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1.
Health Promot Int ; 36(5): 1324-1333, 2021 Oct 13.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107483

ABSTRACT

Global shifts toward a disease-oriented, vertical approach to health has involved limiting the right for communities to participate in decision-making. Ecuador's authoritarian legacy has forced civil society and social organizations to adopt 'coping strategies', while large protests recently derived into violent struggles. The country has been severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic amid corruption scandals involving hospital and food purchases by government during the response. This study critically examines how Ecuador's government took into consideration 'community participation' as a value and tenet of health promotion. Our systematic textual analysis focuses on 53 consecutive resolutions by the National Emergency Operations Committee (EOC) leading the decision-making processes, which, explicitly requires community participation. Results show that the 'lifecycle' of the central government's evolving policy framing centered on law enforcement and the private sector, followed by the social sector. Further, there is no evidence of stakeholders from civil society or organizations taking part in decision-making. Having legitimized the exclusion of community participation in Ecuador's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that the government will fail to consider the wider social implications of its impact. In particular, the limits to local governments becoming informed and making decisions without mediation by the National EOC will further impede community participation in health decision-making in the future. This implies that local knowledge and experiences will also not inform health policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Participation , Ecuador , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Canadian Foreign Policy Journal ; JOUR: 1-6,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107026

ABSTRACT

For most of the last 75 years, Canada has been a supplier of fossil fuels to the world. More recently, growing concerns about the impacts of climate change have created challenges to a continuation of this role. Developments such as the COVID pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine have made even more evident the tensions confronting energy systems around the world. The situation in Canada is no exception. Within this context, the contributors to this Special Issue explore a range of issues linked to energy, security, and the climate as well as factors that connect these three factors. The future role - if any - of fossil fuels in meeting Canadian and world energy needs is addressed as are the possible implications of a growing reliance on renewable forms of energy. The authors present a range of assessments and perspectives, anchored in an appreciation of the situation in Canada, our country's evolving role in global energy relations, and its participation in international efforts to address climate change.

3.
Public Health ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105782

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the impact of the addition of 12 maternity leave (ML) weeks (2011), a pay for performance (P4P) exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion strategy (2015) and the COVID-19 pandemic in EBF inequalities in Chile. Study Design Interrupted time series analyses (ITSA). Methods Aggregated national EBF data by municipality and month were collected from 2009 to 2020. We assess the impact of the three events in EBF inequalities using two procedures: 1. ITSA stratified by municipal SES quintiles (Q1-Q5);2. calculating the EBF slope index of inequality (SII). Results The EBF prevalence was higher in lower SES municipalities before and after the three time-events. No impact in EBF inequalities were observed after the extended ML. The P4P strategy increased EBF at six months in all SES quintiles (effect size between 4% and 5%), but in a higher level in poorer municipalities (SII: -0.36% and -1.05%). During COVID-19, wealthier municipalities showed a slightly higher EBF at six-month prevalence (SII: 1.44%). Conclusion The null impact of the extended ML in EBF inequalities could be explained by a low access to ML among affiliated to the public health system (20%). The P4P strategy includes multiple interventions that seemed effective in increasing EBF across all SES quintiles, but further in lower quintiles. The restrictions in healthcare access in poorer municipalities could explain EBF inequalities during COVID-19.

4.
International Journal of Nursing Studies ; JOUR: 104389,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105099

ABSTRACT

Background The devastating effects of COVID-19 sparked debates among professionals in the fields of health, law, and bioethics regarding policies on mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers. Suboptimal vaccine uptake among healthcare workers had been implicated in the increased risk of nosocomial spread of COVID infection, absenteeism among healthcare workers, impacting the quality of patient care. However, mandatory vaccine policies were also seen to encroach on the autonomy of healthcare workers. Aims and objectives To synthesise the arguments for and against mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) and its long-term impact on the healthcare workforce, through an analysis of texts and opinions of professionals from different fields of study. Methods This is a systematic review of opinions published in peer-reviewed journals. After initial search in Cochrane and JBI systematic review databases to ensure no previous review had been done, five databases were searched (PsychInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and Scopus). Inclusion criteria were: 1) focused on COVID-19;2) healthcare workers specific;3) specific to mandatory vaccination;4) opinion piece with an identified author;5) in English. Exclusion: 1) focus on other vaccine preventable diseases, not COVID-19;2) discussion on mandatory vaccination not-specific to healthcare workers. The Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal tool for Text and Opinions was used to assess quality. Data synthesised in summary table. Results The review included 28 opinion and viewpoint articles. Of these, 12 (43%) adopted a pro-mandatory vaccination stance, 13 (46%) were neutral or had presented arguments from both sides of the debate and only three (11%) were against. The overall arguments among those who were pro-, neutral and anti- mandatory COVID-19 vaccination were underpinned by ethical, moral and legal principles of such a mandate on a vulnerable healthcare workforce. This review highlighted the polarised opinions concerning choices, human rights, professional responsibilities and personal risks (i.e. health risks, losing a job) with the introduction of vaccination mandate. However, the articles found in this review discussed mandatory vaccination of healthcare workers in the USA, Europe and Australia only. Conclusion The review underscores the need to balance the rights of the public to safe and quality care with the rights and moral obligations of healthcare workers during a public health emergency. This can be achieved when policies and mandates are guided by reliable scientific evidence which are flexible in considering legal and ethical dilemmas. Tweetable To mandate or not to mandate COVID-19 vaccination for healthcare workers: A synthesis of published opinions in health, law, and bioethics.

