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1.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:321-326, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164820

ABSTRACT

The great catastrophe that the world faced after World War II, which is the Corona epidemic, was discovered in the 2019 year in Hubei Province, Wuhan, China, and it is a severe respiratory disorder. The World Health Organization gave it this name, and it is one of the viruses (SARS-CO-2). Among the problems that the world faces is how to control them. Given the seriousness of the disease, we need to find quick ways to limit the spread of the virus. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is the current gold standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and is considered one of the modern techniques until now for managing the current outbreak to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, several other faster and more accurate tests are being developed for the diagnosis of SARS-CO-2 aiming to control the spread of infection through the identification of patients and instant isolation of the virus. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Biomedicine ; 12(4):622-626, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164456

ABSTRACT

Background: Fast and accurate diagnosis plays an important role in controlling and further preventing COVID-19. This study was conducted in the Thumbay laboratory of Gulf Medical University (Ajman, UAE) to assess the correlations between DPI (Diffractive Phase Interferometry), COVID-19 RT-PCR, and CRP tests in COVID-19 patients of different ages and to compare the effectiveness of each parameter. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among 150 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted to the Thumbay University Hospital. Their general data was collected from the LDM system, and from among the suspected patients who came to do the RT-PCR test, 230 were selected as volunteers to participate in this study, and further laboratory tests like CRP level and DPI test were done for them. The nasal swab was collected for a PCR test. Out of 230 nasal swab samples, 150 were positive and 80 were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time RT-PCR assay. Among the 150 positive RT-PCR, 90 false negative DPI tests were from a sample with a high real-time RT-PCR. While 60 true positive DPI tests were positive real-time RT-PCR for swab specimens. Among the 80 negative RT-PCR, 79 were true negative and 1 was a false positive. The predictive positive value of the DPI test was 40% and the predictive negative value of the test was 98%. DPI has at least one tie between the positive actual state group and the negative actual state group. The results show weak and moderate positive correlations between CRP and the age groups. Conclusion: The combined detection of the three indicators (RT-PCR, DPI, and CRP) are positively related to COVID-19 infection;therefore, these indicators will enable effective intervention measures to be implemented in time and the rates of severe illness and mortality to be reduced. © 2022, International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.

3.
Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine : IJNM ; 37(4):387-388, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2163902

ABSTRACT

We report a case of omicron infection in a biopsy-proven case of carcinoma breast sent for staging F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) during the omicron COVID wave. FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) revealed increased FDG uptake in nasopharyngeal, oropharynx, and tonsillar regions and bilateral cervical lymph nodes along with uptake in primary carcinoma and locoregional lymph nodes. Based on the clinical history and specific pattern of FDG PET/CT findings (as suggested by SNMMI Taskforce), COVID history and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction positivity was elicited.

4.
ARS Medica Tomitana ; 27(3):143-148, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2162838

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that mainly targets the respiratory system, with patients exhibiting mild to severe, fatal symptoms. With more than 526 million cases and over 6 million deaths worldwide, Coronavirus managed to affect everyone, irrespective of age or gender, presenting itself with a variety of symptoms that spared no body system and made the diagnosing process difficult. This study aims to highlight the situation of Covid-19 cases in Constanta, Romania, throughout the given time. During June 1, 2021-May 31, 2022, Saint Andrew's County Emergency Clinical Hospital's Molecular Biology Laboratory performed 24030 Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction tests. The process consists in two steps: Extraction and amplification. The viral ribonucleic acid is extracted out of the patient's respiratory specimen and converted in deoxyribonucleic acid for the second step. The amplification consists in multiplying the deoxyribonucleic acid in many copies in order for the laboratory doctor to detect, confirm the virus existence and study the viral genome in detail. The tests were conducted on both genders and all ages. Statistics showed that 53% of the patients were males, the oldest patient being a 104 years old male and as for the youngest, it was a 1-day old boy. Results concluded that 14% of the tests were positive and almost 86% negative. Less than 1% of the tests came out equivocal or inconclusive and needed to be repeated. Copyright © 2022 Rusescu Alina et al., published by Sciendo.

