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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 490, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic causes psychological problems such as stress. It is important to accurately identify the level of stress and establish effective intervention. The Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) is widely used for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening by measuring the level of subjective stress, but there has been no research on its psychometric properties with individuals who experienced the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A random sample of 600 participants were randomly selected from a COVID-19 survey database (n = 6391). Rasch analysis was conducted to examine item fit, rating scale structure, construct validity, differential item functioning (DIF), and precision of the IES-6. RESULTS: The principal component analysis of Rasch residuals (54.1% of the raw variance explained) and the average of residual correlations (average r = .19) supported the unidimensionality structure in the IES-6. The rating scale was suitable, and the item difficulty hierarchy was logical. The item fit and the DIF contrast were acceptable, except for item 5. The IES-6's person reliability was .76, which was also an acceptable level. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the IES-6 has acceptable item-level psychometrics for screening the stress level in adults in the United States for individuals who have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings suggested that the IES-6 would be useful for the rapid identification of the high-level stressand allow clinicians to quickly provide interventions for people with the COVID-19 related stress and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2095133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956532

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical and scientific evidence has shown that a range of long-lasting symptoms can persist in the post-virological period. However, little is known about the psychological sequelae of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: This study aims to assess the prevalence of anxiety-depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and post-traumatic growth among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic 6 months after discharge, and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with psychological outcomes. Method: This cross-sectional cohort study enrolled recovered COVID-19 patients during a multidisciplinary follow-up screening. At 6 months post-discharge, participants underwent a remote assessment with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted. Results: The sample was composed of 100 patients, mainly males (72%), with a mean ± SD age of 58.7 ± 11.8 years. Regarding psychological symptoms, 34% and 24% of patients, respectively, reported anxiety and depression over the clinical threshold, and 20% met the criteria for a possible PTSD diagnosis. Psychological symptoms were associated with the presence of a mood disorder in the patient's clinical history and having received a psychological consultation after discharge. Post-traumatic growth was associated with younger age and having received a psychological consultation after discharge. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, potentially indicative for a mood or anxiety disorder, and PTSD was confirmed among COVID-19 survivors after 6 months. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and PTSD were associated with a previous diagnosis of a mood disorder and having received psychological consultation. Post-traumatic growth was associated with younger age and having received psychological consultation. Tailored psychological interventions could help to elaborate the psychological suffering and foster post-traumatic growth after a traumatic experience such as COVID-19 hospitalization. HIGHLIGHTS: A high prevalence of psychological symptoms has been observed among COVID-19 survivors 6 months after hospitalization.Tailored psychological interventions could help to contain the psychological sequelae and facilitate post-traumatic growth.


Antecedentes: La evidencia clínica y científica reciente ha demostrado que una variedad de síntomas duraderos pueden persistir incluso en el periodo post-virológico. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre las secuelas psicológicas de los pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19.Objetivo: Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia de síntomas ansioso-depresivos, Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) y crecimiento postraumático entre pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 durante la primera ola de pandemia seis meses después del alta e identificar los factores socio-demográficos y clínicos asociados con los resultados psicológicos.Método: Este estudio de cohorte transversal inscribió a pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 durante un tamizaje de seguimiento multidisciplinario. A los seis meses del alta, los participantes se sometieron a una evaluación remota con la Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional Mini Plus y completaron la Escala de Depresión y Ansiedad Hospitalaria, la Lista de chequeo-5 para Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático y el Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático. Se condujeron análisis de regresión y descriptivos.Resultados: La muestra se compuso de 100 pacientes, principalmente varones (72%), con una edad promedio de 58.7 años (DE=11.8). En cuanto a los síntomas psicológicos, 34% y 24% de los pacientes reportaron ansiedad y depresión por encima del umbral clínico y 20% reunía los criterios para un posible diagnóstico de TEPT. Los síntomas psicológicos se asociaron con la presencia de un trastorno del ánimo en la historia clínica del paciente y el haber recibido una consulta psicológica tras el alta. El crecimiento postraumático se asoció con ser más joven y haber recibido una consulta psicológica tras el alta.`Conclusiones: Se confirmó una alta prevalencia de síntomas ansiosos y depresivos, potencialmente indicativo de un trastorno del estado de ánimo y TEPT entre los sobrevivientes al COVID-19 después de seis meses. Los síntomas ansiosos y depresivos y el TEPT se asociaron con un diagnóstico previo de un trastorno del ánimo y haber recibido consulta psicológica. Se encontró que el crecimiento postraumático se asociaba con ser más joven y haber recibido consulta psicológica. Las intervenciones psicológicas "a la medida" podrían ayudar a elaborar el sufrimiento psicológico y fomentar el crecimiento postraumático tras una experiencia traumática como la hospitalización por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 868191, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952728

