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1.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 12(4):583, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809984

ABSTRACT

[2] were more specific in their approach, by reporting on their experience with diabetes mellitus type 1 in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides an increased incidence, they also report important differences in patient characteristics between a pre-pandemic control group and the cases occurring during the pandemic. [7] show that hepatitis C infection is associated with worse outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, suggesting that direct-acting antiviral agents might help improve prognosis for this group of patients. [...]the probability of lung cancer being screen detected was much higher in non-smokers. Since smokers are also less likely to engage in screening, the authors suggest smokers’ prognosis might be improved by more effectively motivating them to participate in screening programs.

2.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 12(4):574, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809983

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Due to the high burden of diseases with chronic inflammation as an underlying condition, great expectations are placed in the development of precision medicine (PM). Our research explores the benefits and possible risks of this development from the perspective of clinicians and researchers in the field. We have asked these professionals about the current state of their research and their expectations, concerns, values and attitudes regarding PM. (2) Methods: Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted qualitative interviews with 17 clinicians and researchers. For respondent validation, we discussed the findings with the participants in a validation workshop. (3) Results: Professionals expect multiple benefits from PM in chronic inflammation. They provided their concepts of professionals’ and patients’ work in the development of PM in chronic inflammatory diseases. Ethical, process-related and economic challenges were raised regarding the lack of integration of data from minority groups, the risk of data misuse and discrimination, the potential risk of no therapy being available for small strata, the lack of professional support and political measures in developing a healthy lifestyle, the problem of difficult access to the inflammation clinic for some populations and the difficulty of financing PM for all. (4) Conclusions: In the further research, development and implementation of PM, these ethical challenges need to be adequately addressed.

3.
18th ACS/IEEE International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799378

ABSTRACT

Sensitive patient data is generated from a variety of sources and then transferred to a cloud for processing. Therefore, it is exposed to security and privacy and may lead to an increase in communication costs. Edge computing will ease computing pressure through distributed computational capabilities while improving security and privacy. In this paper, we propose a Federated PSN (FPSN) model where the model is moved directly to the edge to minimize computation and communication costs. PSN has been applied as a successful approach in categorizing and diagnosing patients based on similarities against some clinical and non-clinical features. Our proposed model distributes processing at each edge node, then fuses the constructed PSN matrices at the cloud premises, which significantly reduce the model's training and inference time and ensures quick model updates with the local client/nodes. In this paper, we propose: (i) an algorithm to evaluate patient's data similarity at the edge;and (ii) an algorithm to implement the federated similarity network fusion at the Cloud. We conducted a set of experiments to evaluate our FPSN model against other machine learning algorithms using a COVID-19 dataset. The results obtained prove that the FPSN model accuracy is higher than the distributed PSNs at various edges and higher than the accuracies of other classification models.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2486:233-244, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1797743

ABSTRACT

The data FAIR Guiding Principles state that all data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. Ontology is critical to data integration, sharing, and analysis. Given thousands of ontologies have been developed in the era of artificial intelligence, it is critical to have interoperable ontologies to support standardized data and knowledge presentation and reasoning. For interoperable ontology development, the eXtensible ontology development (XOD) strategy offers four principles including ontology term reuse, semantic alignment, ontology design pattern usage, and community extensibility. Many software programs are available to help implement these principles. As a demonstration, the XOD strategy is applied to developing the interoperable Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO). Various applications of interoperable ontologies, such as COVID-19 and kidney precision medicine research, are also introduced in this chapter.

