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1.
Meat Research / Roulei Yanjiu ; 36(6):29-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056249

ABSTRACT

To clarify the most suitable fish paste for preparing lion's head meatballs, this study investigated the effect of adding 6 different silver carp fish pastes: fresh unwashed (group 1-1), fresh washed (group 1-2), frozen unwashed without antifreeze agent (group 2-1), frozen washed without antifreeze agent (group 2-2), frozen unwashed with antifreeze agent (group 3-1), and frozen washed with antifreeze agent (group 3-2) on the basic nutrients, color, texture properties, waterholding capacity, sensory and flavor properties, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) value, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content of pork/fish composite meatballs. The results showed that the contents of protein and fat in meatballs from groups 2-1 and 2-2 were lower than those in groups 3-1 and 3-2, and the contents of water, protein and fat were 61.68%, 11.32% and 19.41% for group 2-1, and 62.45%, 11.09% and 19.33% for group 2-2, respectively. The gel properties, hardness, elasticity, cohesion, and sensory quality of groups 3-1 and 3-2 were significantly higher than those of groups 2-1 and 2-2 (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference compared with groups 1-1 and 1-2. The odor response value of groups 3 was lower than that of groups 1, and groups 3 had the highest sweetness value (3 039.66) and lowest bitterness value (534.59). The TBARs value and TVB-N content in groups 1-2, 2-2, and 3-2 (with washed fish paste) were significantly lower than those in groups 1-1, 2-1 and 3-1 (with unwashed fish paste) (P < 0.05). Since fresh fish paste is not easy to store and subject to spoilage, frozen washed fish paste with antifreeze agent can be used to produce composite meatballs.

2.
LWT - Food Science & Technology ; 168:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2049617

ABSTRACT

This study characterized Yersinia enterocolitica and other Yersinia spp. isolated from retail and processed meats sampled in Yangling, Shaanxi Province, China (2018–2019). The detection rate of Yersinia -positive samples was 14.30% (86/600). Yersinia was commonly prevalent in beefs (32.00%), frozen meats (25.00%), packaged meats (21.65%), and meats from supermarkets (17.23%). Y. enterocolitica was identified as the most prevalent species (50.00%, 62/124), followed by Y. frederiksenii (24.19%), Y. intermedia (16.94%), and Y. kristensenii (8.87%). Most Y. enterocolitica isolates were of bio-serotype 1A/nt (67.74%). Sixty-three isolates (50.81%) carried yst B and two isolates (1.61%) carried rfb C. Yersinia isolates were commonly resistant to ampicillin (91.94%), cefazolin (71.77%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.45%), cefoxitin (28.23%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1.61%). Sixty-six isolates (53.23%) were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Pulse field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the genetic homology of Yersinia isolates between pork, beef, and chicken was low, as was that of biotype 1A isolates. The results indicate that Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia spp. (especially bio-serotype 1A/nt, ampicillin-resistant, and yst B-carrying strains) are prevalent in retail and processed meats in the study area, which provides valuable baseline data for food safety and public health safeguarding. • Yersinia spp. with different characteristics were prevalent in retail meat. • Yersinia enterocolitica was the most commonly detected species. • Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates carried gene yst B and resisted multiple antibiotics. • The genetic relationship of Yersinia isolates between pork, beef, and chicken was diverse. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of LWT - Food Science & Technology is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; 49(8):3220, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012955