ABSTRACT

Objective: Translate and investigate psychometric properties of the Polish version of COVID-19-PTSD in a sample of healthcare workers. Methods: The PTSD symptoms were investigated among 184 participants (physicians, nurses, and paramedics). The respondents completed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related to COVID-19 Questionnaire (COVID-19-PTSD) via online survey. The psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency, validity, and reliability) of the Polish version of COVID-19-PTSD were analyzed. Results: The findings showed that the Polish version of COVID-19-PTSD is a reliable instrument. The total and subscale scores demonstrated good internal consistency. We also found that the prevalence of PTSD was reported at around 32% of healthcare workers. Discussion: The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related to COVID-19 Questionnaire (COVID-19-PTSD) is a first tool designed to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms related to the pandemic. The findings of our study confirmed good validity and reliability of the Polish version of COVID-19-PTSD which can be recommended to be used as a reliable screening tool to conduct psychological screening among Polish healthcare workers.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 830334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952707

ABSTRACT

Background: Strict quarantines can prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also increase the risk of mental illness. This study examined whether the people who have experienced repeated home quarantine performance more negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a Chinese population. Methods: We collected data from 2,514 participants in Pi County, Chengdu City, and stratified them into two groups. Group 1 comprised 1,214 individuals who were quarantined only once in early 2020, while Group 2 comprised 1,300 individuals who were quarantined in early 2020 and again in late 2020. Both groups were from the same community. The GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PCL-C scales were used to assess symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD between the two groups. Results: Analyses showed that total PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001) and the quarantine times and age are independent predictors of symptoms of depression (p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ significantly in total GAD-7 or PCL-C scores. Conclusion: Increasing quarantine times was associated with moderate to severe depression symptoms, but not with an increase in symptoms of anxiety or PTSD.

5.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 27, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951382

ABSTRACT

Since its establishment in 2014, Military Medical Research has come a long way in becoming a premier journal for scientific articles from various different specialties, with a special emphasis on topics with military relevance. The field of military medicine may be obscure, and may not be readily encountered by the typical clinician on a day-to-day basis. This journal aims not only to pursue excellence in military research, but also keep current with the latest advancements on general medical topics from each and every specialty. This editorial serves to recap and synthesize the existing progress, updates and future needs of military medical excellence, discussing foremostly the unique traits of literature published in this journal, and subsequently presenting the discourse regarding wartime and peacetime medicine, the role of the military in a public health emergency, as well as wound healing and organ regeneration. Special attention have been devoted to military topics to shed light on the effects of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Explosive (CBRE) warfare, environmental medicine and military psychiatry, topics which rarely have a chance to be discussed elsewhere. The interconnectedness between military combat and soldier physical and mental well-being is intricate, and has been distorted by pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This journal has come a long way since its first article was published, steadily contributing to the existing knowledge pool on general medical topics with a military slant. Only with continuous research and sharing, can we build upon the work of the scientific community, with hopes for the betterment of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Publications
6.
Rev Infirm ; 71(281): 41-43, 2022 May.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946454

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of Covid-19 was characterized, from its beginning, by "emergency". A state of emergency enacted by the state authorities to fight, on one hand, against the pandemic as such and, on the other hand, to manage the influx of patients admitted in intensive care. In this unprecedented context, the suffering of the people goes beyond the emergency situation and persists in forms ranging from a pseudo-banality to the complexity of an insidious evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological
7.
Int J Afr Nurs Sci ; 17: 100442, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945147