5.
Pediatrics ; 150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162656

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine the production and persistence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of family clusters with history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY POPULATION: The study enrolled 57 Italian families over a 6-month period (March 1–September 4, 2020) who met the inclusion criteria, which required that the families had a child or children of pediatric age (<15 years old) and had at least 1 immediate family member with a history of COVID-19. METHODS: Families were enrolled 4 to 8 weeks after the end of isolation or hospitalization. They underwent clinical evaluation, and blood samples were collected from confirmed COVID-19 cases. Confirmed cases were defined as having a history of positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) or having a positive serologic test (chemiluminescence immunoassay or plaque reduction neutralizing test). Data regarding the date of infection, severity of illness, and age at the time of illness were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: During this study, 57 family clusters were evaluated. Of these, 209 recruited subjects underwent serological assessment. In total, 152 confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified, with 70 children or older siblings and 82 parents making up these confirmed cases. The median age for the group of children and older siblings was 8 years old, and the median age for the parent cohort was 42 years old. Neutralizing antibodies persisted up to 7 to 8 months from infection with only a modest decline over time. Neutralizing antibodies inversely correlated with age with children <6 years old (particularly toddlers <3 years old) showing the highest levels. Mildly affected children (<6 years old) showed increasing levels of neutralizing antibodies over the study time (236 days from time of infection). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a longitudinal evaluation of neutralizing antibody production and duration in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients from familial clusters. Of the participants in this study, younger children developed higher levels of neutralizing antibody compared with older siblings or adults.

6.
Pediatrics ; 150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162654

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To assess the association between maternal and neonatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody concentrations. STUDY POPULATION: Mother and newborn dyads (n = 1471) from 1714 parturient women at a single, urban, hospital center in Pennsylvania from April 9, 2020 to August 8, 2020. METHODS: Pregnant women who delivered at Pennsylvania Hospital were screened for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) upon admission, SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. Residual maternal and cord blood sera routinely collected at delivery were used for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody measurement using a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody (IgG, IgM) concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were analyzed along with demographic and clinical data obtained from electronic medical record review. RESULTS: The study cohort of 1714 women who delivered included White non-Hispanic (51.3%), Black non-Hispanic (26.3%), Hispanic (11.8%), Asian (7.3%), and other (3.3%) participants with a median age of 32 years. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM antibodies were detected in 83 of 1471 (6%) mothers with matched mother and newborn sera available at delivery. Among newborns born to seropositive women, IgG was detected in 72 of 83 (87%) newborns. Infants born to seronegative mothers did not have any detectable antibodies, and IgM antibodies were not detected in any cord blood sample. Most seropositive women (60%) were asymptomatic for COVID-19. None of the infants born to seropositive mothers tested positive to SARS-CoV-2 by PCR between 24 and 48 hours after birth. Neonatal cord blood IgG concentrations were positively correlated to maternal IgG concentrations (r = 0.886, P < .001). Placental transfer ratios were associated with time elapsed from maternal infection, defined as time of symptom-prompted PCR testing, to delivery (r = 0.620, P < .001). Transfer ratios were not associated with infection severity. Ratios more than 1.0 were observed among all disease severities, including those asymptomatic. Antibody transfer ratios increased as time increased between onset of maternal infection and delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were transferred across the placenta in symptomatic and asymptomatic infection in pregnancy. Neonatal cord blood antibody concentrations correlated with maternal antibody concentrations and with the length of time between onset of infection and delivery.

7.
2022 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics, BHI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161375

ABSTRACT

The arising of SARS-CoV-2 or 2019 novel coron-avirus in December 2019 have prioritized research on pulmonary diseases diagnosis and prognosis, especially using artificial intelligence (AI) and Deep Learning (DL). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the most widely used technique to detect SARS-CoV-2, with a 0.12% false negative rate. While 75% of the hospitalized cases develop pneumonia caused by the virus, patients can still develop bacterial pneumonia. COVID-19 pneumonia can be diagnosed based on clinical data and Computed Tomography (CT scan). However, Chest X-rays are faster, cheaper, emit less radiations, and can be performed on bed-side. In this article, we extend the application of VGG-16 based Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN) to the detection of Pneumonia and COVID-19 in Chest X-ray images using several public datasets of total images count ranging from 2122 to 18455 Chest X-rays, and study the impact of several hyper-parameters such as objectness threshold and epochs count and length, to optimize the model's performance. Our results comply with the state of the art of Faster R-CNN in pneumonia detection as the best accuracy achieved is 65%. For COVID-19 detection, Faster R-CNN achieves a 90% validation accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(11):EC12-EC15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2155788