5.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1779143

ABSTRACT

Mobile sensing systems have been widely used as a practical approach to collect behavioral and health-related information from individuals and to provide timely intervention to promote health and well-being, such as mental health and chronic care. As the objectives of mobile sensing could be either personalized medicine for individuals or public health for populations, in this work we review the design of these mobile sensing systems, and propose to categorize the design of these systems in two paradigms –(i) Personal Sensing and (ii) Crowd Sensing paradigms. While both sensing paradigms might incorporate common ubiquitous sensing technologies, such as wearable sensors, mobility monitoring, mobile data offloading, and cloud-based data analytics to collect and process sensing data from individuals, we present two novel taxonomy systems based on the (a) Sensing Objectives (e.g., goals of mHealth sensing systems and how technologies achieve the goals), and (b) the Sensing Systems Design and Implementation (D&I) (e.g., designs of mHealth sensing systems and how technologies are implemented). With respect to the two paradigms and two taxonomy systems, this work systematically reviews this field. Specifically, we first present technical reviews on the mHealth sensing systems in eight common/popular healthcare issues, ranging from depression and anxiety to COVID-19. Through summarizing the mHealth sensing systems, we comprehensively survey the research works using the two taxonomy systems, where we systematically review the Sensing Objectives and Sensing Systems D&I while mapping the related research works onto the life-cycles of mHealth Sensing, i.e., (1) Sensing Task Creation &Participation, (2) Health Surveillance &Data Collection, and (3) Data Analysis &Knowledge Discovery. In addition to summarization, the proposed taxonomy systems also help the potential directions of mobile sensing for health from both personalized medicine and population health perspectives. Finally, we attempt to test and discuss the validity of our scientific approaches to the survey. IEEE

6.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763475

ABSTRACT

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells, are important adult stem cells for regenerative medicine, largely due to their regenerative characteristics such as self-renewal, secretion of trophic factors, and the capability of inducing mesenchymal cell lineages. MSCs also possess homing and trophic properties modulating immune system, influencing microenvironment around damaged tissues and enhancing tissue repair, thus offering a broad perspective in cell-based therapies. Therefore, it is not surprising that MSCs have been the broadly used adult stem cells in clinical trials. To gain better insights into the current applications of MSCs in clinical applications, we perform a comprehensive review of reported data of MSCs clinical trials conducted globally. We summarize the biological effects and mechanisms of action of MSCs, elucidating recent clinical trials phases and findings, highlighting therapeutic effects of MSCs in several representative diseases, including neurological, musculoskeletal diseases and most recent Coronavirus infectious disease. Finally, we also highlight the challenges faced by many clinical trials and propose potential solutions to streamline the use of MSCs in routine clinical applications and regenerative medicine.

7.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760726

ABSTRACT

Chronological age (CA) predicts health status but its impact on health varies with anthropometry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lifestyle behaviors. Biological age (BA) is, therefore, considered a more precise predictor of health status. We aimed to develop a BA prediction model from self-assessed risk factors and validate it as an indicator for predicting the risk of chronic disease. A total of 101,980 healthy participants from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. BA was computed based on body measurements, SES, lifestyle behaviors, and presence of comorbidities using elastic net regression analysis. The effects of BA on diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), combination of DM and HT, and chronic kidney disease were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. A younger BA was associated with a lower risk of DM (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.55-0.72), hypertension (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.68-0.81), and combination of DM and HT (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.91). The largest risk of disease was seen in those with a BA higher than their CA. A consistent association was also observed within the 5-year follow-up. BA, therefore, is an effective tool for detecting high-risk groups and preventing further risk of chronic diseases through individual and population-level interventions.

8.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760725

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of data on patient and diagnostic factors for prognostication of complete recovery in patients with peripheral facial palsy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a telerehabilitave enhancement through the description of a case report with the use of short-wave diathermy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined to facial proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) rehabilitation in unrecovered facial palsy, in a COVID-19 pandemic scenario describing a paradigmatic telerehabilitation report. A 43-year-old woman underwent a facial rehabilitation plan consisting of a synergistic treatment with facial PNF rehabilitation, short-wave diathermy, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (12 sessions lasting 45 min, three sessions/week for 4 weeks). Concerning the surface electromyography evaluation of frontal and orbicularis oris muscles, the calculated ratio between amplitude of the palsy side and normal side showed an improvement in terms of movement symmetry. At the end of the outpatient treatment, a daily telerehabilitation protocol with video and teleconsultation was provided, showing a further improvement in the functioning of a woman suffering from unresolved facial paralysis. Therefore, an adequate telerehabilitation follow-up seems to play a fundamental role in the management of patients with facial palsy.