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nurses who have direct contact with patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and are involved in diagnosis, treatment, and care are at risk for serious psychological health problems. Purpose: To examine the psychological impact of COVID-19 on nurses who are in direct contact with COVID-19 patients and compared them with other nurses, not in direct contact with COVID-19 patients. Methods: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional was conducted on a convenience sample of 364 nurses working at three hospitals in Jordan to collect their socio-demographic data and scores on the Depression, Anxiety Stress Scale, 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and Insomnia Severity Index via Google form questionnaires. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, independent t-test, and multivariable logistic regression with a significance level of p-value < 0.05 were used to analyze the study data. Results: Overall, the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress symptoms were 34.1%, 48.9%, 44%, 33.8%, and 67.3%, respectively. Depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in the exposed group of nurses than in the non-exposed ones. However, no significant difference was found between the groups regarding post-traumatic stress symptoms. Exposure to COVID-19 and the existence of comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and stress. Conclusion: Nurses who have direct contact with COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of psychological disorders than nurses who do not. Psychological interventions need to be implemented to enhance nurses' psychological well-being.

8.
WORLD JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY ; 12(6):773-778, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939327

ABSTRACT

Although primarily affecting the respiratory system, growing attention is being paid to the neuropsychiatric consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Acute and sub-acute neuropsychiatric manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and their mechanisms are better studied and understood currently than they had been when the pandemic began;however, many months or years will be necessary to fully comprehend how significant the consequences of such complications will be. In this editorial, we discuss the possible long-term sequelae of the COVID-19 pandemic, deriving our considerations on experiences drawn from past coronaviruses' outbreaks, such as the SARS and the middle east respiratory syndrome, and from the knowledge of the mechanisms of neurotropism and invasiveness of SARS-CoV-2. Acknowledging the global spread of COVID-19 and the vast number of people affected, to date amounting to many millions, the matter of this pandemic's neuropsychiatric legacy appears concerning. Public health monitoring strategies and early interventions seem to be necessary to manage the possible emergence of a severe wave of neuropsychiatric distress among the survivors.

9.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221112935, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of psychological symptoms of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak among pregnant women and its association with gestational age and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and November 2020 to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in pregnancy using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Pregnant women 18 years and older were recruited from antenatal and obstetrics clinics in Jordan. A total of 481 pregnant women participated in an online survey developed on Google Forms. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, mental health information, and lifestyle changes. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Perceived Support Scale, and the Mental Health Lifestyle Scale were administered. Variables related to sociodemographic information and dietary behavior and perception during the COVID-19 pandemic were also assessed. RESULTS: The results showed that 58.6% of pregnant women reported the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and women in the second trimester were more likely to show post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms compared with the first and third trimesters (p = 0.001). Moreover, a higher level of education, employment, poor dietary habits, and changes due to the pandemic were significantly associated with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised score and the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with high rates of psychological distress among pregnant women. Identifying mothers at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may help improve maternity services and prevent adverse child outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
10.
J Homosex ; : 1-21, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937512

ABSTRACT

Sexual minorities experience health disparities compared to heterosexuals due to their stigmatized identies. The COVID- 19 pandemic has further exacerbated these disparities. Sexual minorities were surveyed about their experiences during the pandemic and asked about family conflict and minority stress as predictors of Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS) and physical health symptoms, as well as psychological symptoms as a mediator of these relationships. We surveyed 435 sexual minorities who were recruited from Mechanical MTurk. Participants completed questionnaires that included demographics, PTSS in response to the pandemic, family conflict, minority stress, psychological symptoms, and physical health outcomes. Our findings support a moderated mediational model, explaining the relationships between family conflict, minority stress, PTSS and physical symptoms. Specifically, those participants who are high in minority stress are vulnerable to family conflict resulting in increased PTSS and physical symptoms. Psychological symptoms mediated these relationships.

