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1.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(11): 100714, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184358

ABSTRACT

Background: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used for decades, but only caused allergic reactions exceptionally. Introduction of PEG-containing COVID-19 vaccines might have fostered public interest beyond medical reasoning. Objectives: To investigate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the public interest in PEG allergy in Germany and the published PEG allergy cases worldwide. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to measure public interest in PEG allergy analyzing Google search volume in Germany from February 2018 to January 2022. Medically confirmed "PEG allergy" cases were analyzed by looking at the numbers of PubMed case reports and case series from 1977 until January 2022. Results: Web results in Germany before COVID-19 show search volumes related to "PEG allergy/testing" was negligible, with 10 search queries per month. The pandemic led to a >200-fold increase from 250 queries 2 years before to 55 720 queries 2 years thereafter, reflecting tremendous public interest. Additionally, the maximum monthly search volume from before to during the pandemic increased immensely for "vaccination" (57-fold), "vaccination and adverse effects" (85-fold), "vaccination and allergy" (71-fold). In contrast, the increase of publication numbers for the search term "PEG allergy" was small from 2019 to 2021 (2.5-fold). Only a very low number of 211 cases with "PEG allergy" worldwide since 1977 could be identified. Conclusion: PEG allergy became a topic of major public interest because of COVID-19 vaccination. Scientific publications have increased to a lesser extent, probably promoted by public awareness. Conversely, the overall number of cases published with PEG allergy remain very low. The current high demand for COVID-19 vaccination allergy testing is triggered by public interest instead of medical reasoning.

2.
World Allergy Organization Journal ; 16(1):100740, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165949

ABSTRACT

Objective The objective was to review COVID-19 vaccine allergy advice and guidance requests received and assess the impact of advice outcome on vaccination outcome. Design A retrospective analysis of requests for advice and guidance regarding COVID-19 vaccine allergy was completed using an electronic referral system from February 2021 to January 2022. Participants A total of 1265 independent patient requests for advice were received from primary care. Full vaccination information was available on 1210 patients who were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures We evaluated the specific outcome of request for advice (written advice versus allergy consultation), rate of vaccination, vaccination combinations, and tolerance of vaccination. Results Of the 1210 patients included, 959 (79%) were female. Eight hundred and ninety-six (74%) requests were managed with written advice only and of these 675 (75%) patients went on to be vaccinated. Overall, 891 (74%) of the population were vaccinated with 2 or more doses. Two hundred and nineteen patient consultations were undertaken with 109 (50%) prior to the first vaccination. Forty-nine (45%) consultations prior to vaccination were undertaken due to a label of anaphylaxis to vaccination in the past. Vaccination was recommended for all patients, and 78 (72%) of these received a first dose. Eight of these patients (10%) had symptoms within 1 h of vaccine administration. One hundred and ten (50%) consultations were undertaken for adverse reactions post COVID-19 vaccination, with 84 (76%) concerning immediate symptoms. Thirty patients (27%) who had a consultation had had adrenaline administered post vaccination. One patient had biopsy confirmed Stevens Johnson Syndrome and was referred to Dermatology. All others due for further doses (107 patients) were recommended to have subsequent doses with 49 (45%) offered the same vaccine. Eighty-nine patients had a vaccine administered post adverse reaction and 79 (88%) tolerated the dose. Skin testing and challenge to polyethylene glycol were negative in the 8 patients tested. Conclusions Over 1000 requests for advice and guidance were received during the review period, managed mainly with written advice. The overwhelming majority of requests for advice and consultations were for females, with equal distribution both pre- and post-COVID-19 vaccine administration. Vaccination was recommended in all but 1 patient (with biopsy confirmed Stevens Johnson Syndrome). Polyethylene glycol allergy was not confirmed in any patient, nor did any patient have confirmed anaphylaxis when the vaccine was administered under our supervision, suggesting that type 1 mediated hypersensitivity is uncommon even in this "high risk" population.

