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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160103, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105909

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are collectively responsible for tens of millions of global deaths each year. These rates are projected to intensify as the COVID-19 pandemic has caused delays in individualized diagnostics, or exacerbated prevalence due to Post Acute Coronavirus (COVID-19) Syndrome. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has successfully been employed as a useful tool for generating population-level health assessments, and was examined here in this systematic scoping literature review to (i) identify endogenous human biomarkers reported to indicate CVD or cancer in clinical practice, (ii) assess specificity to the indicated diseases, (iii) evaluate the utility for estimating population-level disease prevalence in community wastewater, and (iv) contextualize the obtained information for monitoring CVD and cancer presence via WBE. A total of 48 peer-reviewed papers were critically examined identifying five urinary protein biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (heart attack/heart failure), cystatin C (atherosclerosis), normetanephrine (tumor presence), α-fetoprotein (prostate and liver cancer), and microtubule assisted serine/threonine kinase 4 (MAST4) (breast cancer). Next, urinary excretion information was utilized to predict biomarker concentrations extant in community wastewater, resulting in average healthy concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 1159 ng/L, and disease-indicating thresholds from 0.16 to 3041 ng/L. Finally, estimating prevalence-adjusted wastewater measurements was explored in order to assess community-level CVD and cancer presence utilizing U.S. reported prevalence rates. Results obtained suggest that WBE can serve as a viable tool in support of current methods for CVD and cancer assessment to reduce morbidities and mortalities worldwide.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099375

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of evidence of the health impacts due to long COVID among children and young people (CYP). The objective of this study is to determine the main clinical characteristics of long COVID in CYP and to investigate the academic, social, and health status impacts of long COVID in this population. An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study on CYP who presented COVID-19 symptoms for more than twelve weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed between December 2020 and May 2021. Fifty CYP were included, with a median age of 14.1 years, 33 (66%) were female, and 17 (34%) had a relative diagnosed with long COVID. Since the initial infection and up to the first visit, CYP had persisting symptoms for a median of 4.1 months, and for 18 (36%) CYP these symptoms persisted for more than 6 months. Fatigue (100%), neurocognitive disorders (74%), muscular weakness (74%), and headache (72%) were the most reported symptoms. A total of 9 (18%) CYP could not attend school, 17 (34%) had a reduced schedule, 33 (66%) showed a decreased school performance, and 68% had stopped extracurricular activities. This preliminary study shows the impact that long COVID has on the health, academic, and social life of CYP.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 835421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099159

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a disease (COVID-19) with multisystem involvement. The world is now entering a phase of post-COVID-19 manifestations in this pandemic. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event triggered by viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Both Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome-Adults (MIS-A) and Cytokine Storm Syndrome (CSS) are considered close differentials of sHLH and add to the spectrum of Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). In this report, we presented the case of a middle-aged Asian man who was initially discharged upon recovery from severe COVID-19 infection after 17 days of hospitalization to a private institute and later came to our hospital 13 days post-discharge. Here, he was diagnosed with sHLH, occurring as an extension of CSS, with delayed presentation falling within the spectrum of PACS. The diagnosis of sHLH was made holistically with the HLH-2004 criteria. Our patient initially responded to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and dexamethasone, later complicated by disseminated Candida auris infection and had a fatal outcome. Though many cases of HLH during active COVID-19 and a few cases post COVID-19 recovery have been reported, based on H-score, which has limitations as a diagnostic tool. We report the first case report of post-COVID-19 sHLH using the HLH-2004 criteria, complicated by disseminated Candidemia, emphasizing that the care of patients with COVID-19 does not conclude at the time of hospital discharge. We highlight the importance of surveillance in the post-COVID phase for early detection of sHLH which may predispose to fatal opportunistic infections (OIs).