5.
J Aging Soc Policy ; : 1-26, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106913

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic threatened the ability of nutrition providers to address food insufficiency among older adults. Findings from Household Pulse Survey data and interviews with 23 service leaders in Washington state during the summer of 2020 point to key organizational practices that should inform future emergency food assistance planning. Organizations deeply connected to and trusted by racially and ethnically diverse, unhoused, and low-income older adults are critical to addressing disparities in food insufficiency. Stable and flexible increases in funding would allow these organizations to maintain the effective and culturally-relevant service adaptations they implemented in the first months of the pandemic.

6.
Popul Stud (Camb) ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106784

ABSTRACT

Using survey data collected from Hubei province, China's Covid-19 epicentre, in August 2020, this study examines how fertility intentions of Chinese citizens changed during the Covid-19 pandemic. We consider not only whether people changed their fertility plans due to Covid-19 but also distinguish three types of change: bringing forward ('sooner'), postponing ('later'), and abandoning ('never') planned fertility. Over half of those who planned to have a child intended to change their fertility plans due to Covid-19. Younger individuals, those of non-Han ethnicities, urban residents, those with one child already, and those with ever-infected family members were more likely to change their fertility plans. While the effects of some characteristics seem to be short term, other characteristics such as age and number of children show more consequential influences. Older individuals and those planning their second child were particularly prone to abandoning their childbearing plans due to Covid-19. The pandemic may thus complicate China's latest efforts to boost its low fertility.

7.
2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (Emnlp 2021) ; JOUR: 6018-6029,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102206

ABSTRACT

Health and medical researchers often give clinical and policy recommendations to inform health practice and public health policy. However, no current health information system supports the direct retrieval of health advice. This study fills the gap by developing and validating an NLP-based prediction model for identifying health advice in research publications. We annotated a corpus of 6,000 sentences extracted from structured s in PubMed publications as "strong advice", "weak advice", or "no advice", and developed a BERT-based model that can predict, with a macro-averaged F1-score of 0.93, whether a sentence gives strong advice, weak advice, or not. The prediction model generalized well to sentences in both unstructured s and discussion sections, where health advice normally appears. We also conducted a case study that applied this prediction model to retrieve specific health advice on COVID-19 treatments from LitCovid, a large COVID research literature portal, demonstrating the usefulness of retrieving health advice sentences as an advanced research literature navigation function for health researchers and the general public.

8.
Snapshot series on alcohol control policies and practice|Brief 7, July 2022 ; BOOK
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-2101137
9.
Health Evidence Network synthesis report|76 ; BOOK
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-2101132

ABSTRACT

This report explores how knowledge translation (KT) and cultural contexts are conceptualized and utilized, with a focus on health policy-making theory and practice. KT takes place within cultural contexts that can powerfully frame what policy problems are and what type of research is accepted by policy-makers. This is illustrated with studies from the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the use of face masks across cultures and of the influence of cultural contexts on KT and evidence-informed decision-making arising from the Black Lives Matter movement. Many Indigenous cultures conceptualize physical health in a holistic manner that encompasses both social and ecological aspects, which are often not considered in the biomedical understanding of health. Effective KT within local cultural contexts requires going beyond general categories (such as Indigenous culture) and assumptions about particular types of culture. Some KT models and frameworks include local context as a factor in translation, identifying community-, culture- and language-focused strategies to improve cultural competency for health-care interventions. Policy considerations are suggested that support the adoption of complex understandings of cultures in knowledge production, communication, translation and use.