3.
EJC Paediatric Oncology ; : 100002, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165254

ABSTRACT

Background Children treated for a malignancy are at risk to develop serious illness from a COVID-19 infection. Pegylated E.coli asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) is used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Allergy to this drug is common and both asparaginase and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are identified as possible antigens. The mRNA-based vaccines against COVID-19 contain PEG as a stabilizing component. Methods We developed a protocol to be able to safely vaccinate children with a PEG-asparaginase allergy. All patients with a history of allergy to PEG-asparaginase have been included and skin prick testing for various PEGs was performed before vaccination with the mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Results Twelve children between six and 16 years old were vaccinated, without allergic reaction. None of them got a positive skin prick test for PEG. Ten patients had pre-existing IgG or IgM antibodies against PEG. Conclusion Children with a PEG-asparaginase allergy can be safely vaccinated against COVID-19 with mRNA vaccines containing PEG irrespective of IgG/IgM antibodies to PEG-asparaginase. Routine skin prick testing in patients with PEG-asparaginase allergy does not seem to be of added value.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163647

ABSTRACT

Background. Allergic patients may develop reactions following COVID-19 vaccination more frequently than non-allergic individuals. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of reactions in high-risk allergic patients vaccinated for COVID-19 at the University Health Agency Giuliano-Isontina (ASUGI) of Trieste (northeastern Italy). Methods. Patients were considered at high risk for allergic reactions in case of: prior anaphylactic reaction to any drug/vaccine; multiple drug allergy; intolerance to polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polysorbate 80 (PS80) containing drugs; and mast cell disorders. High-risk allergic patients were immunized in hospital by a dedicated allergy team supported by resuscitation staff. Patients were interviewed over the phone one month after vaccination to complete a structured questionnaire investigating signs and symptoms developed after immunization. Results. From March 2021 to February 2022, 269 patients with a history of severe allergic reactions were assessed, of whom 208 (77.3%) eventually received COVID-19 vaccination, 50 (18.6%) refused to be immunized, 10 (3.7%) were deferred for medical reasons and one was declared exempted due to testing positive for PS80. Mild reactions (urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, erythema) to COVID-19 vaccines were reported by 30.3% of patients, 8.7% within 4 h and 21.6% > 4 h after immunization. No anaphylactic events were observed. Although they were 80 times (3.8%) more prevalent than in COVID-19 vaccinees from the general population (0.047%), vaccine allergic reactions in high-risk patients were mainly mild and late, more likely affecting women (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.22-7.65). Conclusions. High-risk allergic patients with urticaria and angioedema may experience mild flare-ups of mast cell activation-like symptoms following COVID-19 vaccination, supporting antihistamine premedication before vaccination and to be continued for one week afterwards.

5.
Curr Drug Res Rev ; 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe mental illness are prone to severe COVID-19 infection with increased morbidity and mortality. Psychiatric patients are often concerned about the potential interactions between the newly approved COVID-19 vaccines in Malaysia and psychotropic drugs like antidepressants. To date, such data are unavailable. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to clear the polemics of COVID-19 vaccine-antidepressants interaction in these 3 aspects: (1) cytokines and cytochrome P450 pathway, (2) blood-brain barrier (BBB) involvement and (3) and its interaction with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the potential allergenic culprit following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A systemic scoping approach was employed to search for peer-reviewed journal articles across four healthcare and scientific databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)). RESULTS: Antidepressants metabolism often involve the CYP450 enzymes. Vaccine-antidepressants interactions are probable, likely to be triggered by interactions of CYP450 enzymes and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in diminished drug metabolism and chemical detoxification. Aside, PEG, the excipient in mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines and antidepressants, has been reported as the anaphylaxis causative allergen. However, whether it leads to a synergistic, potentiation or antagonistic effects when used in combination, remains to be elucidated. CONCLUSION: Psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, showed potentially relevant safety risk for COVID-19 patients. These vulnerable patient group must be prioritized for early access to safe and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines, as vaccination remains the most important public health intervention to tackle the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(10): e6348, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127609

ABSTRACT

After a suspected allergic reaction to first dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, given the PEG skin tests negativity and tolerance in vivo to PEG containing drugs, five patients were vaccinated with the second dose of Pfizer-Biontech undergoing a fractional protocol, with antihistamine premedication, without presenting immediate or delayed reactions.

