5 vs 87 pg/ml, P = 0.0142), whereas IP-10 and CRP showed higher levels (667.5 vs 127 pg/ml, P <0.001; 75.3 vs 1.6 mg/l, P <0.001) than healthy controls. TRAIL yielded an inverse correlation with length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, and National Early Warning Score, and IP-10 showed a positive correlation with disease severity. Multivariable regression revealed that obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.434, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-29.38), CRP (aOR 1.014, 95% CI 1.002-1.027), and peak IP-10 (aOR 1.001, 95% CI 1.00-1.002) were independent predictors of in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a correlation between COVID-19 severity and TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP. Multivariable regression showed a role for IP-10 in predicting unfavourable outcomes, such as in-ICU mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04655521.

10.
American Journal of Medical Research ; 9(1):17-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863557

ABSTRACT

Keywords: Internet of Medical Things;diagnostic algorithm;COVID-19 1.Introduction The purpose of our systematic review is to examine the recently published literature on COVID-19 detection and treatment and integrate the insights it configures on smart wearable Internet of Medical Things technologies, artificial intelligence-based diagnostic algorithms, and real-time healthcare monitoring systems. The manuscript is organized as following: theoretical overview (section 2), methodology (section 3), networked sensors, wearable devices, and smart clinical systems (section 4), real-time healthcare monitoring systems and processing algorithms in Internet of Medical Things (section 5), smart personalized healthcare applications and services (section 6), discussion (section 7), synopsis of the main research outcomes (section 8), conclusions (section 9), limitations, implications, and further directions of research (section 10). 4.Networked Sensors, Wearable Devices, and Smart Clinical Systems Internet of Medical Things is pivotal in heterogeneous clinical trials, disease monitoring, and healthcare procedures (Gul et al., 2021;Maitra et al., 2021;Scrugli et al., 2022) through wireless data collection, analysis, and sharing. Specialized machine learning and predictive algorithms can be pivotal in preventive screenings, monitoring vital signs and life-threatening conditions, and supporting clinical judgment in COVID-19 early recognition and treatment by analyzing patient records and clinical data.

11.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1862175

ABSTRACT

Background: After the first case of COVID-19 being announced in China in December 2019, various diagnostic technologies have been developed at unprecedented pace with the aim of providing a basis for accurate clinical intervention. However, some assays including CRISPR-based diagnostics and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) have been less explored. As new COVID-19 technologies emerge, there is need for them to be assessed, validated and improved upon. Moreover, there is paucity of data on the essential factors governing the selection of an appropriate diagnostic approach within the correct timeframe. Myths and origin of SARS-CoV-2 remain to be controversial. Consequently, this review aims at exploring the current COVID-19 diagnostic technologies, performance evaluation, principles, suitability, specificity, sensitivity, successes and challenges of the technologies for laboratory and bedside testing. Main Body: To date, there exist more publications on COVID-19 diagnostics as compared to the Zika virus. The SARS-CoV-2 virus genome profiles were readily available by 31st of December 2019. This was attributed to the fast-paced sharing of the epidemiological and diagnostics data of COVID-19. Timely profiling of the virus genome accelerated the development of diagnostic technologies. Furthermore, the rapid publication of studies that evaluated several diagnostic methods available provided baseline information on how the various technologies work and paved way for development of novel technologies. Conclusion: Up to date, RT-PCR is the most preferred as compared to the other assays. This is despite the repeated false negatives reported in many of the study findings. Considering that COVID-19 has caused devastating effects on the economy, healthcare systems, agriculture and culture, timely and accurate detection of the virus is paramount in the provision of targeted therapy hence reducing chances of drug resistance, increased treatment costs and morbidity. However, information on the origin of SARS-CoV-2 still remains elusive. Furthermore, knowledge and perception of the patients toward management of SARS-CoV-2 are also paramount to proper diagnosis and management of the pandemic. Future implications of the misperceptions are that they may lead to increased non-compliance to SARS-CoV-2-related World Health Organization (WHO) policies and guidelines.