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Abnormalities in Complete Blood Count (CBC) are frequently observed in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. So, CBC can serve as a simple tool for the early diagnosis of COVID-19. Aim(s): To evaluate the diagnostic ability of CBC test in COVID-19 infection. Material(s) and Method(s): In this retrospective observational study, data were collected from 102 adult non critical care patients who presented with acute fever between May 2020 and December 2020. Among 102 patients' data, 48 were found Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) positive ('cases') and 54 were RT- PCR negative ('controls'). Non parametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the differences in CBC. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CBC tests in COVID-19. For this, RT-PCR was used as the 'gold standard' and CBC as the index test. Area Under Curve (AUC) was determined for each of the CBC tests. All statistical analysis were done using Medcalc software. Result(s): The mean age of cases was 48+/-14 years (62% males;38% females) and controls was 45+/-15 years (55% males;45% females). Median values for haemoglobin, haematocrit, Red Blood Cell (RBC) count and Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) were significantly higher (p-value <0.05) and total White Blood Cell (WBC) count, eosinophil differential count, absolute eosinophil count, lymphocyte count, absolute lymphocyte count, immature granulocyte count were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients as compared to controls. Significant differences were observed for eosinophil (differential% and absolute) count. Almost all the platelet parameters were lower in COVID-19 patients (except Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio);although the platelet count was only mildly reduced in the RT-PCR positive cases (133-475 X 103/muL;median-227.98 X 103/muL). Higher AUC values were observed with Eosinophil-differential %, Eosinophil-absolute count, Eosinophil Lymphocyte Ratio (ELR) and NLR. Conclusion(s): Eosinophil count and associated ratio (Eosinophil Lymphocyte Ratio) are diagnostically useful and can serve as biomarkers for COVID-19. Further larger studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanism and their clinical utility. Copyright © 2022 Authors. All rights reserved.

9.
Journal of Practical Hepatology ; 25(3):335-338, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2155471

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the predictive value of serum microRNAs (miR)-21 and miR-148b for liver histopathological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

10.
6th International Conference on Mechatronics and Intelligent Robotics, ICMIR 2022 ; 12301, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152864

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of Machine Learning (ML), Machine Vision and imaging technology has greatly promoted medical imaging and Intelligent Medical Engineering. Radiomics combines medical imaging with Big Data, Machine Learning and other technologies to realize the diagnosis and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by obtaining and analyzing lung image characteristics. This paper systematically reviews the realization process of radiomics in COVID-19, the latest research on radiomics in COVID-19's diagnosis, classification and prognosis, as well as the problems and challenges faced in this research field. By and large, radiomics provides great potential and application value in the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of COVID-19. It makes up for the deficiency of doctor's diagnosis and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test, and provides an effective and feasible method for improving the diagnosis and treatment level of COVID-19 with low cost, high efficiency and accuracy. © 2022 SPIE.

11.
2022 International Conference on Edge Computing and Applications, ICECAA 2022 ; : 1107-1114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152466