7.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-9, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079119

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to COVID-19 vaccines are rare adverse events that need to be prevented, diagnosed, and managed in order to guarantee adherence to the vaccination campaign. The aims of our study were to stratify the risk of HSR to COVID-19 vaccines and propose alternative strategies to complete the vaccination. METHODS: 1,640 subjects were screened for vaccinal eligibility, according to national and international recommendations. Among them, we enrolled for allergy workup 152 subjects, 43 with HSR to COVID-19 vaccines and 109 at high risk of HSR to the first dose. In vivo skin tests with drugs and/or vaccines containing PEG/polysorbates were performed in all of them, using skin prick test and, when negative, intradermal tests. In a subgroup of patients resulted negative to the in vivo skin tests, the programmed dose of COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) was administered in graded doses regimen, and detection of neutralizing anti-spike antibodies was performed in these patients after 4 weeks from the vaccination, using the SPIA method. RESULTS: Skin tests for PEG/polysorbates resulted positive in only 3% (5/152) of patients, including 2 with previous HSR to COVID-19 vaccines and 3 at high risk of HSR to the first dose. Among the 147 patients with negative skin tests, 97% (143/147) were eligible for vaccination and 87% (124/143) of them received safely the programmed COVID-19 vaccine dose. Administration of graded doses of Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine were well tolerated in 17 out of 18 patients evaluated; only 1 developed an HSR during the vaccination, less severe than the previous one, and all developed neutralizing anti-spike antibodies after 4 weeks with values comparable to those subjects who received the vaccine in unfractionated dose. CONCLUSION: On the whole, the usefulness of the skin tests for PEG/polysorbates seems limited in the diagnosis of HSR to COVID-19 vaccines. Graded doses regimen (Pfizer/BioNTech) is a safe and effective alternative strategy to complete the vaccinal course.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 1(3): 172-174, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049359

ABSTRACT

Background: The rates of suspected allergic reactions to the first dose of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have been reported to be as high as 2%, with an anaphylaxis incidence up to 2.5 per 10,000 individuals. Anaphylaxis in response to the first dose may be considered a contraindication to administration of the second dose, even though the second dose is necessary for optimal protection against severe disease. Many individuals with anaphylactic reactions to the first dose still want to receive a second dose. However, there are few published data to support the safety of administration of a second dose in this population. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the percentage of patients tolerating a second COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose after an immediate reaction to the first dose. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 47 patients at a Canadian hospital who had immediate, suspected allergic reactions following their first COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose and received a second dose within our allergy clinic. Results: Of 47 patients, 46 tolerated the second dose; 43% of patients developed mild, transient symptoms. There were no patients who developed anaphylaxis or needed epinephrine after the second dose. Conclusion: Our case series adds to current evidence that administration of a second COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose has a good safety profile in patients with a history of immediate reactions after the first dose, including those with a history of anaphylaxis in response to the first dose.

9.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1194-1195, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045928

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the ingredients in the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID 19 vaccine (mRNA vaccine) and has been known to cause hypersensitivity [1-3]. Polysorbate is an ingredient in the Johnson vaccine (adenovirus vaccine) which may crossreact with PEG. Objective: We report a case of cross-reactivity between Pfizer/ BioNTech and Johnsson vaccines. Methods: This observation was notified in the pharmacovigilance center of Sfax, Tunisia (faculty of medicine of Sfax). The study of drug imputability was carried out according to the WHO method. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old Tunisian woman with a history of atopy and intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On August 15, 2021 (at 08:30), she developed sweating, vomiting and dizziness immediately after receiving the initial dose of Johnson COVID-19 vaccine. Her blood pressure became lower (less than 90/60 mmHg). She had to stay at the vaccination centre for one hour, and the clinical signs improved spontaneously after one hour. In the evening of the same day, the patient presented a febrile maculopapular eruption in the abdomen, trunk, and face. The rash resolved spontaneously over a week. The patient was referred to the pharma-covigilance center of Sfax (Tunisia). The messenger RNA vaccine was advocated for the second vaccine. On December 2021, she was received the second dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID 19 vaccine (mRNA vaccine). Six hours later, she experienced a pruritic maculopapular rash on the abdomen, trunk, neck, and face. These clinical signs improved spontaneously after two days. the diagnosis of cross-allergy between these two vaccines was retained for this patient Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first cross-allergy between mRNA and adenovirus COVID-19 vaccines notified in Tunisian population. Healthcare professionals should be aware that hypersen-sitivity can occur with COVID-19 vaccines containing macrogols/ PEGs and those containing polysorbates. Its recognition may be challenging and often require skin testing. Per CDC guidance, con-sultation with an allergist-pharmacologist should be considered to help determine if the patient can safely receive vaccination [4].