9.
International Journal of Biomedicine ; 12(1):70-81, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1754102

ABSTRACT

In the 1990s, DNA sequencing technologies could only read bite-sized pieces of DNA. Then came the human genome project (HGP), a thirteen-year international effort, 1990-2003, with the primary goal of discovering the complete set of human genes, sequencing nucleotides, and making the information accessible worldwide for further biological studies. We have come a long way since that time in terms of sequencing the genes of the human genome. Now the researchers can sequence the DNA and analyze gene-expressed proteins in individual cells, allowing them to dissect the complexities of genetic diseases with exceptional details. Currently, technologies are available for single-cell or multi-omics platforms to analyze genotype and phenotype. The completion of this one-of-a-kind project created public expectations for immediate, better health care delivery and possible cures for ‘so called’ incurable diseases. The HGP was the single most influential investment made in modern basic science research. A monumental breakthrough in medicine has given us the ability to sequence the DNA in cancer cells to identify possible errors in mutations. The impact of the HGP’s success was so significant that President Barack Obama initiated a very ambitious new ‘precision medicine’ research initiative and announced the launch of this project during his State of the Union Address in 2015. The benefits of precision and personalized medicine include predicting susceptibility to diseases, improving disease diagnostics, preempting disease progression, customizing disease prevention strategies, and developing personalized drugs and therapies. As examples of emerging therapies, we have discussed the role of biomolecules and biologics in precision medicine applications like ‘The All of Us,’ personalized medicine approaches for monogenic diseases like hemophilia, sickle cell disease, and other rare genetic disorders, and CRISPR gene-editing technologies. Biomolecules play an essential role in all life processes, a variety of signaling processes, which are vital for normal functioning of physiological responses, in the early diagnosis of risk factors for various diseases, in the development of diseases and their progress. Furthermore, biomolecules, RNAs, DNAs, molecular and cellular engineering, genetic engineering of biologics, cells, tissues, and organs, play an important role in emerging therapeutic applications. The majority of the therapies discussed in this review are regulated as biologics under the Public Health Services Act of the USA. There is great interest in developing targeted therapy or precision medicine therapy for monogenic diseases, organ transplant applications, and tumor management, designed to interfere with targeted molecules for cancer-causing genes to slow the spread of cancer cells. Because molecular engineering, the development of biologics, gene-editing applications, and biomanufacturing are key components of emerging therapies, a keynote series was organized at INTERPHEX in November of 2021. INTEPHEX is the premier event that offers the latest intelligence, cutting-edge technologies, and state-of-the-art innovation for product development for pharmaceutical and biotechnology platforms. In an earlier article in this journal, we described drug discovery and development in the COVID Age;this overview provides a birds-eye view of the salient findings in each emerging area of medicine—precision medicine, personalized medicine, and emerging therapies. © 2022, International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.

10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740795

ABSTRACT

In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.

11.
18th IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, AICCSA 2021 ; 2021-December, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1735776

ABSTRACT

Sensitive patient data is generated from a variety of sources and then transferred to a cloud for processing. Therefore, it is exposed to security and privacy and may lead to an increase in communication costs. Edge computing will ease computing pressure through distributed computational capabilities while improving security and privacy. In this paper, we propose a Federated PSN (FPSN) model where the model is moved directly to the edge to minimize computation and communication costs. PSN has been applied as a successful approach in categorizing and diagnosing patients based on similarities against some clinical and non-clinical features. Our proposed model distributes processing at each edge node, then fuses the constructed PSN matrices at the cloud premises, which significantly reduce the model's training and inference time and ensures quick model updates with the local client/nodes. In this paper, we propose: (i) an algorithm to evaluate patient's data similarity at the edge;and (ii) an algorithm to implement the federated similarity network fusion at the Cloud. We conducted a set of experiments to evaluate our FPSN model against other machine learning algorithms using a COVID-19 dataset. The results obtained prove that the FPSN model accuracy is higher than the distributed PSNs at various edges and higher than the accuracies of other classification models. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 835136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731814

