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1.
Tour Manag Perspect ; 44: 101029, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106059

ABSTRACT

To prevent COVID-19, tourists are required to maintain distance from other people. However, interpersonal contact is a crucial element in tourists' well-being. It is necessary to ask how eliciting both eudaimonic and hedonic well-being will change as a result. The answer is unclear. To address this issue, we used partial least squares equation modeling to examine a city that has efficiently responded to COVID-19. This study expands the influencing model of tourists' well-being by revealing how physical distance moderates the influence of such factors as contact intention, leisure involvement, and flow experience. The study throws light on tourists' psychological recovery and destination management in the post-COVID-19 era.

2.
Respir Med ; 203: 107006, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-COVID syndrome includes several clinical identities, with both physical and mental alterations lasting several months from the acute phase of COVID-19 disease. However, to date, data concerning the relationship between healthcare settings during COVID-19 disease and post-COVID mood disorders are lacking. METHODS: We performed a prospective study enrolling 440 patients with post-COVID syndrome. Each patient underwent a complete clinical evaluation, along with blood and functional tests. Patients were divided according to the healthcare setting needed during COVID-19 disease. RESULTS: Patients admitted to RICU were more prone to develop mental alterations, even when compared to ICU-admitted patients. Other risk factors for mood disorders included female gender and some post-COVID symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare needs during COVID-19 can explain the higher incidence of mood disorders in post-COVID syndrome. RICU arises as an important but underexplored risk factor for post-COVID psychic sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Delivery of Health Care
4.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(5): 705, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099951

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a widespread impact on individuals' mental health through indirect psychological and social mechanisms, related to factors such as fear of infection or death, social isolation, lack of social support and financial instability. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has also been associated with the development or recurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, both during the acute phase, as well as during the post-acute 'long-COVID' phase. In addition to the COVID-19 survivors with a mental health history that are at a high risk of experiencing a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms following resolution of acute COVID-19, there is accumulating evidence that a diagnosis of COVID-19 may also be associated with new-onset neuropsychiatric morbidity among survivors without pre-existing mental health disorders. In particular, studies investigating the incidence of post-acute neuropsychiatric sequelae, based mostly on retrospective cohort study designs and data from national health registries, have reported the development of new-onset manifestations, including depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, sleep disturbances and fatigue. Nevertheless, when COVID-19 survivors were compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative controls and especially survivors of other disorders (such as influenza), the findings regarding the risk of incident neuropsychiatric manifestations varied among studies. While there is evidence of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent occurrence of new-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially among patients with increased disease severity, further research using methodological approaches less susceptible to confounding bias is required to establish causal relationships.

5.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099375

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of evidence of the health impacts due to long COVID among children and young people (CYP). The objective of this study is to determine the main clinical characteristics of long COVID in CYP and to investigate the academic, social, and health status impacts of long COVID in this population. An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study on CYP who presented COVID-19 symptoms for more than twelve weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed between December 2020 and May 2021. Fifty CYP were included, with a median age of 14.1 years, 33 (66%) were female, and 17 (34%) had a relative diagnosed with long COVID. Since the initial infection and up to the first visit, CYP had persisting symptoms for a median of 4.1 months, and for 18 (36%) CYP these symptoms persisted for more than 6 months. Fatigue (100%), neurocognitive disorders (74%), muscular weakness (74%), and headache (72%) were the most reported symptoms. A total of 9 (18%) CYP could not attend school, 17 (34%) had a reduced schedule, 33 (66%) showed a decreased school performance, and 68% had stopped extracurricular activities. This preliminary study shows the impact that long COVID has on the health, academic, and social life of CYP.

6.
Neurol Res Pract ; 4(1): 53, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098476

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have indicated that long-term neurological sequelae after COVID-19 are not accompanied by an increase of canonical biomarkers of central nervous system injury in blood, but subgroup stratifications are lacking. This is a particular concern in chronic headache, which can be a leading symptom of Post-COVID diseases associated with neuronal damage such as vasculitis or autoimmune encephalitis. We here compared patients with mild Post-COVID-19 syndrome and persistent headache (persistent Post-COVID-19 headache) lasting longer than 12 weeks after the initial serological diagnosis, to patients with mild and severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-negative controls. Levels of neurofilament light chain and glial fibrillary astrocytic protein, i.e. markers of neuronal damage and reactive astrogliosis, were lower in blood from patients with persistent Post-COVID-19 headache compared to patients with severe COVID-19. Hence, our pilot serological study indicates that long-term Post-COVID-19 headache may not be a sign of underlying neuronal damage or neuroinflammation.