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is the cause of the pandemic illness. The Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is frequently used to identify coronavirus. On Computed Tomography (CT) images, the extent to which the virus has impacted the lungs can be seen clearly. In 15 minutes, CT data are accessible, but RT-PCR takes 24 hours. The proposed model looks for the virus in the lungs, which is more accurate than PCR, which only looks for it in the nose or throat. More accurate and dependable data can be obtained, if Computed Tomography scans are employed. The proposed innovative model has an accuracy with Gabor filter and without Gabor filter is 0.83 and 0.75 in recognizing the coronavirus in Lung Computed Tomography Scans. The accuracy of the preceding models VGG16, VGG19, Res Net50, and Mobile Net with the Gabor filter is 0.79,0.81,0.81,0.81 and 0.68,0.61,0.71 and 0.79 without it. Gabor filter is a linear filter that is sensitive to orientation and can assist reduce noise from data. Our model obtains an accuracy of 0.83, which is higher than the Gabor Filter models VGG16, VGG19, Res Net50, and Mobile Net. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
J Hosp Infect ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2150082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are at increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 due to immunosuppression and may pose a continued transmission risk especially within hospital settings. Detailed case reports including symptoms, viral load and infectiousness, defined by the presence of replication-competent viruses in culture, provide an opportunity to examine the relationship between clinical course, burden and contagiousness, and provide guidance on release from isolation. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review to investigate the relationship in transplant recipients between serial SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value or cycle of quantification value (Cq), or other measures of viral burden and the likelihood and duration of the presence of infectious virus based on viral culture including the influence of age, sex, underlying pathologies, degree of immunosuppression, and/or vaccination on this relationship. METHODS: We searched LitCovid, medRxiv, Google Scholar and WHO Covid-19 databases, from 1 November 2019 until 26 October 2022. We included studies reporting relevant data for transplantees with SARS-CoV-2 infection: results from serial RT-PCR testing and viral culture data from the same respiratory samples. We assessed methodological quality using five criteria, and synthesised the data narratively and graphically. RESULTS: We included 13 case reports and case series reporting on 41 transplantees including 22 renal, 5 cardiac, 1 bone marrow, 2 liver, 1 bilateral lung, and 10 blood stem cell transplants. We observed a relationship between proxies of viral burden and likelihood of shedding replication-competent SARS-CoV-2. Three individuals shed replication-competent viruses for over 100 days after infection onset. Lack of standardisation of testing and reporting platforms precludes establishing a definitive viral burden cut-off. However, the majority of transplantees stopped shedding replication-competent viruses when the RT-PCR cycle threshold was above 30 despite differences across platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Viral burden is a reasonable proxy for infectivity when considered within the context of the clinical status of each patient. Standardised study design and reporting are essential to standardise guidance based on an increasing evidence base.

13.
45th Mexican Conference on Biomedical Engineering, CNIB 2022 ; 86:382-392, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148585

ABSTRACT

Although real time polymerase chain reaction test (RT-PCR) is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, the use of Computed Tomography (CT) images for diagnosis, assessment of the severity of this disease and its evolution is widely accepted due to the possibility to observe the lungs damage. This evaluation is mainly made qualitatively, therefore, techniques have been proposed to obtain relevant additional clinical information, such as texture features. In this work, CT scans from 46 patients with COVID-19 were used to characterize the lungs by means of textural features. In the proposed approach, pulmonary parenchyma was delimited using a U-NET previously trained with images from different pulmonary diseases. Texture metrics were calculated using co-occurrence and run-length matrices considering both lungs, right and left lung, as well as apex, middle zone and base lung regions. A boxplot descriptive analysis was performed looking for significant differences between regions of each estimated texture metric. Results show that Gray Level Non-Uniformity (GLNU) and Run-Length Non-Uniformity (RLNU) features have more significant differences between regions, suggesting that these metrics may provide a proper characterization of the pulmonary damage caused by COVID-19. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

14.
Physiol Int ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140903

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a worldwide pandemic, due to its great capacity to invade the human body. Previous studies have shown that the primary route of invasion of this virus is the human respiratory tract via the co-expression of ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2, a serine protease on the cellular surface. Interestingly, this condition is present not only on the respiratory epithelium but on the conjunctival mucosa, as well. Thus, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 is present on the conjunctival mucosa. Aim: To prove that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the conjunctiva. Methods: Previously nasopharyngeal swab-sample based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive COVID-19 infected patients were selected at the COVID Care Centers of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Semmelweis University. During their recovery, both nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swab-samples were taken and PCR method was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed. Results: The study population consisted of 97 patients, 49 females (50.5%) and 48 males (49.5%), with a mean age of 67.2 ± 11.9 years. During recovery, with nasopharyngeal swabs, the PCR test was positive in 55 cases (56.70%), whereas with conjunctival swabs it was positive in 8 cases (8.25%). Both tests were positive in 5 cases (5.15%). In some patients, ocular symptoms were observed as well. The rest of the patients (29 cases) had negative nasopharyngeal PCR tests during recovery. Conclusions: Although only in few cases, the data of the present study provides a proof of concept that SARS-CoV-2 can be present on the conjunctival mucosa even in nasopharyngeal negative patients, a finding, which can have clinical importance. Also, on the basis of these findings one can hypothesize that - in addition to the respiratory tract - the conjunctiva can be an entrance route for SARS-CoV-2 to the human body. Thus, in high-risk conditions, in addition to covering the mouth and nose with mask, the protection of the eyes is also strongly recommended.

