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1.
Future Foods: Global Trends, Opportunities, and Sustainability Challenges ; : 81-105, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878023

ABSTRACT

Climate change has had devastating effects on agriculture, industry, and food security. The recent outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated this situation as tons of crops have had to be destroyed due to the global closure of retail outlets. This raises questions on the world’s preparedness to deal with pandemics without ceasing food production and distribution. Most staple foods comprise grain crops;therefore, feeding the ever-increasing global population means increasing production of these crops. There is a need for drought, pest, and disease-resilient crops that are nutritionally superior and health-promoting. Future grain crops need to be produced in a cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally conscious way. Therefore, some innovative farming methods need to be explored. The future of agriculture, therefore, conceivably lies in the use of artificial intelligence, less reliance on agricultural chemicals as well as carbon-emitting fuels, hydroponics, and short-season cultivars, among others. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
Antioxidants ; 11(5):994, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871005

ABSTRACT

During the last decades, the demand for processes developed according to the Circular Economy Principles has increased, searching for an alternative life for wastes. For this purpose, a one-pot green approach is exploited during this work to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by using grape pomace waste from Vitis vinifera. A raw aqueous extract of grape seeds, skin, and stems is used for AuNPs synthesis. UV-Vis, XPS, SEM, and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies demonstrate the main role of the extract’s polyphenolic components in stabilizing nanoparticles. XRD, DLS, and Zeta Potential analyses were used to characterize AuNPs. Moreover, the ionic strength, pH, and temperature role was investigated through the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) band observation to assess AuNPs’ stability and photostability. For foreseeing the as-synthesized AuNPs’ potential use in cosmetic and biomedical fields as multifunctional platforms, their antioxidant, and skin-lightening properties were tested, together with their sunscreen ability. A preliminary in-vitro evaluation is reported about the AuNPs’ cytoprotective effects against H2O2 oxidative stress-induced in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Briefly, the possibility of reusing the grape pomace waste after the AuNPs synthesis as an adsorbent for the efficient removal of emergent contaminants is preliminarily discussed in the paper, further valorizing the use of waste according to a bio circular approach.

3.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869723

ABSTRACT

Berry consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure. Intestinal microbiota transform berry phytochemicals into more bioactive forms. Thus, we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials to determine whether berry polyphenols in foods, extracts or supplements have effects on both the profile of gut microbiota and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in humans. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched for randomized clinical trials in humans published from 1 January 2011 to 29 October 2021. Search results were imported into Covidence for screening and data extraction by two blinded reviewers, who also performed bias assessment independently. The literature search identified 216 publications; after duplicates were removed, 168 publications were screened with 12 full-text publications assessed for eligibility. Ultimately three randomized clinical trials in humans met the eligibility criteria. One randomized clinical trial showed a low risk of bias while the other two randomized clinical trials included low, high or unclear risk of bias. Together the randomized clinical trials showed that berry consumption (Aronia berry, strawberries, raspberries, cloudberries and bilberries) for 8-12 weeks had no significant effect on both blood pressure and the gut microbiota. More randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of berry consumption on the profile of gut microbiota and blood pressure in humans.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Polyphenols , Blood Pressure , Fruit , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Journal of Functional Foods ; 94:105108, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1849567

ABSTRACT

Medicinal herbs and their essential oils are used in human health promotion and disease prevention since ancient times. In the last two decades, many studies have been carried out to both identify bioactive compounds in medicinal herbs and derived essential oils and to examine their biological effects in experimental models;clinical trials, however, have been scant. This review discusses in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evidence supporting the immunomodulatory role of eleven medicinal herbs (bay laurel, black cumin, clove, fennel, lemon balm, lemongrass, marjoram, peppermint, rosemary, sage, and thyme) and their essential oils and bioactive components. Safety and toxicity aspects for consumption as well as future perspectives are also covered. Relevant data from the existing literature have been compiled and summarized. These herbs and oils, which are increasingly consumed, can be considered as valuable dietary supplements due to their health-promoting bioactive constituents. Well-design clinical trials are warranted to better ascertain the immunomodulatory effects of these herbal products.

