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1.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 308:123-129, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796592

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 outbreak has generated many negative psychological outcomes, such as depression, in adolescents. Exploration of protective factors for adolescent mental health is urgently needed, and no research has examined the role of parental involvement. Methods From March to April 2020, valid data were collected from 1663 Chinese adolescents through online demographic and other questionnaires. Parental involvement at home was assessed by an adapted questionnaire on parental support in learning at home, stress since the COVID-19 outbreak was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, and three negative psychological outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)) were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and PTSD Check List-Civilian Version, respectively. Results In total, 35.4%, 21% and 25% of adolescents had depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and PTSS, respectively. Three moderated mediation models consistently showed the following: a. Parental involvement indirectly reduced the three psychological problems by alleviating perceived stress, and the indirect effects were not moderated by sex. b. There were negative direct effects of parental involvement on the three psychological problems, and the links were not moderated by sex. c. Sex moderated the associations between perceived stress and the three psychological problems. Limitations The cross-sectional design and the sampling of all participants from one junior high school impeded causal inferences and the generalization of our findings, respectively. Conclusions We found similar indirect and direct protective roles of parental involvement in boys' and girls' mental health, and girls were more vulnerable to stress.

2.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(4-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1733104

ABSTRACT

A failure to naturally resolve posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to a traumatic event is associated with costly and debilitating consequences. Interventions for PTSS are successful for only 40%-70% of patients, and treatment drop-out and symptom relapse are common. Recent research targeting memory reconsolidation mechanisms to augment the memory may provide important information regarding possible paradigms for improving the efficacy of trauma-focused interventions. This research indicates that the use of prediction error during a memory activation cue may result in memory destabilization allowing for the destabilized memory to be updated. Considering that PTSS are inherently memory-dependent, an intervention targeting memory reconsolidation mechanisms may be especially relevant for the treatment of these symptoms. The current study was designed to translate the memory reconsolidation literature for clinical application in the treatment of PTSS. Participants were assigned to either the Intervention or the Control conditions. Psychophysiological arousal, as well as change in overall symptoms, intrusion symptoms specifically, and subjective distress were assessed one week later. Although initially designed as a randomized trial of a behavioral intervention targeting memory reconsolidation mechanism, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic prevented the completion of planned data collection, and the study was discontinued with only five participants' data collected in full. Three participants were in the Intervention condition;two were in the Control condition. As such, this data was examined as a case series to explore the potential efficacy of the paradigm. Results of the case series were mixed, suggesting that the Intervention condition, but not the Control condition, may have been successful at diminishing the spontaneous recovery of psychophysiological responding for some individuals (n = 2), but that the effect is likely not clinically meaningful. The role of case series in treatment design is discussed as are limitations of the current design and future directions. A proposal for a future iteration of this study is presented. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941211045315, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to individuals' mental health. People worldwide are experiencing increased stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, which may lead to eating problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the perceived severity of COVID-19 on eating problems and the mediating effects of stress/negative affect/posttraumatic stress symptoms both at the personal level and interpersonal level. Methods: During the COVID-19 outbreak, a total of 108 college students were recruited to report their perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and eating problems three times a day for seven consecutive days using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Results: State perceived severity of COVID-19 predicted fewer subsequent eating problems in daily life at the personal level. Both state negative affect and posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with eating problems in daily life. At the interpersonal level, trait-like perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with overall eating problems. There were no mediating effects of stress/negative affect/posttraumatic stress symptoms on the relations between perceived severity of COVID-19 and eating problems at the personal/interpersonal level. Conclusions: The perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms might increase the risk of eating problems.

4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 71-77, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496650

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Premenstrual symptoms include mood-related, behavioral, and physical symptoms that are limited to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for premenstrual symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between premenstrual symptoms and stress caused by COVID-19. We analyzed data from 871 students with regular menstrual cycles who completed the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (PSQ), Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R). The total PSQ score was significantly higher in women with COVID-19-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with pre-pandemic data (2019), the total PSQ score did not change in non-PTSS, but increased in PTSS groups. All symptoms were more severe in PTSS groups than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with 2019, PTSS groups had more severe symptoms for all symptoms except 'physical symptoms' and 'decreased social activity', and non-PTSS groups only exhibited improvements in the 'decreased social activity'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IES-R score was a significant exacerbation factor of the total PSQ score, along with age and menstrual pain. This study revealed the association between pandemic-associated PTSS and the severity of premenstrual symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Premenstrual Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 620521, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305696