ABSTRACT

[Background] The epidemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019 brought challenges to food safety. 【Objective】To evaluate the contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork sold in the post-epidemic era. [Methods] During the epidemic period from 2020 to 2021, fresh pork from different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons were selected to analyze the contamination rate and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes, and the epidemiological characteristics of the isolated strains were analyzed. [Results] The contamination rate of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork was 15.28% (77/504), and the contamination rate in pork direct-sale stores and farmers' markets was higher than that in supermarkets. Among different packaging methods, the contamination rates of pre-packaging and simple packaging were higher than those of bulk samples, and there were significant differences in the contamination rates in different quarters, with the highest contamination rate in the third quarter, which was 27.78%. Quantitative results found that 40.26% exceeded 10 MPN/g (MPN: most probable number), and 3 samples had contamination levels over 100 MPN/g. The results of serotype analysis showed that 1/2a-3a (48.05%) and 1/2c-3c (44.16%) were the main serotypes. The results of drug resistance test showed that 19.50% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, 2 (2.60%) were sensitive to all antibiotics, 68 (88.30%) were resistant to oxacillin, and 46 (59.70%) were resistant to oxacillin. Ampicillin-resistant, 45 strains (58.40%) were resistant to cefotaxime. 【Conclusion】In the post-epidemic era, there are different degrees of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the marketed fresh pork in different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons. The contamination level of individual products is high, and the serum distribution and drug resistance characteristics are diverse. It is necessary to strengthen food safety supervision to reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

4.
Farmers Weekly ; 2022(May 6):19-19, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1970139
5.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Engineering, ICAICE 2021 ; : 216-220, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948770

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest pork production and consumption country, with the improvement of people's living standards and consumption upgrade, people's demand for fresh pork and other fresh products is stronger. With the outbreak of African Swine Fever and COVID-19 in China in the past two years, cold chain transportation of pork will replace live pigs as the main mode of pork supply chain. As one of the most important branches of machine learning, deep learning has developed rapidly in recent years and attracted extensive attention at home and abroad. In order to improve the real-time detection of pork freshness, this paper experimented with a variety of deep learning frameworks to achieve pork freshness classification. In this paper, pork freshness is divided into 5 levels according to TVB-N content, and the pictures taken are trained by different deep learning networks, including VGG, GoogLeNet and RestNet. After analyzing the training situation of each network, the advantages of different networks are absorbed and a new improved neural network is built to predict pork freshness. The final classification accuracy reached 97%, Indicating that this is a very efficient and accurate pork freshness classification method. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia ; 42(1):21-28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925260

ABSTRACT

Cholera, a diarrheal infection caused by the gram-negative bacillus Vibrio cholerae, belongs to the Vibrionaceae family. According to the who in 2017, 34 countries reported a total of 1 227 391 cases of cholera and 5 654 deaths, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. The Asian continent is responsible for 84% and Africa for 14% of all cholera cases worldwide, and in America, Haiti reported 13 681 cases (1%). Practically, most of the cases correspond to developing countries, which translates to us a health problem and/or infrastructure (access to safe water), conditions for outbreaks and epidemics. In Mexico, in 2018 a case was reported in an adult, being the human intestine is not the only reservoir of V. cholerae 01, since it survives and multiplies in estuaries, swamps, rivers and in the sea. Some fish and various shellfish, especially bivalve molluscs from contaminated waters, are a potential source of transmission if eaten raw or undercooked. It can also be spread through other types of food such as rice, coconut water, undercooked pork, and vegetables irrigated with black water. The route of transmission is fecal-oral. Outbreaks associated with the ingestion of contaminated water appear explosively and are generally related to a common source. Cholera occurs mainly in low socioeconomic environments with poor sanitation conditions, it is frequent in people who are exposed to consumption of river water and/or street foods and in food handlers. Given all these aspects, we must always think about this pathology, given the sanitary conditions that are currently distracting from the current coronavirus pandemic, coupled with many regions with floods and the consumption of contaminated water.

7.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

8.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

9.
Mathematics ; 10(10):1732, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871931

ABSTRACT

China’s livestock output has been growing, but domestic livestock products such as beef, mutton and pork have been unable to meet domestic consumers’ demands. The imbalance between supply and demand causes unstable livestock prices and affects profits on livestock. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide the optimal breeding strategy for livestock farmers to maximize profits and adjust the balance between supply and demand. Firstly, when the price changes, livestock farmers will respond in two ways: by not adjusting the scale of livestock with the price or adjusting the scale with the price. Therefore, combining the model of price and the behavior of livestock farmers, two livestock breeding models were established. Secondly, we proposed four optimal breeding strategies based on the previously studied models and the main research method is Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Optimal breeding strategies are achieved by controlling the growth and output of livestock. Further, their existence was verified. Finally, we simulated two situations and found the most suitable strategy for both situations by comparing profits of four strategies. From that, we obtained several conclusions: The optimal strategy under constant prices is not always reasonable. The effect of price on livestock can promote a faster balance. To get more profits, the livestock farmers should adjust the farm’s productivity reasonably. It is necessary to calculate the optimal strategy results under different behaviors.