5.
Food Chem ; 391: 133240, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851115

ABSTRACT

The effects of commercial enzymes (pectinases, cellulases, beta-1-3-glucanases, and pectin lyases) on the recovery of anthocyanins and polyphenols from blackcurrant press cake were studied considering two solid:solvent ratios (1:10 and 1:4 w/v). ß-glucanase enabled the recovery of the highest total phenolic content - 1142 mg/100 g, and the extraction of anthocyanins was similar using all enzymes (∼400 mg/100 g). The use of cellulases and pectinases enhanced the extraction of antioxidants (DPPH - 1080 mg/100 g; CUPRAC - 3697 mg/100 g). The freeze-dried extracts presented antioxidant potential (CUPRAC, DPPH), which was associated with their biological effects in different systems: antiviral activity against both non-enveloped viruses (enterovirus coxsackievirus A-9) and enveloped coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43), and cytotoxicity towards cancer cells (A549 and HCT8). No cytotoxic effects on normal human lung fibroblast (IMR90) were observed, and no anti-inflammatory activity was detected in lipopolysaccharides-treated murine immortalised microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Cellulases , Ribes , Animals , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ribes/chemistry
6.
International Journal of Life Sciences ; 9(Special Issue):3-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1849267

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, a new and fatal strain of coronavirus named as SARS-CoV-2 (Disease: COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan, China in December of 2019 and was officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses based on phylogenetic analysis. Because of its highly contagious nature, there is an urgent need for suitable drug which can control the viral infection. The covid 19 main protease was found to be the best target for drug synthesis as it involved in viral replication.

7.
Exploration of Medicine ; 3(1):1-21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1848162

ABSTRACT

Aim: Isolated specific glycone–aglycone conjugated flavonoids which are investigated for their effect of bioavailability and molecular concentrations. The specific formula is then tested via in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity tests. Methods: Considering the higher affinity for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), quercetin, quercetin 3-sambubioside-3’-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-4’alloside, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, epicatechin-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and hesperetin were selected to investigate the effects of a new combination of the formula. Specific chemical analyses, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (QTÖF–MS) analysis and ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectrophotometry, were performed for molecular qualification and quantification. Results: In silico molecular docking analyses have shown that flavonoids can bind strongly to the spike protein and main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activity by inhibiting cytokines. Although flavonoids may be a treatment alternative for coronavirus disease 2019 (CÖVID-19), an effective flavonoid compound has yet to be developed. The main problem here is that the absorption rate of flavonoids is very low (2–10%) in the intestines, and these compounds are metabolized rapidly. In contrast, according to recent literature, a conjugated flavonoid mixture is better absorbed in the small intestine, and its toxic effects are relatively fewer. Conclusions: It is found that the new formula has no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral administrations of the new compound did not produce any toxicity symptoms or any mortality in male and female rats. The pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo toxicity test results indicated that the new flavonoid formula can be safely used for clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Molecules ; 27(9):2907, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842906

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the phenolic profile and biological activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Cotoneaster nebrodensis and Cotoneaster roseus. Considering that miscellaneous species of Cotoneaster are thought to be healing in traditional Asian medicine, we assumed that this uninvestigated species may reveal significant therapeutic properties. Here, we report the simultaneous assessment of chemical composition as well as biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties) of tested species. Complementary LC-MS analysis revealed that polyphenols (especially flavonoids and proanthocyanidins) are the overriding phytochemicals with the greatest significance in tested biological activities. In vitro chemical tests considering biological activities revealed that obtained results showed different values depending on concentration, extraction solvent as well as phenolic content. Biological assays demonstrated that the investigated extracts possessed antibacterial properties and were not cytotoxic toward normal skin fibroblasts. Given the obtained results, we concluded that knowledge of the chemical composition and biological activities of investigated species are important to achieve a better understanding of the utilization of these plants in traditional medicine and be useful for further research in their application to treat various diseases, such as skin disorders.

9.
Molecules ; 27(9):2633, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842782

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids have the ability to control the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via scavenger activity. [...]flavonoids are important secondary metabolites produced by plants with several functions related to the physiology of the growth and stress responses. [...]nutrients with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may prevent or attenuate the inflammatory and vascular manifestations associated with COVID-19. [...]following healthy dietary patterns may have beneficial effects to contrast infection but still need to be explored. [...]natural compounds, owing to their medicinal, ecological, and other safe properties, are becoming popular potential candidates in preventing and treating peptic ulcers. At present, most data come from laboratory model tests. [...]the in vivo models of peptic ulcer include ulcers caused by oxidative damage, ethanol, NSAIDs, stress and Helicobacter pylori or acid-ethanol (ethanol or ethanol/HCl)-induced acute gastric ulcer models.