12.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(2): 223-236, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859416

ABSTRACT

Laboratories faced many challenges throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Point-of-care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) provided a key solution to the need for rapid turnaround time in select patient populations and were implemented at the POC but also within laboratories to supplement traditional molecular assays. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-waived rapid POC SARS-CoV-2 NAATs offer the benefit of reduced educational requirements for operators and can be performed by non-laboratory-trained individuals. However, these methods must be validated to ensure the manufacturer's performance specifications are met and they are found to be fit-for-purpose in the clinical workflows they are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
13.
Small ; : e2200854, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858927

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is profoundly influencing the global healthcare system and people's daily lives. The high resource consumption of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is resulting in insufficient surveillance of coinfection or resurgence of other critical respiratory epidemics, which is of public concern. To facilitate evaluation of the current coinfection situation, a microfluidic system (MAPnavi) is developed for the rapid (<40 min) and sensitive diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses from swab samples in a fully sealed and automated manner, in which a nested-recombinase polymerase amplification and the CRISPR-based amplification system is first proposed to ensure the sensitivity and specificity. This novel system has a remarkably low limit of detection (50-200 copies mL-1 ) and is successfully applied to detect 171 clinical samples (98.5% positive predictive agreement; 100% negative predictive agreement), and the results identify 45.6% coinfection among clinical samples from patients with COVID-19. This approach has the potential to shift diagnostic and surveillance efforts from targeted testing for a high-priority virus to comprehensive testing of multiple virus sets and to greatly benefit the implementation of decentralized testing.

14.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(3): e655, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858818

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemorrhagic complications in patients with coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) are infrequent but associated with a prognosis. This study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for bleeding complications in patients with COVID-19 using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters and blood tests performed at admission. Methods: In total, 31 patients with severe COVID-19 treated intensively at Saga University Hospital were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of hemorrhagic complications. Results from the blood tests performed at admission and during hospitalization, and ROTEM values acquired upon admission, were compared between the two groups. Results: There were significant differences in ROTEM values upon admission between the bleeding and non-bleeding groups. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM) amplitude at 10 min (A10) were 0.82 (0.52-0.92) and 0.81 (0.58-0.93), respectively. Logistic regression analysis with PT-INR and EXTEM A10 as factors calculated an odds ratio of 1.94 (1.04-3.62) and EXTEM A10 0.86 (0.71-1.05) for bleeding complications occurrence. Conclusion: ROTEM may be a sensitive predictor for bleeding complications in patients with COVID-19.

15.
Health Science Reports ; 5(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857478

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHemorrhagic complications in patients with coronavirus 19 disease (COVID‐19) are infrequent but associated with a prognosis. This study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19 using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters and blood tests performed at admission.MethodsIn total, 31 patients with severe COVID‐19 treated intensively at Saga University Hospital were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of hemorrhagic complications. Results from the blood tests performed at admission and during hospitalization, and ROTEM values acquired upon admission, were compared between the two groups.ResultsThere were significant differences in ROTEM values upon admission between the bleeding and non‐bleeding groups. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT‐INR) and extrinsically‐activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM) amplitude at 10 min (A10) were 0.82 (0.52–0.92) and 0.81 (0.58–0.93), respectively. Logistic regression analysis with PT‐INR and EXTEM A10 as factors calculated an odds ratio of 1.94 (1.04–3.62) and EXTEM A10 0.86 (0.71–1.05) for bleeding complications occurrence.ConclusionROTEM may be a sensitive predictor for bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19.

16.
American Journal of Medical Research ; 9(1):129-144, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857088

ABSTRACT

Based on an in-depth survey of the literature, the purpose of the paper is to explore remote patient monitoring systems, wearable Internet of Medical Things sensor devices, and deep learning-based computer vision algorithms in COVID-19 screening, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Keywords: remote patient monitoring;Internet of Medical Things;COVID-19 1.Introduction The purpose of my systematic review is to examine the recently published literature on COVID-19 screening, detection, diagnosis, and treatment, and integrate the insights it configures on remote patient monitoring systems, wearable Internet of Medical Things sensor devices, and deep learning-based computer vision algorithms. The manuscript is organized as following: theoretical overview (section 2), methodology (section 3), machine and deep learning-based COVID-19 diagnostic and predicting tools and applications (section 4), wearable Internet of Medical Things devices and sensing technologies (section 5), machine learning algorithms, implantable medical devices, wireless body networks, and computer vision (section 6), discussion (section 7), synopsis of the main research outcomes (section 8), conclusions (section 9), limitations, implications, and further directions of research (section 10). (Table 4) 6.Machine Learning Algorithms, Implantable Medical Devices, Wireless Body Networks, and Computer Vision Internet of Medical Things can be instrumental in COVID-19 prevention and detection accuracy (Douglas Miller and Brown, 2019;Kong et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021;Rhayem et al., 2021) through data collection and processing, healthcare monitoring systems, and intervention measures.