11.
Trakia Journal of Sciences ; 20(1):65-73, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934741

ABSTRACT

Social isolation (SI) exerts a harmful effect on brain plasticity even in healthy animals and humans. We reported some new connections between aggressive behavior and SI, and new mechanisms of SI damaging effect on experimental rodents in previous studies. SARS-CoV-2 exhibits neurotropism through its affinity for the ACE2 receptor in endothelial cells found in the brain. The neurotropism in the disease caused by the new coronavirus accords with a wide spectrum of neurological, psychiatric and psychological symptoms. It had been reported that up to almost 43% of SARS survivors developed long-lasting psychiatric morbidity that persisted at 4 years follow up with main diagnoses in diminishing order of representation: posttraumatic stress disorders, depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full assessment of the long-term risk of neurological and psychological complications will be greatly needed once the coronavirus pandemic is over. Based on current data and the reported experience with SARS-CoV we hypothesize that the neurobehavioral sequelae of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 will necessitate close interaction between emergency medicine and psychological support. The role of social support for the restoration of post-Covid neuropsychological damage is essential because the human being is not only a biological object but also a social subject who needs support from other humans.

12.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2896-2899, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934412

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is a disease caused by a virus named SARS-CoV-2 and was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, a global threat has largely affected the country's economic and social values. Moreover, the mitigation strategies being used to counterattack the pandemic attributes a lot of unrest and stress in the masses which has led to several mental health problems like anxiety, depression, sleep loss, post-traumatic stress disorder, etc.

13.
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences ; 31, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1931280

ABSTRACT

AimsCross-cultural studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) based on ICD-11 diagnostic criteria are scarce, especially in adolescence. The study aimed to evaluate the trauma exposure, prevalence and factors associated with PTSD and CPTSD in general populations of adolescents in Lithuania and Japan.MethodsThe study sample comprised 1746 adolescents from Lithuania (n = 832) and Japan (n = 914), 49.8% female. The mean age of study participants was 15.52 (s.d. = 1.64), ranging from 12 to 18 years. ICD-11 posttraumatic disorders were assessed using the International Trauma Questionnaire – Child and Adolescent version (ITQ-CA).ResultsMore than half of the adolescents in a total sample (61.5%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, 80.0% in Lithuania and 44.6% in Japan, with a higher prevalence of interpersonal trauma in Lithuania and more natural disaster exposure in Japan. The prevalence of PTSD was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8–6.9%) and 2.3% (95% CI 1.4–3.5%), CPTSD 12.3% (95% CI 10.1–14.7%) and 4.1% (95% CI 2.9–5.5%) in Lithuanian and Japanese samples, respectively. Cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, loneliness and financial difficulties in family predicted both PTSD and CPTSD in the total sample. Loneliness discriminated CPTSD v. PTSD in both Lithuanian and Japanese samples.ConclusionsThis cross-cultural study is among the first which reported different patterns of trauma exposure in Asian Japanese and Lithuanian adolescents in Europe. Despite differences in trauma exposure and PTSD/CPTSD prevalence, we found similar predictors in both studies, particularly the importance of cumulative trauma exposure for PTSD/CPTSD, and social interpersonal factors for the risk of CPTSD. The study supports the universality of traumatic stress reactions to adverse life experiences in adolescence across cultures and regions and highlights different levels of traumatisation of adolescents in various countries.

14.
Shared trauma, shared resilience during a pandemic: Social work in the time of COVID-19 ; : 79-92, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1930215

ABSTRACT

After months of people sheltering in place, whether due to formal orders or to protect themselves from COVID-19, we have seen evidence of increases in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). IPV, already a significant social justice issue worldwide, has been brought to the forefront during the pandemic, with many victims needing to be in confined spaces with their abusers. This chapter explores the experiences of sheltering in place for returning college students exposed to coercive control. It examines how coercive control, often intensified in post-separation abuse (PSA) and, where children are involved, parental alienation (PA), frequently manifests within families. Children have in the past been termed "secondary victims" of IPV, but this chapter will demonstrate how they should be considered primary victims of coercive control alongside their victimized parent. The particular challenges college students face during the COVID-19 pandemic when coercive control and PA are at issue will be delineated, and the many areas needing further research and exploration will be highlighted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1929436