10.
J Control Release ; 351: 215-230, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041912

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a versatile polymer that is widely used as an additive in foods and cosmetics, and as a carrier in PEGylated therapeutics. Even though PEG is thought to be less immunogenic, or perhaps even non-immunogenic, with a variety of physicochemical properties, there is mounting evidence that PEG causes immunogenic responses when conjugated with other materials such as proteins and nanocarriers. Under these conditions, PEG with other materials can result in the production of anti-PEG antibodies after administration. The antibodies that are induced seem to have a deleterious impact on the therapeutic efficacy of subsequently administered PEGylated formulations. In addition, hypersensitivity to PEGylated formulations could be a significant barrier to the utility of PEGylated products. Several reports have linked the presence of anti-PEG antibodies to incidences of complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) following the administration of PEGylated formulations. The use of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, which are composed mainly of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), has recently gained wide acceptance, although many cases of post-vaccination hypersensitivity have been documented. Therefore, our review focuses not only on the importance of PEGs and its great role in improving the therapeutic efficacy of various medications, but also on the hypersensitivity reactions attributed to the use of PEGylated products that include PEG-based mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Liposomes/chemistry
11.
Vaccine ; 40(42): 6114-6124, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031726

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines are widely used globally to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both vaccine formulations contain PEGylated lipids in their composition, in the form of polyethylene glycol [PEG] 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol for mRNA-1273, and 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide for BNT162b2. It is known that some PEGylated drugs and products for human use which contain PEG are capable of eliciting immune responses that lead to to detectable PEG-specific antibodies in serum. In this study, we determined if any of the components of mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 formulations elicited PEG-specific antibody responses in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We detected an increase in the reactivity to mRNA vaccine formulations in mRNA-1273 but not BNT162b2 vaccinees' sera in a prime-boost dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed the same pattern of reactivity against irrelevant lipid nanoparticles from an influenza virus mRNA formulation and found that the reactivity of such antibodies correlated well with antibody levels against high and low molecular weight PEG. Using sera from participants selected based on the vaccine-associated side effects experienced after vaccination, including delayed onset, injection site or severe allergic reactions, we found no obvious association between PEG antibodies and adverse reactions. Overall, our data shows a differential induction of anti-PEG antibodies by mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2. The clinical relevance of PEG reactive antibodies induced by administration of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and the potential interaction of these antibodies with other PEGylated drugs remains to be explored.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycerol , Humans , Lipids , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Polyethylene Glycols , Proteins , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Biomed Eng Adv ; 4: 100054, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031157

ABSTRACT

With severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as an emergent human virus since December 2019, the world population is susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has higher transmissibility than the previous coronaviruses, associated by the ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus nature with high mutation rate, caused SARS-CoV-2 variants to arise while circulating worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are identified as immediate and direct-acting therapeutic against COVID-19. Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), as small biomolecules with non-complex structure and intrinsic stability, can acquire antigen-binding capabilities comparable to conventional antibodies, which serve as an attractive neutralizing solution. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein attaches to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on lung epithelial cells to initiate viral infection, serves as potential therapeutic target. sdAbs have shown broad neutralization towards SARS-CoV-2 with various mutations, effectively stop and prevent infection while efficiently block mutational escape. In addition, sdAbs can be developed into multivalent antibodies or inhaled biotherapeutics against COVID-19.

13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(32): e251, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993762

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is rare and mainly occurs with the use of laxatives containing PEG. Recently, an increasing number of PEG allergies have been reported, particularly those related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, such as the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, contain PEG2000 as an excipient and are contraindicated when allergy to a vaccine component exist. We report a 55-year-old woman's history as a case of successful mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and colonoscopy after oral desensitization to PEG in a patient with PEG allergy who required both COVID-19 vaccination and colon evaluation. Allergy to PEG was diagnosed based on clinical history, skin test results, and basophil histamine release testing. Oral desensitization effectively suppressed histamine release from basophils in response to PEG stimulation, suggesting that oral desensitization using PEG-based laxatives may be an effective treatment option for patients with allergy to the substance.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Colonoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Laxatives , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
14.
Polymer Reviews ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984894