15.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140799

ABSTRACT

This review is an integral part of the special issue for the 60 years of the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). The aim of the review is to highlight the role of the clinical laboratory since the emergence of the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), which causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with special focus on the contribution of the journal in generating knowledge in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. As of October 30, 2022, a total of 186 CCLM publications were dedicated to COVID-19. Of importance, major International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) guidelines related to the diagnosis of COVID-19 were published in CCLM. Between early-2020 and late October 2022, COVID-19 publications represented around 27% of all articles in CCLM, highlighting the willingness of the editorial board to help the field in order to better describe and diagnose this new emerging disease. First launched in 1963 under the name "Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie", the Journal was entirely devoted to clinical chemistry in the strict sense. The various topics published in relation to COVID-19 including its diagnosis, its impact on biochemical or hematological measures, as well as biosafety measures, is the perfect example that shows that the journal has greatly diversified over time.

16.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(6): 605-617, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131838

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate rates and identify factors associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 in the population of Olmsted County during the prevaccination era. Patients and Methods: We screened first responders (n=191) and Olmsted County employees (n=564) for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from November 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021 to estimate seroprevalence and asymptomatic infection. Second, we retrieved all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses in Olmsted County from March 2020 through January 2021, abstracted symptom information, estimated rates of asymptomatic infection and examined related factors. Results: Twenty (10.5%; 95% CI, 6.9%-15.6%) first responders and 38 (6.7%; 95% CI, 5.0%-9.1%) county employees had positive antibodies; an additional 5 (2.6%) and 10 (1.8%) had prior positive PCR tests per self-report or medical record, but no antibodies detected. Of persons with symptom information, 4 of 20 (20%; 95% CI, 3.0%-37.0%) first responders and 10 of 39 (26%; 95% CI, 12.6%-40.0%) county employees were asymptomatic. Of 6020 positive PCR tests in Olmsted County with symptom information between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021, 6% (n=385; 95% CI, 5.8%-7.1%) were asymptomatic. Factors associated with asymptomatic disease included age (0-18 years [odds ratio {OR}, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1] and >65 years [OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0] compared with ages 19-44 years), body mass index (overweight [OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77] or obese [OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.57-0.62] compared with normal or underweight) and tests after November 20, 2020 ([OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.71] compared with prior dates). Conclusion: Asymptomatic rates in Olmsted County before COVID-19 vaccine rollout ranged from 6% to 25%, and younger age, normal weight, and later tests dates were associated with asymptomatic infection.

17.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(2): 237-248, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130431

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are approved for qualitative use. The cycle threshold (Ct) value reflects the concentration of viral RNA in the sample, with lower Ct values indicating higher levels of RNA. Caregivers may wish to use the Ct value to determine the progression of infection, how severe the infection will be, and whether the patient can transmit the virus. Variability of Ct values and the data supporting these uses should be considered when deciding whether and how to use Ct values in clinical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection caused by species of the order Mucorales. Early and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite in the management of the disease. In the present study, we evaluated and compared two PCR-based techniques for the diagnosis and identification of mucormycosis in patients with rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) post-COVID-19. METHODS: Diagnosed clinically and radiologically, 25 patients of ROM were included in the study and endoscopically or blind collected nasal swabs or orbital tissues were submitted for microbiological evaluation (direct microscopy + culture) and PCR using primers targeting two different loci (ITS and 28S rDNA region) for diagnosis. All PCR products were further processed for species identification using Sanger sequencing whenever possible. RESULT: Of the 25 samples included in the study, 16 samples were positive for presence of fungal filaments by Smear suggestive of Mucorales sp., but only 7/25 grew in culture. ITS-based PCR was able to identify mucormycosis in 7/25 (28%) samples and 28S rDNA PCR showed positivity for 19/25 (76%) samples. Rhizopus oryzae was found to be the predominant species in our study. The sensitivity and specificity of 28S rDNA PCR compared to culture were found to be 85.71% and 27.78%, respectively, while for ITS-based PCR, they were 42.86% and 77.78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: 28S rDNA-based PCR is a reliable and sensitive method for early diagnosis of mucormycosis. Molecular techniques have shown a promising future to provide quick and effective treatment by accurately identifying the aetiologic agent.