10.
Encyclopedia ; 1(1):206, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834742

ABSTRACT

DefinitionTissue integrity depends on biological tissue stiffness. Tissue integrity can protect both against age-related diseases and against severity of COVID-19. The disruption of tight junctions and increase of tissue permeability with advancing age can be related with age-related diseases as well as with age-dependent COVID-19. Release of tightly bound water from collagen fibrils leads to the increase of extracellular matrix stiffness and to the associated with matrix stiffness increased tissue permeability. The link between arterial stiffness and oxidative stress has been reported and is expected to be studied in more detail in the future. Trehalose can be suggested for retardation of tightly bound water release and subsequent extracellular matrix crosslinking by advanced glycation end products. Increase in tissue permeability can be blocked by polyphenols that inhibit ICAM-1 expression and mitigate cytoskeleton reorganization. NF-κB activation as a result of increased stiffness and cytoskeleton reorganization can cause both cardiovascular pathologies and COVID-19. Increased cholesterol content in cell membrane leads to increased virus entry into cell and increase of cholesterol is linked with cardiovascular diseases. Statins and chitosan are known as cholesterol-lowering substances. Nrf2 inhibits NF-κB activation and NF-κB inhibits Nrf2 pathway.

11.
Front Nutr ; 9: 899842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834491

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disrupts the intestinal micro-ecological balance, and patients often develop the intestinal disease. The gut is the largest immune organ in the human body; intestinal microbes can affect the immune function of the lungs through the gut-lung axis. It has been reported that tea polyphenols (TPs) have antiviral and prebiotic activity. In this review, we discussed TPs reduced lung-related diseases through gut-lung axis by inhibiting dysbiosis. In addition, we also highlighted the preventive and therapeutic effects of TPs on COVID-19 complications, further demonstrating the importance of research on TPs for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in humans. Based on this understanding, we recommend using TPs to regulate the gut microbiota to prevent or alleviate COVID-19 through the gut-lung axis.

12.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are the largest class of bioactive compounds in plants, which are synthesized as secondary metabolites. In the last few years, interesting studies have demonstrated the efficacy of polyphenols against coronavirus infections. METHODS: we conducted a phase II multicentric clinical trial (TAEROVID-19) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to assess the safety and feasibility of Taurisolo® aerosol formulation in hospitalized patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. RESULTS: we observed a rapid decline of symptoms and a low rate of intensive care in patients treated with Taurisolo®, with a faster decline of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first trial assessing the safety and feasibility of Taurisolo® aerosol formulation. We could argue that this treatment could act as an add-on therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, owing to both its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Further controlled trials are needed, which may be of interest to evaluate the compound's efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809661

ABSTRACT

Curcuma longa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites that have been associated with multiple health benefits. For instance, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, have been found to perform important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticoagulant. These promising results prompted this research to evaluate the polyphenols of C. longa rhizomes in Costa Rica. The present work reports a comprehensive study on the polyphenolic profile and the contents of the three main curcuminoids as well as the antioxidant activity of extracts from C. longa rhizomes (n = 12) produced in Costa Rica. Through UPLC-QTOF-ESI MS, a total of 33 polyphenols were identified, grouped in eight types of structures. In addition, our findings on the main curcuminoids using UPLC-DAD show all rhizomes complying with total curcuminoids (TC) content established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). At an individual level, samples NW-3 and NE-1 show the higher contents (118.7 and 125.0 mg/g dry material), representing more than twice the average values of the lowest samples. These samples also exhibit the highest Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reducing capacity results as well as the best DPPH (IC50 15.21 and 16.07 µg extract/mL) and NO (IC50 between 52.5 and 54.3 µg extract/mL) antioxidant values. Further, Pearson correlation analysis findings indicated positive correlation (p < 0.05) between TC, CUR with FC results (r = 0.833 and r = 0.867 respectively) and negative correlation (p < 0.05) between CUR, TC and FC with DPPH results (r = -0.898, r = -0.911, and r = -0.890, respectively) and between NO results and DPPH (r = -0.805, p < 0.05). Finally, results for Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed composition variability associated with their region of origin with products from the Northeastern (NE) region exhibiting higher average values for FC, TC and antioxidant activities. Further, PCA confirmed that two samples, namely NE-1 and NW-3, stand out by presenting the highest PC1 due to their particularly high TC, CUR and antioxidant activities. Consequently, our findings agree with previous results indicating the importance of C. longa extracts to elaborate products with potential benefits for health, while delivering extracts with higher levels of curcuminoids than previous reports and exhibiting high antioxidant activity.