10.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871712

ABSTRACT

It is reported that the USDA outlook for US agriculture in 2021 is generally positive. Most agricultural markets, including the major markets for Iowa, have recovered from the depths of the price declines that struck during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the basic statistics (such as production, exports, imports, and prices) for cattle/beef, pigs/pigmeat, maize and soyabeans are presented.

11.
Food Control ; 140:109143, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867139

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the level of conformity with food safety requirements in cattle and pig slaughterhouses in the qualification procedure of beef and pork suppliers to a large-scale meat processing plant. Seventy-two slaughterhouses supplying beef and pork to the meat processing plant were audited. The audits were carried out in 2019–2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the evaluated slaughterhouses met the audit requirements, but 10% were not qualified. There were two and half times more disqualified pig slaughterhouses than cattle ones. Large-sized slaughterhouses were scored significantly better than the medium-sized ones. The results made it possible to identify areas requiring urgent improvement in slaughterhouses, especially in the case of food safety/HACCP and non-conformities control, site hygiene, and pest control. Significantly more complete fulfillment of the requirements was found in cattle than in pig slaughterhouses. The highest differences between cattle and pig slaughterhouses were found in the area of site hygiene, pest control, and production process criteria. The highest scored criterion for both types of slaughterhouse was SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 issues. This indicates that prevention spreading of COVID-19 in the work environment was highly ensured.

12.
Journal of Animal Science ; 99(Supplement_3):117-117, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831224

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic of 2020/2021 resulted in widespread impacts on the production & processing of animal proteins. Specifically, the U.S. pork industry was hit with multiple, long-term plant closures and slow-downs due to labor safety issues and availability, resulting in a backlog reaction felt throughout the live production supply-chain. Impact and timing differed by region and required variable strategies to address them. While some plants in the Western United States weren’t impacted until the latter stages of the pandemic and thus were attempting to add valuable liveweight, other regions, including the Midwest and Southeastern United States were experiencing moderate to severe reductions in processing capacity that created an accumulation of heavy animals and placed additional feed and ingredient demands on the feed mills. The backlog also reduced available space & disrupted the normal barn fill/empty cycles. While there was no way to prepare for these impacts, university & industry groups attempted to fill the knowledge gap with management and nutritional tools to address the issues of excess inventory, decreasing feed capacity, and supply-chain disruptions. Numerous approaches were employed, including altered grading strategies, sow breeding target reductions, double/triple stocking situations, and feed, ingredient, and nutrient manipulation meant to slow down growth rate and feed intake. Nutritional strategies included the feeding of low energy ingredients as well as low protein/high methionine diets designed to reduce the growth rate of both heavy and light animals. While several of these strategies resulted in moderate success, some resulted in additional issues including stress-related vices, ulcers, increased mortality, and sub-optimal carcass characteristics. Ultimately, continuous planning, coordination, and communication between the plants, feed mills, nutritionists, and production groups enabled a return to normalcy, and while we hope to never experience a pandemic again, we are left with knowledge that will improve the resilience of the U.S. pork industry.