4.
Visual Dermatology ; JOUR(10):976-978, 21.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2092507
5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090441

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: To identify changes in symptoms and pulmonary sequelae in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at seven university hospitals in Korea between February 2020 and February 2021 were enrolled, provided they had ≥ 1 outpatient follow-up visit. Between January 11 and March 9, 2021 (study period), residual symptom investigations, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and neutralizing antibody tests (NAb) were performed at the outpatient visit (cross-sectional design). Additionally, data from patients who already had follow-up outpatient visits before the study period were collected retrospectively. Results: Investigation of residual symptoms, chest CT scans, PFT, and NAb were performed in 84, 35, 31, and 27 patients, respectively. After 6 months, chest discomfort and dyspnea persisted in 26.7% (4/15) and 33.3% (5/15) patients, respectively, and 40.0% (6/15) and 26.7% (4/15) patients experienced financial loss and emotional distress, respectively. When the ratio of later CT score to previous ones was calculated for each patient between three different time intervals (1-14, 15-60, and 61-365 days), the median values were 0.65 (the second interval to the first), 0.39 (the third to the second), and 0.20 (the third to the first), indicating that CT score decreases with time. In the high-severity group, the ratio was lower than in the low-severity group. Conclusions: In COVID-19 survivors, chest CT score recovers over time, but recovery is slower in severely ill patients. Subjects complained of various ongoing symptoms and socioeconomic problems for several months after recovery.

7.
Diabet Med ; : e14986, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088169

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This cohort study, based on Danish health registers, examined the post-acute consequences of hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danish citizens (≥18 years old) who had diabetes when the pandemic started. A patient was exposed if he/she had a hospitalization with COVID-19 after 1 March 2020. A patient was unexposed when he/she was not hospitalized with COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and the end of follow-up (4 January 2022), or the first registered event of interest. The outcomes included post-COVID-19 hospitalizations and death. We used a Cox proportional hazards model with time varying exposure estimating the hazards ratio (HR) to analyze if the hazard for an outcome of interest was impacted by being hospitalized with COVID-19. RESULTS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, 101 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 25,459 were not. We did not have sufficient statistical power to identify differences in risk for those with type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, 1515 were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 95,887 were not. The adjusted HRs of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases and infections were 1.71 (95% CI 1.45-2.03) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.61-2.18), respectively. The HR of death was 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.43). Patients with uncertain type had results similar to those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In type 2 diabetes and diabetes of uncertain type, hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of post-acute hospitalization for respiratory diseases, infections and death.

8.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-7, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) is a multisystem disorder degrading the quality of life. The study determined characteristics and predictors of PCS in unvaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) suffering from PCS based on a comparison with their fully recovered counterparts. METHODS: 305 HCWs were examined at least 12 weeks post COVID-19 symptom onset to obtain data about their acute phase of COVID-19 and current health status and tested for complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), electrophoresis of plasma proteins and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M. RESULTS: 181 (59.3%) HCWs reported persisting symptoms attributable to PCS during the examination and 124 (40.7%) HCWs stated no symptoms. In the entire sample, the mean CRP level slightly exceeded the normal range (6.63 mg/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.96-7.3) while all other laboratory results were within the normal range. No statistically significant differences in laboratory results were revealed between both subgroups except for the mean Ig levels, which were higher in HCWs with PCS. The average number of symptoms of PCS was 1.9 (median 2). The most frequent symptoms of PCS were fatigue that interfered with daily life (47.5%), shortness of breath (38.1%), muscle or joint aches (16%), loss of smell (14.9%), headache (14.9%) and sleep disorders (11%). The only statistically significant predictors of PCS were female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.059-2.067, p = .022) and increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07, p = .008). CONCLUSIONS: PCS appears to be a prevalent condition determined by female sex and increasing age.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(10): ofac495, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077822

ABSTRACT

The true incidence and comprehensive characteristics of Long Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) are currently unknown. This is the first population-based outreach study of Long COVID within an entire health system, conducted to determine operational needs to care for patients with Long COVID.