ABSTRACT

Survivors of gun violence have significant sequelae including mental health disorders that often go undiagnosed and untreated. Survivors of gun violence are at high risk for both re-injury with a firearm as well as interaction with the criminal justice system. These poor outcomes for survivors of gun violence contribute to the cycle of gun violence that plague communities across the United States. Learning from historical public health successes, survivors of gun violence are an important population for targeted secondary prevention efforts. Despite this, the mechanisms for these outcomes among survivors of gun violence are largely unknown and there is a dearth of research on effective prevention strategies. Combining qualitative and quantitative research methods, I sought to better describe the experience of recovery for survivors of gun violence, conduct a pilot study of a mental health intervention for post-traumatic stress symptoms, and describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on community violence in Connecticut (CT). In Aim 1, I used a qualitative research study design and a community-based participatory research approach to better understand how Black male gunshot wound survivors in the United States describe their experience of recovery and their perceptions of their mental, emotional and social health following the event. We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 Black male gunshot wound survivors from New Haven, CT. This study identified five themes which define the psychological recovery after intentional injury from gun violence as well as describe the various strategies used by survivors of gun violence to cope with a disrupted sense of safety when returning to their communities. In the secondary analysis of the data, I found that participants described distrust for the police and an ecology of guns that confers symbolic, social and strategic meaning to owning a gun. These findings suggest that barriers to mental health treatment may be addressed through "credible messengers" who can develop relationships of trust with this high-risk population and that interventions to decrease gun violence should address the cultural value of a gun as well as focus on improving police relations with racial/ethnic minoritized communities.In Aim 2, I designed a pilot study evaluating the feasibility of completing a randomized controlled trial to test the Screening and Tool for Awareness and Relief of Trauma (START), a targeted mental health intervention developed for patients that come from communities of color with sustained and persistent trauma. I conducted the study at Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, CT through the YNHH Violence Intervention Program beginning in January 2020. For a variety of reasons but most notably due to the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, only 11 patients were enrolled in the study. With this small cohort, I was able to conclude that (1) Successful recruitment hinges on enrollment in the local hospital-based violence intervention program and the effectiveness of credible messengers in the organization;(2) The START techniques would be improved by additional audiovisual resources;(3) The novel survey to measure alienation is reliable and (4) Testing the START intervention may be most successful in a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial design so that all centers in the study will receive the intervention. In Aim 3, I examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on community violence in the state of Connecticut (CT). Through the CT Hospital-based Violence Intervention Program Collaborative, I used the trauma registries from Yale New Haven Hospital, Bridgeport Hospital, St. Francis Hospital, and Hartford Hospital to collect data on all violence-related trauma presentations in the emergency room from January 1st, 2018 to January 1st, 2021. I compared the pattern of violence-related... (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
BMC Psychiatry Vol 22 2022, ArtID 238 ; 22, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1929434

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created multiple mental health challenges. Many residents in South Africa face pre-existing elevated levels of stress and the pandemic may have had varying impacts on sub-populations. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and 2) sex differences in the factors associated with PTSS in adults residing in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Study participants aged 18 years and above, were recruited for this cross-sectional study through an online survey implemented from June 29, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The outcome variable was PTSS;explanatory variables were sex at birth, COVID-19 status, social isolation and access to emotional support. Confounders considered were age, education level completed and current work status. Logistic regressions were used to determine the association between the outcome and explanatory variables after adjusting for confounders. Outcomes: There were 489 respondents. Among all respondents, those who were older (AOR: 0.97;95% CI: 0.95 - 0.99) and had access to emotional support from family and relatives (AOR: 0.27;95% CI: 0.14 - 0.53) had significantly lower odds of PTSS. Respondents who felt socially isolated had higher odds of PTSS (AOR: 1.17;95% CI: 1.08 - 1.27). Females had higher PTSS scores and higher odds of PTSS compared to males (AOR: 2.18;95% CI: 1.41-3.39). Females (AOR: 0.27;95% CI: 0.08 - 0.95) and males (AOR: 0.26;95% CI: 0.11, 0.59) who had access to emotional support had significantly lower odds of PTSS than those who had no support. Females (AOR: 1.15;95% CI: 1.04 -1.27) and males (AOR: 1.19;95% CI: 0.11, 0.59) who felt socially isolated had higher odds of PTSS compared to those who did not feel socially isolated. Interpretation: Compared to males, females had higher scores and higher odds of reporting PTSS during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Access to emotional support ameliorated the odds of having PTSS for both sexes, while feeling socially isolated worsened the odds for both sexes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(3):806, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the levels of depression, anxiety and stress in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: COVID isolation ward of PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi Pakistan, from May to Jun 2020. Methodology: A total of 110 patients whose COVID-19 PCR tests were positive were selected. They had a history of at least one-week admission to the hospital, and all of them were stable or had mild symptoms. Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS 21) was administered to all the patients through a video call. Results: The study revealed that 30 (27.3%) of the COVID-19 patients had depressive features, whereas 37 (33.6%) were found to be anxious, and 13 (11.8%) were under stress during this time. Depressive features were more common in the female gender affecting 9 (56.2%) out of 16 females (p=0.011) and unemployed patients affecting 12 (54.5%) out of 22 unemployed patients (p=0.006). Anxiety was more common in the female gender affecting 11 (68.7%) out of 16 females and married patients, affecting 26 (27.6%) out of 94 married patients (p=0.01). Stress was found to be more in females, affecting 8 (50%) out of 16 females (p=0.01). Conclusion: This study showed that the diagnosis of COVID-19 can lead to psychological effects, and patients should be monitored for depression, anxiety and stress.