14.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 136499, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1800162

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition originated from the accumulation of endotoxin in blood in response to infection (e.g., bacterial infection, COVID-19), and then aggravating by the systemic inflammatory responses, microcirculation disorders and oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in the dysfunction of multiple organs. Herein, advanced multi-lamellar microspheres (CPG-Ln-MSs) with cascade endotoxin adsorption and oxidative stress relief functions are constructed as an alternative adsorbent for hemoperfusion therapy towards sepsis. The CPG-Ln-MSs achieve effective endotoxin absorption (nearly 455.3 EU/g) and show excellent broad-spectrum radical scavenging activity for treating oxidative stress triggered by endotoxin accumulation. Specifically, the structural integrity of the multi-layered structure plays a vital role in promoting the efficiency of endotoxin removal and the subsequently scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Hemoperfusion simulation experiments demonstrate that the CPG-Ln-MSs could effectively remove endotoxin with a ratio of 92%, and the following oxidative stress state could be well alleviated, as confirmed by the reduced H2O2 and MDA levels in septic blood. Furthermore, endogenous antioxidants could be restored (recover SOD and CAT activity to 96.9 and 10.1 U/mL, respectively) and the red blood cells could be protected from oxidative damage. This study provides a promising therapeutic strategy and guides the design of future for septic blood purification.

15.
Beverages ; 8(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760334

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: beverages based on extracts from Camellia sinensis are popular worldwide. Due to an increasing number of processed teas on the market, there is a need to develop unified classification standards based on chemical analysis. Meanwhile, phytochemical characterizations are mainly performed on tea samples from China (~80%). Hence, data on teas of other provenances is recommended. (2) Methods: in the present investigation, we characterized lyophilised extracts obtained by infusion, maceration and methanolic extraction derived from tea samples from China, Japan, Sri Lanka and Portugal by phytochemistry (catechins, oxyaromatic acids, flavonols, alkaloids and theanine). The real benefits of drinking the tea were analysed based on the bioavailability of the determined phytochemicals. (3) Results: the infusions revealed the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) amounts, while methanolic extracts yielded the lowest. The correlation matrix indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds were similar in the infusions and methanolic samples, while extractions made by maceration were significantly different. The differences could be partially explained by the different amounts of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallic acids (GA). The catechin percentages were significantly lower in the macerations, especially the quantity of EGCG decreases by 4- to 5-fold after this process. (4) Conclusions: the results highlight the importance of the processing methodology to obtain “instant tea”;the composition of the extracts obtained with the same methodology is not significantly affected by the provenance of the tea. However, attention should be drawn to the specificities of the Japanese samples (the tea analysed in the present work was of Sencha quality). In contrast, the extraction methodology significantly affects the phytochemical composition, especially concerning the content of polyphenols. As such, our results indicate that instant tea classification based on chemical composition is sensible, but there is a need for a standard extraction methodology, namely concerning the temperature and time of contact of the tea leaves with the extraction solvent.

16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(3)2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760800

ABSTRACT

Controlling the infectivity of respiratory RNA viruses is critical, especially during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. There is an unmet need for therapeutic agents that can reduce viral replication, preferably independent of the accumulation of viral mutations. Zinc ions have an apparent activity as modulators of intracellular viral RNA replication and thus, appear attractive in reducing viral RNA load and infectivity. However, the intracellular concentration of zinc is usually too low for achieving an optimal inhibitory effect. Various herbal polyphenols serve as excellent zinc ionophores with known antiviral properties. Here, we combined zinc picolinate with a collection of flavonoids, representing commonly used polyphenols. Copper was added to avoid ionic imbalance during treatment and to improve efficacy. Each component separately, as well as their combinations, did not interfere with the viability of cultured A549, H1299, or Vero cells in vitro as determined by MTT assay. The safe combinations were further evaluated to determine antiviral activity. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate antiviral activity of the combinations. They revealed a remarkable (50-95%) decrease, in genome replication levels of a diverse group of respiratory RNA viruses, including the human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43; a betacoronavirus that causes the common cold), influenza A virus (IAV, strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Collectively, our results offer an orally bioavailable therapeutic approach that is non-toxic, naturally sourced, applicable to numerous RNA viruses, and potentially insensitive to new mutations and variants.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760647