ABSTRACT

Many drugs are being administered to tackle coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situations without establishing clinical effectiveness or tailoring safety. A repurposing strategy might be more effective and successful if pharmacogenetic interventions are being considered in future clinical studies/trials. Although it is very unlikely that there are almost no pharmacogenetic data for COVID-19 drugs, however, from inferring the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic(PD) properties and some pharmacogenetic evidence in other diseases/clinical conditions, it is highly likely that pharmacogenetic associations are also feasible in at least some COVID-19 drugs. We strongly mandate to undertake a pharmacogenetic assessment for at least these drug-gene pairs (atazanavir-UGT1A1, ABCB1, SLCO1B1, APOA5; efavirenz-CYP2B6; nevirapine-HLA, CYP2B6, ABCB1; lopinavir-SLCO1B3, ABCC2; ribavirin-SLC28A2; tocilizumab-FCGR3A; ivermectin-ABCB1; oseltamivir-CES1, ABCB1; clopidogrel-CYP2C19, ABCB1, warfarin-CYP2C9, VKORC1; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-CYP2C9) in COVID-19 patients for advancing precision medicine. Molecular docking and computational studies are promising to achieve new therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current situation in the discovery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents at four important targets from in silico studies has been described and summarized in this review. Although natural occurring compounds from different herbs against SARS-CoV-2 infection are favorable, however, accurate experimental investigation of these compounds is warranted to provide insightful information. Moreover, clinical considerations of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and drug-herb interactions (DHIs) of the existing repurposed drugs along with pharmacogenetic (e.g., efavirenz and CYP2B6) and herbogenetic (e.g., andrographolide and CYP2C9) interventions, collectively called multifactorial drug-gene interactions (DGIs), may further accelerate the development of precision COVID-19 therapies in the real-world clinical settings.

13.
Int J Oncol ; 60(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726130

ABSTRACT

Biobanks constitute an integral part of precision medicine. They provide a repository of biospecimens that may be used to elucidate the pathophysiology, support diagnoses, and guide the treatment of diseases. The pilot biobank of rare malignant neoplasms has been established in the context of the Hellenic Network of Precision Medicine on Cancer and aims to enhance future clinical and/or research studies in Greece by collecting, processing, and storing rare malignant neoplasm samples with associated data. The biobank currently comprises 553 samples; 384 samples of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, 72 samples of pediatric brain tumors and 97 samples of malignant skin neoplasms. In this article, sample collections and their individual significance in clinical research are described in detail along with computational methods developed specifically for this project. A concise review of the Greek biobanking landscape is also delineated, in addition to recommended technologies, methodologies and protocols that were integrated during the creation of the biobank. This project is expected to re­enforce current clinical and research studies, introduce advances in clinical and genetic research and potentially aid in future targeted drug discovery. It is our belief that the future of medical research is entwined with accessible, effective, and ethical biobanking and that our project will facilitate research planning in the '­omic' era by contributing high­quality samples along with their associated data.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/trends , Neoplasms/pathology , Precision Medicine/trends , Cell Line, Tumor , Greece , Humans , Precision Medicine/methods
14.
Malays J Med Sci ; 28(2): 1-14, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709717

ABSTRACT

Last year, there was an increase in the amount of manpower in Malaysia, especially in terms of the numbers of neurosurgeons, cognitive neuroscientists and clinical psychologists. One way to increase the number of cognitive neurotechnologists in the country in 2021 is to allow neuroscientists to register as neurotechnologists with the Malaysian Board of Technologists (MBOT). The Malaysian Brain Mapping project has risen from its humble beginnings as an initiative of the Universiti Sains Malaysia Brain Mapping Group in 2017. There is currently a proposal for its entry into the national arena via the Precision Medicine Initiative with the Academy Science Malaysia, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Higher Education and Ministry of Health. The current Malaysian Government's Science, Technology, Innovation and Economy (STIE) plan was launched in 2020, leading to the establishment of neurotechnology as one of 10 STIE drivers.