11.
Heart Int ; 16(1): 20-27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072295

ABSTRACT

There are four main myocarditis presentations identified in the context of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): myocarditis associated with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and vaccination-associated myocarditis. This article reviews the clinical features and current management strategies for each of these presentations. The overall prevalence of myocarditis is considered to be rare, although accurate estimation is affected by heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and reporting, as well as infrequent use of gold-standard diagnostic endomyocardial biopsy. Severity of disease can range from mild symptoms to fulminant myocarditis. Therapeutic interventions are typically supportive and extrapolated from treatment for non-COVID-19 viral myocarditis. Several pathogenic mechanisms for the development of myocarditis have been proposed, and ongoing research is critical for elucidating disease pathogenesis and potentially identifying therapeutic targets. The long-term cardiovascular sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated myocarditis require further elucidation and understanding.

12.
Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071217

ABSTRACT

In addition to respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 often causes damage to many other organs, especially in severe forms of the disease. Long-term consequences after COVID-19 are common and often have neurological symptoms. Cerebral vasoreactivity may be impaired after acute COVID-19 and in our study, we wanted to show how constant and reversible are the changes in brain vasoreactivity after infection. This cross-sectional observational study included 49 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and mild neurological symptoms 300 days after the onset of the disease. We used a transcranial color-coded Doppler (TCCD) and a breath-holding test (BHT) to examine cerebral vasoreactivity and brain endothelial function. We analyzed the parameters of the flow rate through the middle cerebral artery (MCA): peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI), and we calculated the breath-holding index (BHI). Subjects after COVID-19 infection had lower measured velocity parameters through MCA at rest period and after BHT, lower relative increases of flow velocities after BHT, and lower BHI. We showed that subjects, 300 days after COVID-19, still have impaired cerebral vasoreactivity measured by TCCD and they have chronic endothelial dysfunction.

13.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 261, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064824

ABSTRACT

Post-Acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is considered to be one of the least understood post-infectious syndromes. We report a case of a 21-year-old female who had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and presented with a right atrioventricular thrombus associated with pulmonary embolism and thrombocytopenia. At the time of admission, she was not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and her serological tests for IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were positive. The size of the thrombus measured approximately 6 × 8 × 4 cm, which also led to tricuspid valve insufficiency due to mechanical dilatation of the valve's ring. The right atrioventricular thrombus also extended up to the inferior vena cava, leading to mild congestive hepatomegaly. Moreover, during thrombectomy, the mass of the thrombus was attached to the interseptal right atrial wall. The histopathological assessment of the core mass revealed that it was a right atrial myxoma hidden inside that large thrombus. We suspect that the formation and propagation of the thrombus to that size occurs as a part of Post-Acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). This study reviews and discusses coronavirus disease 2019-relate to thrombus formation inside cardiac chambers in case of a cardiac tumor, like myxoma in the setting of post-acute phase COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Neoplasms , Myxoma , Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Myxoma/complications , Myxoma/diagnosis , Myxoma/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Vena Cava, Inferior , Young Adult
14.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12980, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 illness in adults. The role of obesity in short-term complications and post-acute sequelae in children is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and short-term complications and post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized paediatric patients. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals, including paediatric hospitalized patients with a confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from March 2020 to December 2021. Obesity was defined according to WHO 2006 (0-2 years) and CDC 2000 (2-20 years) growth references. Short-term outcomes were intensive care unit admission, ventilatory support, superinfections, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Neurological, respiratory, and cardiological symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms were considered as post-acute sequalae. Adjusted linear, logistic regression and generalized estimating equations models were performed. RESULTS: A total of 216 individuals were included, and 67 (31.02%) of them had obesity. Obesity was associated with intensive care unit admission (aOR = 5.63, CI95% 2.90-10.94), oxygen requirement (aOR = 2.77, CI95% 1.36-5.63), non-invasive ventilatory support (aOR = 6.81, CI95% 2.11-22.04), overall superinfections (aOR = 3.02 CI95% 1.45-6.31), and suspected bacterial pneumonia (aOR = 3.00 CI95% 1.44-6.23). For post-acute sequalae, obesity was associated with dyspnea (aOR = 9.91 CI95% 1.92-51.10) and muscle weakness (aOR = 20.04 CI95% 2.50-160.65). CONCLUSIONS: In paediatric hospitalized patients with COVID-19, severe short-term outcomes and post-acute sequelae are associated with obesity. Recognizing obesity as a key comorbidity is essential to develop targeted strategies for prevention of COVID-19 complications in children.