10.
Mirovaya Ekonomika I Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya ; JOUR(7):66-80, 66.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100644

ABSTRACT

The article examines the connection between the environmental processes during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019-2022) and the "greening" of the political sphere. A specific feature of environmental policy is its close linkage with the economy, since economic activity is the direct cause of anthropogenic pollution of natural environments. The environmental changes that have arisen in response to economic realities of the pandemic period have led to transformation of socio-political attitudes towards strengthening the "green" direction in the policies of the world's leading states - the European Union member countries, the United States, Russia, China and other. The global "green agenda" was substantiated at the World Economic Forum in Davos in 2020 and 2021, as well as at the following 26th UN Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26) in Glasgow, actually shaping a new world order based on the environmental goals and obligations. In West European countries, with prominent green parties' political positions, the environmental policy is formed largely from grassroots. In the United States, it depends entirely on the political situation (mostly on the sitting president's party affiliation). Whereas the European Union and the EU states (primarily Germany and France) have seized the initiative of directing the world environmental policy, striving to take the lead in this sphere (particularly, in climate protection), the new U.S. government is now seriously challenging the European leadership. Noteworthy is that the COVID-19 crisis has updated the green political and economic agenda globally, regardless of differences between the states, which verifies the importance and necessity of agreeing a conceptually new common approach to interaction with the environment in the short and long term.

11.
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097561

ABSTRACT

Purpose With a focus on the position of EU mobile workers in the Dutch meat industry, this article discusses the multi-level State efforts to enhance protection of workers who experienced limited protection of existing State and private enforcement institutions. The COVID-19 pandemic, with virus outbreaks at Dutch meat plants, fuelled public and political will to structurally improve these workers' precarious work and living conditions. Yet, the process of policy change is slow. The authors show it is the gradual transformation in the institutional environment that the State needs to counter to become more protective for EU mobile workers. Design/methodology/approach Using the gradual institutional change approach and the concept of State ignorance, the authors examine State responses drawing on interviews with expert stakeholders in the public and private domain, public administration records and newspaper articles. Findings Through knowledge creation, boosted social dialogue mechanisms, enhanced enforcement capacity and new housing legislation, the Dutch State focuses on countering gradual institutional change through which existing institutions lost their effectiveness as protectors of EU mobile workers. The organization of work is, nevertheless, not (yet) fundamentally addressed with tighter public legislation. Originality/value The findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the role of the State as multifaceted actor in institutional change processes towards increased protection for EU mobile workers.

12.
Journal of Canadian Studies ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099058

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Canada has witnessed a sharp increase in racial violence against Chinese Canadians, and, in an undifferentiated racism, other Asian Canadians have been seen as bearers of disease as well, which often made them targets of racism. The quick transformation of Asian minority groups into threats of contagion during the pandemic points to the persistence of latent fears and anxieties about Chinese Canadians across generational differences, immigration status, and national origin. This essay reflects on how knowledges about early Chinese newcomers that were generated by colonial administrators laid the foundations for modes of racial governance that continue to inform public policy and public discourse in multicultural Canada in ways at once familiar and new. It examines the 1885 Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration as an important tool in reinforcing the political goal of "white Canada" by strengthening the power of European colonists. Less than a century later, in 1967, the immigration points system was introduced, preceding the adoption of multiculturalism policy in 1971, both breaking with explicitly racist national policies. Yet there is more continuity than there are differences across the 1885 Report and the 1967 immigration policy. Both participate in a historical narrative that excludes the Chinese from national imagining, laying fertile ground for contemporary anti-Chinese racisms during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Contemporary media narratives during the pandemic reproduce the same racial hierarchies, excluding Chinese Canadians from the nation. By placing the rise in anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic in the long historical trajectory of institutional racism in Canada, this essay argues for the need to learn about the historical legacies of racism to be able to intervene in structural racism so that Canada's promise of multiculturalism can be grounded in justice and equity.

13.
Sistemi Intelligenti ; JOUR(2):371-401, 34.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2098790

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has documented an unprecedented series of biased, distorted, or sub-optimal decisions and behaviours by ‘expert’ decision-makers such as: health policy-makers;leaders of national and regional health systems and public health organisations;managers of territorial health agencies and hospitals;managers of hospital units and public health departments;and other experienced professionals with decision-making responsibilities in terms of public health. Some of these biased decisions and behaviours have had dramatic cascade effects on population health and behaviours. We list, name, and describe some of the biases and behavioural distortions by ‘expert’ decision-makers that emerged during the Covid-19 pandemic. Many of these behavioural biases have not been previously categorized as such, or may have been discussed under different names. © 2022, Sistemi Intelligenti. All Rights Reserved.