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is among the critical issues for ceasing the COVID-19 pandemic. This review discusses the current usage of biomaterials in vaccine development and provides brief descriptions of the vaccine types and their working mechanisms. New types of vaccine platforms (next-generation vaccines and DNA- or mRNA-based vaccines) are discussed in detail. The mRNA vaccine encoding the spike protein viral antigen can be produced in a cell-free system, suggesting that mRNA vaccines are safer than “classic vaccines” using live or inactivated virus. The mRNA vaccine efficacy is typically high at approximately 95%. However, most mRNA vaccines need to be maintained at −20 or −70 degrees for storage for long periods (half a year) and their transportation because of mRNA vaccine instability in general, although mRNA vaccines with unmodified and self-amplifying RNA (ARCT-154, Arcturus), which have a lyophilized form, have recently been reported to be kept at room temperature. mRNA vaccines are typically entrapped in lipid nanoparticles composed of ionizable lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. These components and their composition affect mRNA vaccine stability and efficacy and the size of the mRNA vaccine. The development of an improved mRNA vaccine entrapped in sophisticated biomaterials, such as novel lipid nanoparticles, using new types of biopolymers or lipids is necessary for high efficacy, safe transportation and long-term storage of the next generation of mRNA vaccines under mild conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 1(4): 209-216, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983273

ABSTRACT

Background: Allergic reactions have been reported with mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 prevention. Patients perceived to be at higher risk for a reaction may be referred to an allergist, although evaluation strategies may differ between allergists. Objective: Our aim was to determine outcomes of COVID-19 vaccinations in patients evaluated by an allergist using different approaches. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series evaluation of 98 patients seen at the University of Michigan Allergy Clinic for concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccination. Of these 98 patients, 34 underwent skin testing with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2000 with or without PEG 3350/polysorbate 80 testing. Results: Of the 34 patients on whom skin testing was performed, 16 underwent testing before vaccination and 18 underwent testing after a reported vaccine-related event. One patient had a positive skin testing result in response to PEG 3350 following a vaccination reaction and natural infection and was advised against a second dose. One patient with a significant history concerning of anaphylaxis in response to PEG had positive results of testing to identify allergy to PEG 2000, PEG 3350, and polysorbate 80 and was advised against vaccination. Of the 98 patients, 63 (64%) tolerated COVID-19 vaccination without complication after evaluation by an allergist. Conclusion: No significant differences were found between vaccination counseling with and without skin testing to excipients. Patients who presented before the first dose of vaccination were more likely to proceed with COVID-19 vaccination and tolerate vaccination without complication.

16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114017, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966623

ABSTRACT

Viral pandemics can be inevitable in the next future. Considering SARS-CoV-2 pandemics as an example, there seems to be a need to develop a surveillance system able to monitor the presence of potential pathogenic agents. The sewage and wastewater environments demonstrated to be suitable targets for such kind of analysis. In addition, it is important to have reliable molecular diagnostic tools and also to develop a robust detection strategy. In this study, an effective sample preparation procedure was selected from four options and combined with a newly developed improved RT-PCR. First, a model viral system was constructed, containing a fragment of the SARS-CoV-2 gene encoding for the Spike protein. The encapsidated S RNA mimic (ESRM) was based on the plum pox virus (PPV) genome with the inserted targeted gene fragment. ESRM was used for seeding wastewater samples in order to evaluate the viral recovery of four different viral RNA concentration/extraction methods. The efficiency of individual approaches was assessed by the use of a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and by a one-step single-tube nested quantitative reverse transcription PCR (OSN-qRT-PCR). For the detection of viruses in wastewater samples with low viral loads, OSN-qRT-PCR assay produced the most satisfactory results and the highest sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water
17.
Rev Fr Allergol (2009) ; 61(8): 8S30-8S35, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960121

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against COVID-19 are an essential global intervention to control the current pandemic situation. Anaphylactic reactions have rapidly been reported after SARS-CoV2 RNA vaccines. This risk is now measured at 2.5-11/1,000,000 in the context of vaccine safety surveillance programs and only one case was documented to be due to polyethylene glycol. Suggestions for its role are indirect. The COVID-19 vaccination is rolling out vastly and surveillance programs are key to monitor severe adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis. It is important to restore confidence about vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA and other vaccines and current data confirm their safety with no greater mortality than previous vaccines. Anaphylaxis is a complication that should be recognized immediately, be treated with epinephrine and which is not limiting and allows re-vaccination of some patients with pre-medication. It is important to recognize populations at risk such as women, patients with a history of allergies and anaphylaxis and to recognize the rare patients who have mast cell activating diseases. Anaphylaxis due to vaccine is extremely rare and specific cases should receive individualized investigation and care, highlighting the key role of allergists in the vaccination programmes.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157613, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956330