15.
Thromb Res ; 220: 60-64, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061923
16.
Médecine du Sommeil ; 2022.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061694

ABSTRACT

Résumé Les syndromes d’hypersomnolence d’origine centrale (c.-à-d. narcolepsie de type-1, narcolepsie de type-2 et hypersomnie idiopathique), la dépression ainsi qu’un sous-type du syndrome post-COVID-19 peuvent être confondus lors de l’établissement d’un diagnostic. Ce défi diagnostique s’explique par un symptôme clinique caractéristique retrouvé dans les quatre conditions, la somnolence diurne excessive, un chevauchement phénotypique considérable entre la narcolepsie de type-2 et l’hypersomnie idiopathique ainsi qu’une symptomatologie dysphorique pouvant être présente autant dans les hypersomnolences centrales que dans un sous-type du syndrome post-COVID-19. Considérant l’importance d’un diagnostic valide sur l’efficacité des traitements et des interventions futures, il est essentiel de définir précisément ces quatre conditions. Dans cette revue, nous reprendrons les critères diagnostiques, les présentations cliniques et les connaissances actuelles en ce qui a trait à la pathophysiologie de ces troubles en portant une attention particulière aux éléments distinctifs de la narcolepsie de type-2, de l’hypersomnie idiopathique, des épisodes dépressifs avec hypersomnolence et du syndrome post-COVID-19 avec somnolence. Bien que de nombreuses études se soient penchées sur les valeurs diagnostiques des différents outils employés dans l’identification des hypersomnolences centrales, très peu de marqueurs physiologiques ont été identifiés. Une meilleure compréhension de ces conditions cliniques pourrait permettre l’identification de marqueurs objectifs spécifiques à chaque condition réduisant ainsi la possibilité d’une erreur diagnostique et optimisant les plans de traitement. Summary Central disorders of hypersomnolence, including narcolepsy type-1 and type-2 as well as idiopathic hypersomnia, depression and a subtype of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome might be confused when establishing a diagnosis. This diagnostic challenge can be explained by the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness, a clinical symptom that is observed in all four conditions, an overlap in the phenotypic traits of narcolepsy type-2 and idiopathic hypersomnia, as well as the presence of depressive symptoms observed in central disorders of hypersomnolence and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome subtypes. Considering the importance of a valid diagnostic on treatment's efficacy and future interventions, it is essential to define those conditions with precision. In this review, we will discuss the diagnostic criteria, clinical presentation and current state of knowledge with regards to the pathophysiology of central disorders of hypersomnolence and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. We will pay particular attention to the characteristics specific to narcolepsy type-2, idiopathic hypersomnia, depressive episodes with hypersomnolence, and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome with drowsiness. While many studies have assessed the ability of different tools used to diagnose central disorders of hypersomnolence, very few have focused on physiological markers. A better understanding and identification of biomarkers specific to narcolepsy type-1 and type-2, idiopathic hypersomnia and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome will reduce the possibility of misdiagnoses and allow the development of optimal treatment plans.