15.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 5, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of precision medicine initiatives, genomic technologies have rapidly spread around the world, raising questions about genetic privacy and the ethics of data sharing. Previous scholarship in bioethics and science and technology studies has made clear that different nations have varying expectations about trust, transparency, and public reason in relation to emerging technologies and their governance. The key aims of this article are to assess genetic literacy, perceptions of genetic testing, privacy concerns, and governing norms amongst the Singapore population by collecting surveys. METHODS: This study investigated genetic literacy and broad public attitudes toward genetic tests in Singapore with an online public survey (n = 560). To assess potential changes in attitudes following receipt of results from a genetic test, we also surveyed undergraduate students who underwent a genetic screen as part of a university class before and after they received their test results (n = 25). RESULTS: Public participants showed broad support for the use of genetic tests; scored an average of 48.9% in genetic literacy; and expressed privacy concerns over data sharing and a desire for control over their genetic data. After taking a genetic test and receiving genetic test results, students reported less fear of genetic tests while other attitudes did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the potential of genetic education and active engagement with genetic testing to increase support and participation in genomic projects, PM, and biobanking initiatives; and they suggest that data privacy protections could potentially reduce discrimination by giving participants control over who can access their data. More specifically, these findings and the dataset we provide may be helpful in formulating culturally sensitive education programs and regulations concerning genomic technologies and data privacy.

16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706176

ABSTRACT

Surgeons and cancer patients are starting to open the debate on how personalised medicine could use shared decision-making (SDM) to balance the personal and clinical components and thus improve the quality and value of care. Personalised precision medicine (PPM) has traditionally focused on the use of genomic information when prescribing treatments, which are usually pharmaceutical. However, the knowledge base is considerably scarcer in terms of how clinicians can individualise the information they provide patients about the consequences of different treatments, and in doing so involve them in the decision-making process. To achieve this, the ethical implications of SDM must be addressed from both sides. This paper explores the medical characteristics, the SDM implications in severe and fragile patients, potential risks, and observed benefits within this healthcare approach through four clinical cases. Findings shed light on current needs for clinician and patient training and tools related to SDM in PPM, and also remarks on the way in which this shift in healthcare settings is taking place to include the human component together with the biological and technological advances when designing care processes in colorectal cancer.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e29279, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected 219 million individuals at the time of writing of this paper. A large volume of research findings from observational studies about disease interactions with COVID-19 is being produced almost daily, making it difficult for physicians to keep track of the latest information on COVID-19's effect on patients with certain pre-existing conditions. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe the creation of a clinical decision support tool, the SMART COVID Navigator, a web application to assist clinicians in treating patients with COVID-19. Our application allows clinicians to access a patient's electronic health records and identify disease interactions from a large set of observational research studies that affect the severity and fatality due to COVID-19. METHODS: The SMART COVID Navigator takes a 2-pronged approach to clinical decision support. The first part is a connection to electronic health record servers, allowing the application to access a patient's medical conditions. The second is accessing data sets with information from various observational studies to determine the latest research findings about COVID-19 outcomes for patients with certain medical conditions. By connecting these 2 data sources, users can see how a patient's medical history will affect their COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: The SMART COVID Navigator aggregates patient health information from multiple Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources-enabled electronic health record systems. This allows physicians to see a comprehensive view of patient health records. The application accesses 2 data sets of over 1100 research studies to provide information on the fatality and severity of COVID-19 for several pre-existing conditions. We also analyzed the results of the collected studies to determine which medical conditions result in an increased chance of severity and fatality of COVID-19 progression. We found that certain conditions result in a higher likelihood of severity and fatality probabilities. We also analyze various cancer tissues and find that the probabilities for fatality vary greatly depending on the tissue being examined. CONCLUSIONS: The SMART COVID Navigator allows physicians to predict the fatality and severity of COVID-19 progression given a particular patient's medical conditions. This can allow physicians to determine how aggressively to treat patients infected with COVID-19 and to prioritize different patients for treatment considering their prior medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Electronic Health Records , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Software
18.
Front Physiol ; 12: 730127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686527