19.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(11): 672-677, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146783

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Outbreaks were first reported in China on December 31, 2019. Exactly one month later, the WHO declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, and on March 11, it was declared a pandemic. In February, the infection began to spread rapidly to various countries, with Europe declared the center. By April 17, 2020, cases had been confirmed in all subjects of the Russian Federation. At the beginning of September 2020, the number of cases exceeded one million; at November 19, two million; at December 26, three million. At February 10, 2021, four million; at May 23, five million; at July 20, six million; at September 5, seven million; at October 18, eight million; at November 13, nine million; and at December 12, 2021, ten million. The rapid spread of the virus, accompanied by a significant increase in the number of infections and deaths. A total of about 18.6 million cases were recorded at the end of the first half of 2022. The total number of deaths from coronavirus in Russia at that time was 382,313 (2.06% of all cases). The number of tests performed by various analytical methods amounted to over 274, 5 million, i.e. 1.9 million per 1 million population. The rapid spread and the increase in new infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 made it necessary to use new epidemiological and diagnostic approaches based on fast, accurate and reliable technology for detecting the infectious agent. One such virus detection method is polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription and real-time detection of the results. The review presents the domestic market offerings of PCR diagnostic kits and provides their comparative consumer characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran ; 36(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146631

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The first known receptor for this virus in the human body is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the same receptor for the SARS virus. Methods: A total of 38 hospitalized adult (18 years) patients with laboratory or clinically confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified in the infectious disease ward of Tehran Imam Khomeini hospital complex in this single-center crosssectional study. A blood sample was taken at the time of hospitalization and a second one was taken 48 hours later. Blood samples are kept frozen at -80 degrees Celsius. After the complete collection of samples, the ACE2 level of the samples was measured using a serum sACE2 detection ELISA kit. The data were analyzed using SPSS v26. P value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. An analysis of covariance was performed to examine the mean differences in day 7 serum ACE2 concentration among the 2 groups after adjusting for the baseline serum ACE2 concentration. The 1-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were any differences between independent groups (mechanical ventilation yes/no) on serum ACE2 levels at 3 different times. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.13 ± 16.49 years, 21 patients (55.3%) were men, 16 patients (42%) were polymerase chain reaction test positive, and 15 patients (39.5%) died. A total of 35 individuals (92.1%) had chest computed tomography images that indicated lung involvement. A comparison of the 2 groups of patients who died and were discharged revealed that serum ACE2 at the first (p=0.033) and third (7th day) measurements were statistically different (p=0.026). Patients had a mean of serum ACE2. The results indicated that the day 7 serum ACE2 concentration did significantly differ between the 2 groups after controlling for the baseline serum ACE2 concentration (p=0.023). The model explained about 73.61% of the variance in the 7-day serum ACE2 concentration. Specifically, after adjusting for the baseline concentration, survived patients had the lowest level of serum ACE2 concentration (1 ± 0.65) on the 7th day compared with the deceased patient group (2.83 ± 1.12). Conclusion: Soluble ACE2 in the serum of COVID-19 patients who died, later on, was significantly higher than the discharged patients when the samples were taken seven days after admission. It is suggested that serum soluble ACE2 level could be used as a prognostic factor for COVID-19 patients’ outcomes and also their need for mechanical ventilation. © Iran University of Medical Sciences

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