17.
Int J Behav Med ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the illness experience of patients' long-term emotional and physical recovery from severe COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to expand upon the recovery process of COVID-19 survivors up to 6 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of free-response answers from a cohort study of 152 patients ≥ 18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 surveyed at 1-month post hospital discharge and 6-months post hospital discharge. Responses were analyzed with a grounded theory approach to identify overarching themes. RESULTS: Participants described persistent complications, both physical and mental, that have affected their recovery from COVID-19. Five overarching themes of post-acute patient experiences were generated: (1) an increased awareness of a mind and body connection, (2) feelings of premature aging, (3) an overall decline in quality of life, (4) a continued fear of infection, and (5) methods of coping. CONCLUSIONS: Patients described lasting changes to their mental health and overall quality of life in connection to physical complications after severe COVID-19 infection. Patients' reports of their experience call for a greater awareness of the psychological aspects of COVID-19 recovery to provide both physical and psychological rehabilitation services. Additional resources such as education around re-infection and financial resources are needed.

18.
Dental Update ; 49(8):615-615, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2056430
19.
PeerJ ; 10: e14089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056270

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of the internet as a source of information has increased during the pandemic, and YouTube has become an increasingly important source of information on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the long COVID picture, which occurs when symptoms related to COVID-19 last longer than 1 month, pain involving the musculoskeletal system affects the quality of life quite negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the informational value and quality of YouTube videos related to post-COVID pain. Methods: In this study, 180 videos were listed using the search terms "pain after COVID," "post-COVID pain," and "long COVID and pain"(15 April 2022). Videos were classified according to video parameters and content analysis. Quality, reliability and accuracy of the videos were determined with the Global Quality Score (GQS), the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) Benchmark Criteria and the Modified DISCERN Questionnaire, respectively. Results: One hundred videos that met the inclusion criteria were included in the assessment. Of these videos, 74 were found to be of low quality, 14 of moderate quality, and 12 of high quality; 21% contained insufficient data, 73% contained partially sufficient data, and 6% contained completely sufficient data. Videos uploaded by academic sources (66.7%) and physicians (12.5%) made up the majority of the high-quality group. A statistically significant correlation was found between the source of upload and number of views (p = 0.014), likes (p = 0.030), comments (p = 0.007), and video duration (p = 0.004). Video duration was found to have a poor positive correlation with GQS (r = 0.500), JAMA (r = 0.528), and modified DISCERN (r = 0.470) scores (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the majority of YouTube videos on post-COVID pain had low quality and partially sufficient data. High-quality videos were found to have longer durations and were uploaded by academic sources and physicians. The fact that only videos with English content at a certain time can be counted among the limitations. For patients suffering from post-COVID pain whose access to healthcare services was interrupted during the COVID pandemic, YouTube can be considered as an alternative source as well as a means of telerehabilitation. It can be argued that higher quality videos created by healthcare professionals could aid in patient education in the future.

20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 937100, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055090

ABSTRACT

Independent from initial severity, many patients develop persistent symptoms after infection with SARS-CoV-2, described as long COVID syndrome. Most of these patients are treated by general practitioners (GPs). As evidence-based treatment recommendations are still sparse, GPs must make their therapy decisions under uncertainty. We investigated (1) the most frequently observed long COVID symptoms in general practices and (2) GPs' applied treatment and rehabilitation plans for these symptoms. In total, 143 German GPs participated in an online-based survey between 05/2021 and 07/2021. We found that each GP practice was treating on average 12 patients with long COVID symptoms. Most frequently seen symptoms were fatigue and reduced performance. Current therapy options were rated as poor and loss of smell and taste, fatigue, or lack of concentration were perceived to be especially difficult to treat. The use of drug and non-drug therapies and specialist referrals focused primarily on physiological and less on psychosomatic/psychological rehabilitation and followed guidelines of similar conditions. Our results provide first insights into how GPs approach a newly emerging condition in the absence of guidelines, evidence-based recommendations, or approved therapies, and might inform about GP preparedness in future pandemics. Our results also emphasize a gap between the current knowledge of the long COVID manifestation and knowledge about effective rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Fatigue , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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