18.
Hospital Employee Health ; 41(7):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1929171

ABSTRACT

The healthcare community is pushing back against OSHA adopting a more flexible final COVID-19 rule that could change with public health guidelines. The agency is finalizing its Emergency Temporary Standard to protect healthcare workers from COVID-19.

19.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 83, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnosed PTSD rates in people who are homeless are more than double that of the general population, ranging between 21 and 53%. Complex PTSD (cPTSD) also appears to be more common than PTSD. One treatment option is Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), a brief trauma-focused psychotherapy which attempts to place trauma within a narrative of the person's life. Our primary aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of recruiting people to a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of NET alone compared to NET augmented by a genealogical assessment. We hypothesized that incorporating a genealogical assessment may be more effective than NET alone in a population with predominately complex PTSD. METHODS: This pilot RCT enrolled participants who were 18 years of age or older, currently homeless or vulnerably housed, and with active symptoms of PTSD. Participants were randomized to NET alone or NET plus a genealogical assessment. Rates of referral, consent, and retention were examined as part of feasibility. Demographic and clinical data were collected at baseline. Symptoms of PTSD, drug use, and housing status were re-assessed at follow-up visits. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews of service providers involved in the study which explored barriers and facilitators of study participation. RESULTS: Twenty-two potential participants were referred to the study, with 15 consenting to participate. Of these, one was a screen failure and 14 were randomized equally to the treatment arms. One randomized participant was withdrawn for safety. Attrition occurred primarily prior to starting therapy. Once therapy began, retention was high with 80% of participants completing all six sessions. Seven participants completed all follow-up sessions. Service providers identified a clear need for the treatment and emphasized the importance of trauma-informed care, a desire to know more about NET, and more communication about the process of referral. CONCLUSION: Recruiting participants who were vulnerably housed to an RCT of a trauma-based therapy was possible. Once therapy had started, participants were likely to stay engaged. We will incorporate the results of this trial into a conceptual model which we will test in a factorial study as part of the optimization phase of MOST. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03781297 . Registered: December 19, 2018.

20.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25235, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924642

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that often presents after exposure to a traumatic, life-threatening event. Experiencing a traumatic event is not rare, with inciting incidents ranging from being burglarized to politically motivated genocide. While traditional psychopharmacology and psychotherapy are the mainstays of the treatment of PTSD currently, psychoactive drugs (otherwise known as psychedelics) are being explored for their novel role in the treatment of PTSD patients. Psychoactive drugs such as MDMA, ketamine, and psilocybin have been shown to specifically target and decrease fear and anxiety pathways in the brain. These unique properties hold the potential to be utilized in addressing symptoms of trauma in those with refractory or treatment-resistant PTSD. Historically, federal and state laws have restricted research into how psychoactive drugs can be used to treat mental illness due to the widespread belief that these drugs present more harm than benefit. However, the current shift in public opinion on psychedelics has propelled research to look into the benefits of these drugs for patients with mental illness. This article aims to discuss the mechanisms of how MDMA, ketamine, and psilocybin work in the PTSD brain, as well as their beneficial role in treatment.

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