13.
Journal of Animal Science ; 99(Supplement_3):6-6, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. By April 2020, COVID-19 resulted in the simultaneous closure or reduced operations of many processing plants in the upper Midwest, which quickly resulted in supply chain disruptions. Iowa is the leading pork production and processing state, and these disruptions caused producer uncertainty, confusion, and stress, including time-sensitive challenges for maintaining animal care. The Resource Coordination Center (RCC) was quickly created and launched from the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship. The RCC had strategic collaborations with public representation from the Iowa Pork Producers Association, Iowa Pork Industry Center, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, and private partners through producers, veterinarians, and technical specialists. The RCC’s mission was four-fold: (1) implement appropriate actions to ensure the health and safety of RCC members, stakeholders, and the public, (2) evaluate and reassess appropriate actions as needed for continuity of pork production operations, (3) provide information to pork producers during supply chain disruptions, and (4) maintain a safe and abundant pork supply for consumers. The command structure included Incident Commanders, Command Staff, and four Section Chiefs whom worked with their respective experts. Sections covered (1) operations, (2) planning, (3) logistics, and (4) finance and administration. As it related to animal welfare, the RCC provided information on management decisions, dietary alterations to slow pig growth, pig movement to increase living space, alternative markets, on-farm euthanasia and mass depopulation. Veterinary oversight was continually maintained. A manual was created to provide up-to-date information to inform producer decisions and aid. Although originally created for swine, the RCC also assisted poultry, cattle and sheep producers. In a crisis, Iowa created a model that reacted to producer’s pragmatic and emotional needs. This model could be replicated for any emergency by other states.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4748, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810164

ABSTRACT

Several biosafety gaps in agri-food sectors have become evident in recent years. Many of them are related to the global livestock systems and the organizational models involved in their management and organization. For example, producing pigs requires a global system of massive confinement and specific technological innovations related to animal production and health that involve broad technical and scientific structures, which are required to generate specific knowledge for successful management. This suggests the need for an underlying socially agglomerated technological ecosystem relevant for these issues. So, we propose the analysis of a specialized scientific social structure in terms of the knowledge and technologies required for pig production and health. The objective of this work is to characterize structural patterns in the research of the swine health sector worldwide. We use a mixed methodological approach, based on a social network approach, and obtained scientific information from 4868 specialized research works on health and pig production generated between 2010 to 2018, from 47 countries. It was possible to analyze swine research dynamics, such as convergence and influence, at country and regional levels, and identify differentiated behaviors and high centralization in scientific communities that have a worldwide impact in terms of achievements but also result in significant omissions.

15.
2021 3rd International Conference on E-Business and E-Commerce Engineering, EBEE 2021 ; : 149-157, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789025

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest consumer and importer of pork. In the context of COVID-19, countries have implemented strict import inspection and quarantine standards, and pork imports are facing more complicated customs clearance procedures, resulting in a sharp increase in customs risks. Pork, as a basic livelihood product, has always been a sensitive topic on the Internet. Their public opinions often have an important impact on customs policies and are one of the important sources of customs risks. Based on Internet text big data mining and LDA-GRA analysis method, this paper classifies online public opinion on pork import during the COVID-19 pandemic into different topics, and conducts correlation analysis on public opinion text and customs policy, investigates the correlation between online public opinion, customs policy and customs risk, as well as its correlation strength. The results show that the online public opinion of pork import has a significant impact on the implementation of the customs policy, and causes a variety of potential customs risks of pork import. Pork import-related enterprises should strengthen public opinion monitoring to reduce losses caused by customs risks. © 2021 ACM.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 784668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775989

ABSTRACT

Affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there were short-term uncertainties in China's live pig industry supply chain. Due to the insufficient supply of pork, the price of pork rose from 33.21 yuan/kg at the end of 2019 to 37.46 yuan/kg in mid-February and fell to 26.41 yuan/kg in mid-May. To restore pig supply and stabilise prices, China issued relevant policies. Given the current effective control of COVID-19 in China, this paper constructed an evolutionary game model of China's pork supply and demand stakeholders under normalisation of COVID-19 prevention and control, analysed the behavioural strategies of consumers, government, and pig farmers, used MATLAB software for data simulation, and expounded on the evolution path and the characteristic rule of tripartite decision-making behaviours. The results showed that government supervision costs, evaluation of government by consumers and pig farmers, government subsidies to pig farmers and consumers, and the proportion of stakeholder behaviours affected the formation of tripartite relationships. The results provide a useful reference for the government to formulate effective policies, increase pig supply, and stabilise pork prices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pork Meat , Red Meat , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Government , Humans , Swine
17.
Geography and Sustainability ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1664943