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected public health and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms among adults in Hubei Province, China. In this study, a total of 2,930 (662 males and 2,268 females) adults answered a questionnaire obtaining information on their demographics, posttraumatic stress symptoms (i.e., intrusion and avoidance), social media exposure, social media involvement, and self-efficacy. Results of the latent profile analysis identified four latent profiles of posttraumatic stress symptoms, which are, no symptoms, high intrusion-low avoidance, moderate symptoms, and high symptoms. The multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed the contributors to the posttraumatic stress symptoms subgroups. Adults with high social media involvement were classified into the high intrusion-low avoidance group, whereas adults with low self-efficacy were included in the moderate symptoms group. Meanwhile, adults with high social media involvement and low self-efficacy were included in the high symptoms group. Interventions may focus on decreasing social media involvement for the adults in the high Intrusion-low avoidance group, improving self-efficacy for the adults in the moderate symptoms group, and reducing social media involvement and improving self-efficacy for the adults in the high symptoms group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
6.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(4): 231-236, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As COVID-19 spreads globally and affects people's health, there are concerns that the pandemic and control policies may have psychological effects on young people (age from 17 to 35 years). This psychological impact might vary in different countries, and thus we compared the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress, loneliness and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among young people in the United Kingdom (UK) and China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data of this study came from two sources. One source was the first wave of COVID-19 study in Understanding Society, a special wave of the UK household longitudinal study, which provided the high-quality, national-wide representative panel data. The sample comprised 1054 young people. The other source was an online survey on the mental health of 1003 young people from Shanghai, a highly developed area in China. The questionnaire included questions on the prevalence of common mental disorders (cut-off score ≥ 4), loneliness and potential PTSS (cut-off ≥ 33). Univariable analyses were conducted to test the differences in the self-reported prevalence of psychological distress and loneliness between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to explore the predictors of psychological distress and loneliness among all the young people from England and Shanghai. RESULTS: Among the samples with self-reported psychological distress, the UK sample accounted for 34.4% (n=1054) and the Chinese sample accounted for 14.1% (n=1003). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Additionally, 57.1% of people in the UK and 46.7% in China reported that they sometimes or often felt lonely, of which the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analysis of the entire samples showed that nationality, gender, psychotherapy and loneliness were significant predictors of 12-item General Health Questionnaire scores, while the variables of age and living alone were not. Significant predictors of self-reported loneliness were the nationality, gender, age, living alone and psychotherapy. In China, 123 (12.3%) young people, 49 men (11.3%) and 74 women (13.0%), met the criteria of PTSS symptoms (cut-off scores ≥ 33). These scores were only collected in China. CONCLUSION: This evidence suggests that mental health and loneliness reported by young people were lower in China than that in the UK during the studied period. More research is needed to understand these differences. If the differential negative psychological impacts are confirmed, country-specific measures of prevention and intervention should be adopted to improve the mental health of young people under the ongoing impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Prevalence , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 129-137, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a substantial stressor that could eventuate in psychological distress. Evidence suggests that individuals previously exposed to traumatic events, and particularly to continuous traumatic stress (CTS), might be more vulnerable to distress when facing additional stressors. This study aimed to investigate these suppositions in the context of the ongoing shelling of Israel from the Israel-Gaza border, which continues even amidst the COVID-19 crisis. METHOD: An online survey was conducted among Israel's general population. The sample included 976 participants. Seven-hundred-and-ninety-three participants had been exposed to traumatic events, with 255 participants reporting CTS. Trauma exposure, COVID-19-related stressors, and psychological distress related to COVID-19 (anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic stress symptoms) were assessed. RESULTS: Most participants reported experiencing at least one psychiatric symptom related to COVID-19. Being younger, female, not in a relationship, having a below-average income, being diagnosed with the disease, living alone during the outbreak, having a close other in a high-risk group, and negatively self-rating one's health status were associated with elevated distress. Individuals who had been exposed to trauma, and to CTS in particular, had elevated anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic stress symptoms compared to individuals without such a history or to survivors of non-ongoing traumatic events. CTS moderated the relations between PTSD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and peritraumatic stress symptoms, with significantly stronger relations found among individuals exposed to CTS. LIMITATIONS: This study relied on convenience sampling. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma survivors, and particularly traumatized individuals exposed to CTS, seem at risk for psychological distress related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/epidemiology , Exposure to Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression/psychology , Exposure to Violence/psychology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 26(6): 1583-1587, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the most stressful events of recent times. Among the population, healthcare professionals who treat COVID-19 patients are most likely to develop psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present study thus aimed to investigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Italian healthcare workers. METHODS: The responses of 145 healthcare workers (72 medical doctors and 73 nurses) were included in the final dataset. Participants were asked to provide sociodemographic and clinical information, and to complete: (a) quality of life and health-related Visual Analogue Scales, (b) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y1, (c) Beck Depression Inventory, and (d) PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. RESULTS: A comparison between healthcare professionals working in COVID-19 wards and other units revealed that the former reported higher levels of both depressive symptoms and PTSS. Moreover, the results of regression analyses showed that in healthcare professionals working with COVID-19 patients, gender and marital status, and gender and age significantly predicted depressive symptoms and PTSS, respectively. Particularly, being female and not in a relationship were found to be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, whereas being female and older were found to be related to higher levels of PTSS. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that specific predisposing factors could identify healthcare workers who are at high risk of developing mental health symptoms when faced with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Surveys and Questionnaires
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