17.
Signa Vitae ; 18(3):153-157, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1856562

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care testing (POCT) plays an increasingly important role in pre-emergency medicine by ensuring that patient's continuum of care is commenced before arrival at health facilities. Given the benefits of POCT during the COVID-19 pandemic, this commentary described the advantages and disadvantages of POCT, and its current practices in pre-hospital emergency medicine. Point-of-care tests are easy to operate, cost-effective, and yield quick and accurate response, but are posed with challenges such as safety errors, poor adherence to quality control standards, and inspection errors. To optimize the benefits of POCT in pre-emergency medicine, it is required that regular trainings are conducted for POCT operators, and total compliance to POCT handling and management guidelines should be considered by each POCT operator. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Signa Vitae is the property of Pharmamed Mado Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855556

ABSTRACT

This research uses mathematically derived visual logistics to interpret COVID-19 molecular and rapid antigen test (RAgT) performance, determine prevalence boundaries where risk exceeds expectations, and evaluate benefits of recursive testing along home, community, and emergency spatial care paths. Mathematica and open access software helped graph relationships, compare performance patterns, and perform recursive computations. Tiered sensitivity/specificity comprise: (T1) 90%/95%; (T2) 95%/97.5%; and (T3) 100%/≥99%, respectively. In emergency medicine, median RAgT performance peaks at 13.2% prevalence, then falls below T1, generating risky prevalence boundaries. RAgTs in pediatric ERs/EDs parallel this pattern with asymptomatic worse than symptomatic performance. In communities, RAgTs display large uncertainty with median prevalence boundary of 14.8% for 1/20 missed diagnoses, and at prevalence > 33.3-36.9% risk 10% false omissions for symptomatic subjects. Recursive testing improves home RAgT performance. Home molecular tests elevate performance above T1 but lack adequate validation. Widespread RAgT availability encourages self-testing. Asymptomatic RAgT and PCR-based saliva testing present the highest chance of missed diagnoses. Home testing twice, once just before mingling, and molecular-based self-testing, help avoid false omissions. Community and ER/ED RAgTs can identify contagiousness in low prevalence. Real-world trials of performance, cost-effectiveness, and public health impact could identify home molecular diagnostics as an optimal diagnostic portal.

19.
Sens Int ; 3: 100180, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852065

ABSTRACT

A major threat that has surrounded human civilization since the beginning of the year 2020 is the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization and significantly affected populations globally, causing medical and economic despair. Healthcare chains across the globe have been under grave stress owing to shortages of medical equipments necessary to address a pandemic. Furthermore, personal protective equipment supplies, mandatory for healthcare staff for treating severely ill patients, have been in short supply. To address the necessary requisites during the pandemic, several researchers, hospitals, and industries collaborated to meet the demand for these medical equipments in an economically viable manner. In this context, 3D printing technologies have provided enormous potential in creating personalized healthcare equipment, including face masks, face shields, rapid detection kits, testing swabs, biosensors, and various ventilator components. This has been made possible by capitalizing on centralized large-scale manufacturing using 3D printing and local distribution of verified and tested computer-aided design files. The primary focus of this study is, "How 3D printing is helpful in developing these equipments, and how it can be helpful in the development and deployment of various sensing and point-of-care-testing (POCTs) devices for the commercialization?" Further, the present study also takes care of patient safety by implementing novel 3D printed health equipment used for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the study helps identify and highlight the efforts made by various organizations toward the usage of 3D printing technologies, which are helpful in combating the ongoing pandemic.

20.
2022 International Conference on Advanced Computing Technologies and Applications, ICACTA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840243

ABSTRACT

Battling the progressing Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requests precise, quick, and point-of-care testing with quick outcomes to anticipate stages for isolation and therapy. The preliminary test to detect COVID-19 is a Swab test and also a Blood test, but these tests will take more than 2 days to receive the results and there is also a risk of transmission of the virus while collecting the samples. To predict the stages of COVID-19's effects on the human lungs accurately for further treatment for further diagnosis on a radiological image, medical experts need a high level of precision. We utilize image processing techniques and convolutional networks to analyze CT images of COVID-19 affected human lungs in this paper for the detection of pulmonary abnormalities in the early stage, Chest X-Ray is not exact. So, we are using Computed Tomography (CT) imaging especially for identifying the stages of lung anomalies. We present and discuss the scoring systems which cause the severity in lungs of COVID-19 patients every day. This will be accurate for predicting the stages of COVID-19 for early treatment and also to protect the uninfected population. © 2022 IEEE.

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