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest consumer of pork and grains. However, African swine fever (ASF) and the COVID-19 outbreak have greatly impacted the pork supply and food security in China. How can food security and the pork supply be ensured under the dual impacts of COVID-19 and ASF? This is a major problem to be urgently solved by the Chinese government. This study indicated that the main pork production and sales areas in China were separated, which reflected the spatial imbalance between the supply and demand. The total area of suitable selected sites for pig farms in China is 21.5 million ha. If only the areas with levels of high and moderate suitability are considered as potential sites for pig farms, the potential pork production can reach 56.1 million tons in China, which is slightly lower than demand. Due to the impact of the ASF epidemic, the food consumed by pigs has been reduced by 34.7 million tons. However, with increasing pork productivity in the future, the self-sufficiency rate of grains may further decline. On the premise that the quality of people's life is not affected, the diversification of meat supply channels should be realized in an orderly and sustainable way, which might conductive to alleviate the pressure on food supply. This study provides a theoretical reference for the spatiotemporal layout of the swine industry and addresses the issue of food security in China under the influence of ASF and the COVID-19 outbreak.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613584

ABSTRACT

Growing prosperity, but also disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and consumer preferences are changing global meat consumption. We investigated the 2000-2019 trends in 35 countries monitored by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. We also tested relationships with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Several countries appeared to be reaching peak consumption of some meats, and three (New Zealand, Canada, and Switzerland) have reached this. Poultry consumption increased over time in most countries, and beef and mutton/lamb consumption decreased in many. Using cluster analysis, we divided countries into two clusters: one in which increases in GDP per capita matched increases in meat consumption; and a second one of nine countries, for which there was no association between per capita change in GDP and meat consumption. There was evidence of a tipping point around USD 40,000 of GDP per capita, after which increases in economic well-being do not lead to increased meat consumption.

19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 675554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317244

ABSTRACT

We determined consumer preferences for traceable pork attributes in 328 consumers in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China, based on a traceable pork attribute system composed of traceability, animal welfare, place of origin, and price attributes. Preference was studied using a Choice Experiment and Bayesian inference analysis. Results showed that the marginal utility of health welfare was lower than that of high-level traceability information and similar to that of place of origin but was higher than that of middle-level traceability information. A complementary relationship existed between dietary animal welfare and high-level traceability information and between health welfare and non-indigenous production. A substitution relationship existed between health welfare and indigenous production and between environmental animal welfare and non-indigenous production. The marginal utilities of health welfare and dietary welfare were higher than those of all price levels, and consumers accept a higher price as a result of increased production costs due to the inclusion of animal welfare information. Due to the harsh realities of COVID-19, China has recently approved the animal welfare attribute to be integrated into traceability market systems of new animal-derived food. The government should encourage manufacturers to produce diverse traceable animal-derived food not only to protect animal welfare and promote the construction of an ecological civilization, but also to develop new animal-derived food markets to satisfy different levels of consumer demand.

20.
Appl Econ Perspect Policy ; 43(1): 292-303, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308946

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered life in innumerable ways in many countries across the globe. In this article I review what the virus did to patterns of US and Brazilian exports of major commodities during the first surge of the virus during April and May 2020, and also speculate on what may happen during the beginning of North American winter in late 2020. The analysis highlights how grains versus meats have been vulnerable to trade disruptions due to the coronavirus pandemic. US exports of beef and pork were particularly impacted by a wave of processing facility shutdowns in the wake of COVID-19 outbreaks among workers. Poultry exports saw declines from their highs but remain strong, even though poultry-processing facilities have also faced issues with outbreaks and shutdowns. Trends in 2020 grain and oilseed exports have not been affected by the pandemic.

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