14.
Sistemi Intelligenti ; JOUR(2):309-327, 34.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2098787

ABSTRACT

In crisis situations like the Covid-19 pandemic, human behaviour plays a vital role. Understanding how people behave, why, and what might change their behaviour is thus crucial for governments and public health authorities. Such understanding can be enhanced through the use of behavioural science. This paper reviews some examples of the actual use of behavioural science to inform the Covid-19 pandemic policy response. Most (but not all) are drawn from the Irish pandemic response, reflecting the authors’ direct involvement in behavioural research for policy in this country and also Ireland’s systematic application of behavioural science during the pandemic. The review describes how different methods from behavioural science were deployed and discusses their merits and potential limitations. It summarises some lessons learned in two years of the pandemic, with the goal of improving the use of behavioural science in future crisis situations. © 2022, Sistemi Intelligenti. All Rights Reserved.

15.
The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098239

ABSTRACT

This paper describes an integrated, data-driven operational pipeline based on national agent-based models to support federal and state-level pandemic planning and response. The pipeline consists of (i) an automatic semantic-aware scheduling method that coordinates jobs across two separate high performance computing systems;(ii) a data pipeline to collect, integrate and organize national and county-level disaggregated data for initialization and post-simulation analysis;(iii) a digital twin of national social contact networks made up of 288 Million individuals and 12.6 Billion time-varying interactions covering the US states and DC;(iv) an extension of a parallel agent-based simulation model to study epidemic dynamics and associated interventions. This pipeline can run 400 replicates of national runs in less than 33 h, and reduces the need for human intervention, resulting in faster turnaround times and higher reliability and accuracy of the results. Scientifically, the work has led to significant advances in real-time epidemic sciences.

16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 806, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was revised in 2009 to be more congruent with national dietary guidelines. There is limited research examining effects of the revision on women's and children's health. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the revised WIC food package was associated with various indicators of physical and mental health for women and children. METHODS: We used 1998-2017 waves of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 81,771 women and 27,780 children) to estimate effects of the revised WIC food package on indicators of health for both women (self-reported health and body mass index) and children (anemia, mental health, and parent-reported health). We used difference-in-differences analysis, a quasi-experimental technique that assessed pre-post differences in outcomes among WIC-recipients while "differencing out" the secular underlying trends among a control group of non-recipients. RESULTS: For all outcomes evaluated for women and children, we were unable to rule out the null hypothesis that there was no effect of receiving the revised WIC food package. These findings were confirmed across several secondary analyses conducted to assess heterogeneity of effects and robustness of results. CONCLUSION: While we did not find effects of the revised WIC food package on downstream health indicators, studies using similarly robust methods in other datasets have found shorter-term effects on more proximal outcomes related to diet and nutrition. Effects of the modest WIC revisions may be less impactful on longer-term indicators of health, and future studies should examine the larger COVID-19-era expansion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Infant , Child , Female , Humans , Child Health , Women's Health , Food
17.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 89-91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096544
18.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(2): 99-107, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096529

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, the scale, speed and nature of which is beyond anything most of us have experienced in our lifetimes. The mental health burden associated with this pandemic is also likely to surpass anything we have previously experienced. In this editorial, we seek to anticipate the nature of this additional mental health burden and make recommendations on how to mitigate against and prepare for this significant increase in mental health service demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care
19.
Research in Transportation Economics ; JOUR: 101236,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095974

ABSTRACT

Active commuting to school has significant positive health and environmental impacts;however, the increasing use of private vehicles has transformed school commuting from an active to a passive activity. Our research is aimed at analyzing which factors influence the choice on how to commute to school with a special focus on the role played by the Covid-19 health emergency. We carried out an online survey involving a sample of 193 students of a middle school of Trieste (Italy) and 217 parents. We find that attitudes and perceptions of children and parents significantly differ with respect to both the risks and benefits of different means of transportation and with respect to the policies that should be implemented to support active commuting to school. Our study is innovative with respect to the age range we focused on, since most of the literature deals with young children (elementary school) or with adolescents (high school) whose modal choice are taken either by their parents or by the students themselves. With reference to middle school students, instead, it is expected that children and parents jointly take the choice on how to commute and it is relevant to detect the role played by each family member in the decision-making process. Our results will be useful to local administrators, policy-makers and decision-makers in order to design, implement and support transport and demand management policies that are effective in shifting the mobility habits of middle school students toward healthier and more sustainable means of transportation.

20.
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal ; JOUR:101883, 76.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095871

ABSTRACT

We examine whether conventional monetary policy moderated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stock markets. Using daily historical data on emerging economies, we show that the pandemic has an adverse impact on stock markets by reducing stock returns. We then show that, in the presence of conventional monetary policy, the adverse impact does not disappear. We probe into the robustness of these findings by considering, among others, alternative COVID-19 indicators, fixed effects, cointegrating dynamics, stock market characteristics, and monetary policy frameworks, and find them to be robust. An implication is that conventional monetary policy alone may not be an effective tool during the pandemic and that policymakers should coordinate conventional monetary policy with other policies to restore stock markets to their pre-crisis level.

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