ABSTRACT

In the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing was widely used to identify compounds that could improve the prognosis of symptomatic patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was one of the first drugs used to treat COVID-19 due to its supposed capacity of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in vitro. While its efficacy is debated, HCQ has been associated with QT interval prolongation and potentially Torsades de Pointes, especially in patients predisposed to developing drug-induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) as silent carriers of variants associated with congenital LQTS. If confirmed, these effects represent a limitation to the at-home use of HCQ for COVID-19 infection as adequate ECG monitoring is challenging. We investigated the proarrhythmic profile of HCQ with Multi-Electrode Arrays after exposure of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from two healthy donors, one asymptomatic and two symptomatic LQTS patients. We demonstrated that: I) HCQ induced a concentration-dependent Field Potential Duration (FPD) prolongation and halted the beating at high concentration due to the combined effect of HCQ on multiple ion currents. II) hiPSC-CMs from healthy or asymptomatic carriers tolerated higher concentrations of HCQ and showed lower susceptibility to HCQ-induced electrical abnormalities regardless of baseline FPD. These findings agree with the clinical safety records of HCQ and demonstrated that hiPSC-CMs potentially discriminates symptomatic vs. asymptomatic mutation carriers through pharmacological interventions. Disease-specific cohorts of hiPSC-CMs may be a valid preliminary addition to assess drug safety in vulnerable populations, offering rapid preclinical results with valuable translational relevance for precision medicine.

19.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(1): e119, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680505

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) infection pandemic/endemic is constantly surprising health experts because of continuous variations in the structures of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the form of newly emerged variants. Such mutations have exhibited high mortality and severity due to the newly emerged more infectious sites of SARS-CoV-2, making viral infection more transmissible, infectious, and severe. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 mutated to another variant, namely, Omicron (B.1.1.529), which is many times more transmissible and infectious than existed deadly Delta variants of the virus. This severity is closely correlated to a larger number of mutations observed in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of the Omicron-SARS-CoV-2. Considering severity, Omicron has been declared as variant of concerns by the World Health Organization and within days from its emergence, Omicron infection has spread globally, increased hospitalization, exhibited more severity for the young generation, invaded defense mechanism of natural immunity, not responsive to the available vaccines. Such circumstances resonated with the efficiency of available strategies established to manage COVID-19 intelligently and successfully. To explore these aspects, this perspective article carefully and critically summarizes the Omicron's origin, structure, pathogenesis, impact health along with health systems, and experts' recommendations to manage it successfully.

20.
Community Practitioner ; 94(6):48-49, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1668545

ABSTRACT

The February 2020 special edition of the BMJ, on racism in medicine, set out a robust argument for the establishment of an observatory that brings together insights on ethnic health inequalities and turns that into actionable recommendations for healthcare change. The Observatory's primary aim is to help tackle long-standing health inequalities affecting Black, Asian and minority ethnic patients and communities. The Observatory has a broad action focused work program that enables it to focus on deep-seated ethnic health inequalities;be reactive and responsive to emerging issues and challenges;keep this agenda at the forefront of leaders' thinking and actions;and ensure stakeholder engagement and global evidence base is at the heart of what it does.

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