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1.
COVID-19 response for Africa - monthly bulletin ; - (4):1-26, 2022.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-1955675
2.
Journal of Emergency Practice and Trauma ; 8(2):115-121, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955535

ABSTRACT

Objective: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in late 2019. A better understanding of this disease will help us in preventing and managing it. This study evaluated the risk factors and clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients admitted to Shahid Sadoughi hospital in Yazd with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to Shahid Sadoughi hospital in Yazd in May 2020, Iran. Patients’ clinical information, including their symptoms at admission, history of smoking or drug/ alcohol abuse, history of Td (tetanus, diphtheria) vaccine, radiographic/computed tomography (CT) scan findings, and blood oxygen saturation, was recorded. The patients were also asked about their previous history of diabetes, hypertension, autoimmune disorder, and cancer or history of diseases in heart, lung, liver, and thyroid. Laboratory findings, height, weight and body mass index of the patients were also recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21. Results: The mean age of 86 patients enrolled in the study was 61.40±17.37 years, of which 56 (65.11%) had mild pulmonary involvement and 30 (34.89%) had severe pulmonary involvement, according to CT scan results. Also, 26 (30.2%) of all patients had diabetes and about 30 (36%) had high blood pressure, but current smokers (6%) were rare. In patients with severe pulmonary involvement, the level of neutrophil, creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was higher than patients with mild pulmonary involvement. Out of 56 patients with mild pulmonary involvement, 47 patients had a history of Td vaccination in the last 5 years. Only one patient in the severe group had a history of Td vaccination. Conclusion: A lower percentage of blood lymphocytes as well as higher levels of neutrophils, creatinine, and LDH were observed in patients with severe pulmonary involvement. Numerous factors, especially more prominent laboratory abnormalities, determine the severity of the disease, and a better understanding of these factors can help physicians know the severity of the disease and its prognosis. These findings help us to further clarify the characteristics of COVID-19. Also, the effect of Td vaccine should be investigated in future studies. © 2022 The Author(s).

3.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952903

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The weak health system, domestic political unrest, poverty, and many other factors in the Central African Republic (CAR) have left the country underprepared for the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a greater health threat to the entire country. Rapid measures must therefore be taken to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Methods: This work encompassed a review of relevant literature. We aim to analyze how far Chinese COVID measures can be transferred to the context of the CAR. Results: We argue that the measure that the CAR can learn from China's success is the involvement of community workers and that greater investment in this model may be the optimal solution. Help from the international community is urgently needed. Conclusion: The CAR can benefit from China's successful experience in fighting the epidemic, but the disparity in the combined power of the two countries does not allow for simple replication of China's strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central African Republic/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 870214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952809

ABSTRACT

Properly addressing external shocks in urban agglomeration is critical to sustaining the complex regional system. The COVID-19 pandemic has been widely acknowledged as an unintended external shock, but the temporal and spatial transmission patterns are largely ignored. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial transmission patterns of COVID-19 at the macro, meso, and micro levels, and proposes a conceptual model for regional comprehensive risk calculation, taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) area as the focus region. Our results showed that 1) at the temporal scale, the epidemic in the BTH area experienced stages of rapid increase, gradual decrease, and stabilization, and the first wave of the epidemic was under control from 23 February 2020; 2) at the spatial scale, confirmed cases were largely distributed at the terminal of the migration network, with closely interconnected cities in the BTH area, including Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Langfang, holding the highest comprehensive epidemic risk, thus requiring special attention for epidemic prevention and control. Finally, a "two-wheels" conceptual framework was built to discuss implications for future policies for addressing external shocks. Our proposed framework consists of an isolation wheel, which involves information sharing from the holistic perspective, and a circulation wheel, which emphasizes stakeholder involvement from the individual perspective. The findings of this study provide a knowledge basis for epidemic prevention and control as well as useful implications for addressing external shocks in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Pandemics
5.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 110, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This research aimed to investigate the tasks performed by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) prevention and control management teams at primary healthcare (PHC) facilities during COVID-19 pandemic across the mainland China. METHODS: An online survey was performed and COVID-19 prevention and control management teams at PHC facilities were invited to participate in this research. The top 7 most important tasks in the three different periods of COVID-19 containment were selected and ranked. Participations of tasks were surveyed. RESULTS: A total of 998 valid responses (an effective rate of 99.11%) were collected. The respondents were divided into Group A (≤5 respondents within each PHC facility, n1 = 718) and Group B (> 5 respondents within each PHC facility, n2 = 280). The consensus was selected from top 7 most important tasks including screening at travel centers/intervals and screening at entry centers, at-home/centralized quarantine management, transferring, pre-examination/triage and fever sentinel surveillance clinic/fever clinic. Pre-examination/triage and fever sentinel surveillance clinic/fever clinic works became more significant in the regular prevention and control period. Adjusted analysis found that team members of Group A with a college, undergraduate college and graduate school educational background were less involved in pre-examination/triage works (aOR: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.09-0.86, P = 0.026; aOR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.10-0.90, P = 0.031; aOR: 0.21; 95%CI: 0.05-0.82, P = 0.024). Those who were over the median age were twice more likely to be engaged in managing fever sentinel surveillance of clinic/fever clinic visitors (aOR: 2.18; 95%CI: 1.16-4.08, P = 0.015). Those being specialized in nursing and other specialties were less likely to participate in fever sentinel surveillance of clinic/fever clinic works (aOR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.24-0.81, P = 0.009; aOR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.16-0.58, P < 0.001). Those came from central and western China were less likely to participate in centralized quarantine management (aOR: 0.61; 95%CI: 0.38-0.98, P = 0.042; aOR: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.42-0.97, P = 0.037). Team members came from central and western China were twice less likely to participate in screening at travel centers/intervals (aOR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.14-2.70, P = 0.011; aOR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.07-2.48, P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: In mainland China, team members of COVID-19 prevention and control at PHC facilities are mainly responsible for screening, quarantine, transferring and monitoring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pre-examination/triage and the fever sentinel surveillance clinic/fever clinic were gradually valued. Team members with lower educational background are competent in pre-examination/triage works, but more experienced general practitioners are more likely to be in charge of fever sentinel surveillance clinic/fever clinics work. The necessity of COVID-19 prevention and control management teams to participate in screening at travel centers/intervals is subjected to further discussions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
6.
SSM Qual Res Health ; 2: 100110, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946630