7.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702221128563, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098257

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) rs662 polymorphism, arylesterase (ARE) activity, and the serum lipid profile in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different stages of the disease considering post-COVID outcomes. A total of 470 COVID-19 patients (235 female and 235 male patients) were recruited into the study, and based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the patients were divided into three groups: moderate, severe, and critical. PON1 rs662 polymorphism was determined by the Alw 1 enzyme followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (Chol), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), as well as the level of the ARE activity of PON1 in the sera of patients were measured at the time of infection and one and three months after hospitalization. There was a significant relationship between the G allele and the severity of the disease. In addition, the probability of death in homozygous individuals (GG) was higher than in heterozygous patients (GA), and it was higher in heterozygous patients than in wild-type individuals (AA). There was also a significant relationship between the decrease in serum lipids and the intensity of COVID-19. On the contrary, at the onset of the disease, the HDL-c level and serum ARE activity were reduced compared to one and three months after COVID-19 infection. The findings of this study indicated the significant impact of PON1 rs662 polymorphism on ARE activity, lipid profiles, disease severity, and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103599, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096076
9.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120487, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.

10.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116613, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095624

ABSTRACT

In the post-COVID scenario, the annual increase in plastic waste has taken an upsurge due to the disposal of plastic masks, gloves and other protective equipment. To reduce the plastic load ending up in landfills and oceans or dumped at roadsides, the potential of using plastic polymers in different sectors has been investigated over the years leading to their potential application in pavement laying, concrete industry, fuel generation and production of carbon-based compounds among which activated carbons (AC) is a prime example. As one of the most recommended adsorbents for removing contaminants from water and adsorbing greenhouse gases, AC creates a potential sector for using discarded plastic to further treat pollutants and approach closer to a circular economy for plastics. This paper analyses the production process, the effect of production parameters on AC characteristics and properties that aid in adsorption. The interdependence of these factors determines the surface area, porosity, relative micropore and mesopore volume, thereby defining the utility for removing contaminant molecules of a particular size. Furthermore, this work discusses the application of AC along with a summary of the earlier works leading to the existing gaps in the research area. Production costs, formation of by-products including toxic substances and adsorbate selectivity are the major issues that have restricted the commercial application of this process towards its practical use. Research aimed at valorization of plastic waste into ACs would minimize the solid waste burden, along with treating other pollutants.

11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 113(Pt B): 109428, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095518

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a global public health emergency and has led to devastating results. Mounting evidence proposes that the disease causes severe pulmonary involvement and influences different organs, leading to a critical situation named multi-organ failure. It is yet to be fully clarified how the disease becomes so deadly in some patients. However, it is proven that a condition called "cytokine storm" is involved in the deterioration of COVID-19. Although beneficial, sustained production of cytokines and overabundance of inflammatory mediators causing cytokine storm can lead to collateral vital organ damages. Furthermore, cytokine storm can cause post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS), an important cause of morbidity after the acute phase of COVID-19. Herein, we aim to explain the possible pathophysiology mechanisms involved in COVID-19-related cytokine storm and its association with multi-organ failure and PCS. We also discuss the latest advances in finding the potential therapeutic targets to control cytokine storm wishing to answer unmet clinical demands for treatment of COVID-19.

12.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(Suppl 1): 23-27, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091289

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of newly verified or worsened existing hypertension in patients who had coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). To be categorized as a COVID-19 patient, a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test at a single point in time was required. The patients' age, history, laboratory values and antihypertensive therapy of patients were recorded. In one year, 32 of 199 patients studied had either newly verified (15) or worsened existing (17) arterial hypertension. Among those patients, the median time from a verified infection to the onset of symptoms was 3 months. When the patients were divided into groups, 4 were in the acute, 11 in the sub-acute, 8 in the chronic and 9 in the "long COVID" group. Compared to the rest of the study population, patients presenting with arterial hypertension had significantly higher systolic (median 141 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic (median 93 mmHg vs 80 mmHg, p<0.001) blood pressure and were significantly younger (median 51 vs 59 years, p 0.032). Arterial hypertension following COVID-19, either newly verified or worsened existing, is a relatively common occurrence (16% of our patient pool), indicating that more effort should be directed at evaluating the blood pressure values of patients following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hypertension , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
13.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(10): e36656, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the mental health impacts of COVID-19 on the general population have been well studied, studies of the long-term impacts of COVID-19 on infected individuals are relatively new. To date, depression, anxiety, and neurological symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) have been observed in the months following COVID-19 recovery. Suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) have also been preliminarily proposed as sequelae of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We asked 3 questions. First, do participants reporting a history of COVID-19 diagnosis or a close relative having severe COVID-19 symptoms score higher on depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]) or state anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Index) screens than those who do not? Second, do participants reporting a COVID-19 diagnosis score higher on PCS-related PHQ-9 items? Third, do participants reporting a COVID-19 diagnosis or a close relative having severe COVID-19 symptoms score higher in STB before, during, or after the first year of the pandemic? METHODS: This preliminary study analyzed responses to a COVID-19 and mental health questionnaire obtained from a US population sample, whose data were collected between February 2021 and March 2021. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to detect differences in the medians of the total PHQ-9 scores, PHQ-9 component scores, and several STB scores between participants claiming a past clinician diagnosis of COVID-19 and those denying one, as well as between participants claiming severe COVID-19 symptoms in a close relative and those denying them. Where significant differences existed, we created linear regression models to predict the scores based on COVID-19 response as well as demographics to identify potential confounding factors in the Mann-Whitney relationships. Moreover, for STB scores, which corresponded to 5 questions asking about 3 different time intervals (i.e., past 1 year or more, past 1 month to 1 year, and past 1 month), we developed repeated-measures ANOVAs to determine whether scores tended to vary over time. RESULTS: We found greater total depression (PHQ-9) and state anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Index) scores in those with COVID-19 history than those without (Bonferroni P=.001 and Bonferroni P=.004) despite a similar history of diagnosed depression and anxiety. Greater scores were noted for a subset of depression symptoms (PHQ-9 items) that overlapped with the symptoms of PCS (all Bonferroni Ps<.05). Moreover, we found greater overall STB scores in those with COVID-19 history, equally in time windows preceding, during, and proceeding infection (all Bonferroni Ps<.05). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm previous studies linking depression and anxiety diagnoses to COVID-19 recovery. Moreover, our findings suggest that depression diagnoses associated with COVID-19 history relate to PCS symptoms, and that STB associated with COVID-19 in some cases precede infection.