ABSTRACT

Several virus concentration methods have been developed to increase the detection sensitivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater, as part of applying wastewater-based epidemiology. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method, a method widely used for concentrating viruses in wastewater, has some limitations, such as long processing time. In this study, Pegcision, a PEG-based method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), was applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, with several modifications to increase its sensitivity and throughput. An enveloped virus surrogate, Pseudomonas phage φ6, and a non-enveloped virus surrogate, coliphage MS2, were seeded into wastewater samples and quantified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess the recovery performance of the Pegcision. Neither increasing MNP concentration nor reducing the reaction time to 10 min affected the recovery, while adding polyacrylic acid as a polyanion improved the detection sensitivity. The performance of the Pegcision was further compared to that of the PEG precipitation method based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and surrogate viruses, including indigenous pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), in wastewater samples (n = 27). The Pegcision showed recovery of 14.1 ± 6.3 % and 1.4 ± 1.0 % for φ6 and MS2, respectively, while the PEG precipitation method showed recovery of 20.4 ± 20.2 % and 18.4 ± 21.9 % (n = 27 each). Additionally, comparable PMMoV concentrations were observed between the Pegcision (7.9 ± 0.3 log copies/L) and PEG precipitation methods (8.0 ± 0.2 log copies/L) (P > 0.05) (n = 27). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was successfully detected in 11 (41 %) each of 27 wastewater samples using the Pegcision and PEG precipitation methods. The Pegcision showed comparable performance with the PEG precipitation method for SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration, suggesting its applicability as a virus concentration method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobamovirus , Waste Water
19.
Allergol Int ; 71(4): 512-519, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of allergic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has not been clarified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential antigen in the components of vaccines. However, there is little evidence that allergy after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is related to PEG. Furthermore, the role of polysorbate (PS) as an antigen has also not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PEG and PS allergies are reasonable causes of allergic symptoms after vaccination by detecting PEG-specific and PS-specific antibodies. METHODS: Fourteen patients who developed immediate allergic reactions to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines and nineteen healthy controls who did not present allergic symptoms were recruited. Serum PEG-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PS-specific IgE and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Skin tests using PEG-2000 and PS-80 were applied to five patients and three controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of PEG-specific IgE and IgG in patients with immediate allergic reactions to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were higher than those in the control group. Serum levels of PS-specific IgE in patients with allergy to the vaccine were higher than those in patients of the control group. Intradermal tests using PEG verified the results for PEG-specific IgE and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PEG is one of the antigens in the allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Cross-reactivity between PEG and PS might be crucial for allergy to the vaccines. PEG-specific IgE and IgG may be useful in diagnosing allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Polyethylene Glycols , Polysorbates , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
20.
Diam Relat Mater ; 127: 109149, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936299

ABSTRACT

The progressive and fatal outbreak of some diseases such as cancer and coronavirus necessitates using advanced materials to bring such devastating illnesses under control. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) is decorated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (GO/SPION) as well as polyethylene glycol functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@PEG), and chitosan functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@CS). Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images show the formation of high density uniformly distributed SPION nanoparticles on the surface of GO sheets. The structural and chemical composition of nanostructures is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization of GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO- SPION@CS are found to be 20, 19 and 8 emu/g using vibrating sample magnetometer. Specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 305, 283, and 199 W/g and corresponding intrinsic loss power (ILP) values of 9.4, 8.7, and 6.2 nHm2kg-1 are achieved for GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO/SPION@CS, respectively. The In vitro cytotoxicity assay indicates higher than 70% cell viability for all nanostructures at 100, 300, and 500 ppm after 24 and 72 h. Additionally, cancerous cell (EJ138 human bladder carcinoma) ablation is observed using functionalized GO/SPION under applied magnetic field. More than 50% cancerous cell death has been achieved for GO/SPION@PEG at 300 ppm concentration. Furthermore, Surrogate virus neutralization test is applied to investigate neutralizing property of the synthesized nanostructures through analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding. The highest level of SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibition is related to GO/SPION@CS (86%) due to the synergistic exploitation of GO and chitosan. Thus, GO/SPION and GO/SPION@PEG with higher SAR and ILP values could be beneficial for cancer treatment, while GO/SPION@CS with higher virus suppression has potential to use against coronaviruses. Thus, the developed nanocomposites have a potential in the efficient treatment of cancer and coronavirus.

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