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is second-most common disabling neurological disorder worldwide, and unfortunately, there is not yet a definitive way to prevent it. Polyphenols have been widely shown protective efficacy against various PD symptoms. However, data on their effect on physio-pathological mechanisms underlying this disease are still lacking. In the present work, we evaluated the activity of a mixture of polyphenols and micronutrients, named A5+, in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E115 treated with 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an established neurotoxic stimulus used to induce an in vitro PD model. We demonstrate that a pretreatment of these cells with A5+ causes significant reduction of inflammation, resulting in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL1), a reduction in ROS production and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and a decrease in apoptotic mechanisms with the related increase in cell viability. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment promoted cellular differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, as evident by the enhancement in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a well-established dopaminergic neuronal marker. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative efficacy of A5+ mixture against PD cellular pathological processes, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mice , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Oxidopamine/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Polyphenols/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760577

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a public health problem because it is characterized by several comorbidities, including uremic sarcopenia (US), and a poor quality of life. Currently, there are no standardized treatments available to counteract the onset of US but only some possible therapeutic approaches to slow its progression. The aim of this pilot study is to collect descriptive data in order to design a clinical trial based on the power analysis and simple size. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the possible beneficial action induced by the functional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant bars in combination with the adapted physical activity (APA), on the onset and progression of US and other related-CKD comorbidities. We enrolled 21 CKD patients under conservative therapy, divided into four groups: (A) the physical exercise program (PEP), three times a week, in combination with the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (B) the PEP group; (C) the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (D) the control group. The duration of the study protocol was 12 weeks. We observed an improvement trend of body composition, blood pressure levels, lipid metabolism, and functional test in A and B groups. These preliminary data would seem to confirm the effectiveness of APA and to demonstrate the additive role of the natural bioactive compound's assumption in countering US and other CKD comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sarcopenia , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
19.
chemRxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-331008

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has elicited much laboratory and clinical research attention on vaccines, mAbs, and certain small-molecule antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. By contrast, there has been comparatively little attention on plant-derived compounds, especially those that are understood to be safely ingested at common doses and are often commonly consumed in the diet. With broader scope for assays and trials against a diverse array of viral infections, we review elucidations of the pharmacokinetic mechanisms of polyphenolic compounds over the past two decades and survey their putative frequent-hitter behavior. Many polyphenols are indeed promiscuous binders, suggesting a candidate mechanism of non-specific inhibition combined with inflammation-targeting specificity. Since such a specificity mechanism combined with promiscuity poses a possible pathway of inhibiting viral replication uniquely in infected tissue, we highlight pre-clinical studies of polyphenol aglycones that reduce virion replication. It is hoped that greater awareness of the potential specificity of polyphenolic activation to sites of pathogenic infection will spur renewed research and clinical attention on assaying and trialing against several infectious viral diseases.

20.
Human Sport Medicine ; 21(4):175-184, 2021.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1744585

ABSTRACT

Aim. The paper aims to assess the prospects for the use of encapsulation technologies for improving bioavailability and bioactivity of plant antioxidants;to assess the prospects for the use of the materials obtained in the regulation of redox homeostasis in athletes and the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 complications. Materials and methods. Taxifolin and rutin in their original and encapsulated forms were used as plant antioxidants. Encapsulation was performed by gelatin pectin complex coacervation and conjugation to beta-cyclodextrin. The effectiveness of encapsulation technologies was assessed with the data of antioxidant activity (DPPH method, %) and bioavailability and bioactivity indices (in vitro digestion model). Results. It was found that encapsulated complexes of taxifolin and rutin were characterized by higher values of bioavailability and bioactivity. According to these findings it is possible to assume that encapsulated complexes have higher effectiveness in terms of antioxidant delivery. Conclusion. The results obtained confirm high effectiveness of the abovementioned polyphenol complexes in the regulation of redox homeostasis in athletes and the reduction of risk of oxidative stress and SARS-CoV-2 complications.

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