14.
J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis ; 28: e20220020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089515

ABSTRACT

Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) has been shown to be a neurological manifestation of COVID-19. The current study presents two cases of PFP after COVID-19, along with a rapid review of known cases in the literature. Both case reports were conducted following CARE guidelines. We also performed a systematic review of PFP cases temporally related to COVID-19 using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases on August 30, 2021, using a rapid review methodology. The two patients experienced PFP 102 and 110 days after COVID-19 symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal samples through reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing. Anosmia was the only other neurological manifestation. PFP was treated with steroids in both cases, with complete subsequent recovery. In the rapid review, we identified 764 articles and included 43 studies. From those, 128 patients with PFP were analyzed, of whom 42.1% (54/128) were male, 39.06% (50/128) female, and in 23 cases the gender was not reported. The age range was 18 to 59 (54.68%). The median time between COVID-19 and PFP was three days (ranging from the first symptom of COVID-19 to 40 days after the acute phase of infection). Late PFP associated with COVID-19 presents mild symptoms and improves with time, with no identified predictors. Late PFP should be added to the spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a post COVID-19 condition.

15.
Mycoses ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was followed by large number of mucormycosis cases. Indiscriminate use of immunosuppressive drugs, underlying diseases such as diabetes, cancers, or autoimmune diseases was thought to be the cause. However, the mortality was not as high as that seen in non-COVID mucormycosis. OBJECTIVE: To study the detailed characteristics of T-cells for evaluating the underlying differences in the T-cell immune dysfunction in post-COVID and non-COVID mucor patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study included histopathologically confirmed cases of mucor (13 post-COVID, 13 non-COVID) and 15 healthy individuals (HI). Expression of T-cell activation (CD44, HLADR, CD69, CD38) and exhaustion (CTLA, PD-1, LAG-3 and TIM-3) markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: All cases showed significant depletion of T-cells compared to HI. Both post-COVID and non-COVID groups showed increased activation and exhaustion as compared to HI. Non-COVID mucor group showed significant activation of CD4+ T cells for HLADR and CD38 (p = .025, p = .054) and marked T-cell exhaustion in form of expression of LAG-3 on both CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in comparison with post-COVID patients (p = .011, p = .036). Additionally, co-expression of PD-1 & LAG-3 and LAG-3 & TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells was statistically significant in non-COVID mucor patients (p = .016, p = .027). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppression in non-COVID mucor showed pronounced exhaustion of T-cells in comparison to post-COVID mucor cases implicating T-cell immune dysfunction is much more severe in non-COVID mucor which are in a state of continuous activation followed by extreme exhaustion leading to poorer outcome.

16.
Diabet Med ; : e14986, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088169

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This cohort study, based on Danish health registers, examined the post-acute consequences of hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danish citizens (≥18 years old) who had diabetes when the pandemic started. A patient was exposed if he/she had a hospitalization with COVID-19 after 1 March 2020. A patient was unexposed when he/she was not hospitalized with COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and the end of follow-up (4 January 2022), or the first registered event of interest. The outcomes included post-COVID-19 hospitalizations and death. We used a Cox proportional hazards model with time varying exposure estimating the hazards ratio (HR) to analyze if the hazard for an outcome of interest was impacted by being hospitalized with COVID-19. RESULTS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, 101 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 25,459 were not. We did not have sufficient statistical power to identify differences in risk for those with type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, 1515 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 95,887 were not. The adjusted HRs of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases and infections were 1.71 (95% CI 1.45-2.03) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.61-2.18), respectively. The HR of death was 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.43). Patients with uncertain type had results similar to those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In type 2 diabetes and diabetes of uncertain type, hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases, infections and death.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087789

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN)-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in severe COVID-19 and have been proposed as a potential driver of the persistent symptoms characterizing Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). We report than only two of 215 SARS-CoV-2 convalescent participants tested over 394 timepoints, including 121 people experiencing Long COVID symptoms, had detectable IFN-α2 antibodies. Both had been hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection. These data suggest that persistent anti-IFN antibodies, although a potential driver of severe COVID-19, are unlikely to contribute to Long COVID symptoms in the post-acute phase of the infection.

18.
Brain ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087747

ABSTRACT

Brain changes have been reported in the first weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, limited literature exists about brain alterations in post-COVID syndrome, a condition increasingly associated with cognitive impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate brain functional and structural alterations in patients with post-COVID syndrome, and assess whether these brain alterations were related to cognitive dysfunction. Eighty-six patients with post-COVID syndrome and 36 healthy controls were recruited and underwent neuroimaging acquisition and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive and neuroimaging examinations were performed 11 months after the first symptoms of SARS-CoV-2. Whole-brain functional connectivity analysis was performed. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to evaluate grey matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging was carried out to analyse white matter alterations. Correlations between cognition and brain changes were conducted and Bonferroni corrected. Post-COVID syndrome patients presented with functional connectivity changes, characterized by hypoconnectivity between left and right parahippocampal areas, and between bilateral orbitofrontal and cerebellar areas compared to controls. These alterations were accompanied by reduced grey matter volume in cortical, limbic and cerebellar areas, and alterations in white matter axial and mean diffusivity. Grey matter volume loss showed significant associations with cognitive dysfunction. These cognitive and brain alterations were more pronounced in hospitalized patients compared to non-hospitalized patients. No associations with vaccination status were found. The present study shows persistent structural and functional brain abnormalities 11 months after the acute infection. These changes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the post-COVID syndrome.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2762-2780, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087657

ABSTRACT

This systematic review examined pre-existing and clinical risk factors for post Covid-19 condition (≥12 weeks after onset), and interventions during acute and post-acute phases of illness that could potentially prevent post Covid-19 condition. The review focuses on studies collecting data during the early phases of the pandemic and prior to the emergence of variants of concern and widespread vaccination. We searched bibliographic databases and grey literature. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles, and data extraction and risk of bias assessments were verified. Meta-analysis was performed when suitable and we assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We included 31 studies. We found small-to-moderate associations (e.g. adjusted odds ratios 1.5 to <2.0) between female sex and higher non-recovery, fatigue, and dyspnea (moderate certainty). Severe or critical acute-phase Covid-19 severity (versus not) has probably (moderate certainty) a large association (adjusted ratio ≥2.0) with increased cognitive impairment, a small-to-moderate association with more non-recovery, and a little-to-no association with dyspnea. There may be (low certainty) large associations between hospitalization and increased non-recovery, increased dyspnea, and reduced return to work. Other outcomes had low certainty of small-to-moderate or little-to-no association or very low certainty. Several potential preventive interventions were examined, but effects are very uncertain. Guidelines in relation to surveillance, screening, and other services such as access to sickness and disability benefits, might need to focus on females and those with previously severe Covid-19 illness. Continuous assessment of emerging evidence, especially on whether different variants and vaccination impact outcomes, will be important. PROSPERO registration: CRD42021270354.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Risk Factors , Dyspnea
20.
38th Information Systems Education Conference, ISECON 2022 ; JOUR:118-136, 2022-September.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2083924

ABSTRACT

Pandemic COVID-19 has disrupted the learning practices in primary, secondary and higher educational institutions. During this era, academic institutions started online and virtual learning opportunities to continue academic practices without trouble. Therefore, this study explores the effects of pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 threats on e-learning opportunities in King Saudi Arabian Universities. For this purpose, the data collected at two stages by conducting two surveys. The first was conducted at the end of 2019, and the second was conducted at the beginning of 2022 to test the difference in technology usage in e-learning. The survey received a total of 465 responses. The Smart PLS-SEM software tool used to test the proposed hypotheses using multi- group analysis (MGA). We applied the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to assess the difference between two pandemic situations. The study reported that performance expectancy and facilitating conditions in post-COVID-19 situations significantly differed from pre-COVID-19. It means there was a rise in technology usage in the post-COVID- 19 situation. On the other hand, effort expectancy, social influence, hedonic motivation and behavioral intentions were slightly different post-COVID-19 from pre-COVID-19. In addition, this study will look at the managerial implications and future directions of Information Systems and Education. © ISECON 2022. All Rights Reserved.

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