ABSTRACT

From the adoption of mask-wearing in public settings to the omnipresence of hand-sanitising, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought unprecedented cultural attention to infection prevention and control (IPC) in everyday life. At the same time, the pandemic threat has enlivened and unsettled hospital IPC processes, fracturing confidence, demanding new forms of evidence, and ultimately involving a rapid reassembling of what constitutes safe care. Here, drawing on semi-structured interviews with 63 frontline healthcare workers from two states in Australia, interviewed between September 2020 and March 2021, we illuminate some of the affective dimensions of IPC at a time of rapid change and evolving uncertainty. We track how a collective sense of risk and safety is relationally produced, redefining attitudes and practices around infective risk, and transforming accepted paradigms of care and self-protection. Drawing on Puig de la Bellacasa's formulation, we propose the notion of IPC as a multidimensional matter of care. Highlighting the complex negotiation of space and time in relation to infection control and care illustrates a series of paradoxes, the understanding of which helps illuminate not only how IPC works, in practice, but also what it means to those working on the frontline of the pandemic.

7.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944006

ABSTRACT

The use of fit tested respirators in the workplace is required to protect health workers against airborne pathogens. The COVID-19 pandemic required rapid upscaling of fit testing which was achieved using the framework of a respiratory protection program. Implementing and sustaining such a program in the midst of a pandemic was challenging and required clear direction from a lead agency combined with stakeholder engagement.

8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 885-889, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, primary care (PC) has been central to the COVID-19 response. The pandemic has strained PC systems and introduced novel infection prevention and control (IPC) risks to the provision of safe, accessible in-person care. Specifically, the implementation of IPC guidance developed outside of PC into its operational context has proved challenging. METHODS: Our team of "action researchers" developed an innovative virtual tabletop simulations (TTS) intervention which assisted PC teams as they adapted, implemented, and integrated IPC guidance into their specific clinical contexts. While we have detailed the "technical" elements of the TTS program elsewhere, this paper examines the specific "adaptive" elements that made this intervention successful in the high-income country context of Alberta, Canada. RESULTS: Multiple factors influenced the uptake of this program in our Albertan setting, including: cultural geography; approach to financing and delivering PC; and policies and cultural norms supporting PC integration, medical education and research, and egalitarian teamwork. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual TTS may provide substantial benefits to IPC and safety improvements in PC settings globally. However, the specific technical and adaptive elements of our Albertan TTS program might, or might not, make these a viable IPC intervention for adapting, spreading, and scaling to other settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care
9.
Infect Prev Pract ; : 100234, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936578

ABSTRACT

Background: In March 2020, COVID-19 cases occurred in residential care facilities. To assist these facilities, the regional health agency of Meurthe-et-Moselle administrative district. Ordered a support mission. Methods: Infection prevention and control mobile teams were formed under the coordination of the infection prevention and control department (IPCD) of a university hospital. Teams went to residential care facilities for the elderly, to facilities for people with disabilities (FPD) and independent living communities (ILC). They visited the facilities and met with the management and the ward staff to assess the situation and to identify any potential support needs. Results: Over two non-consecutive weeks, 104 residential care facilities were visited (9025 residents). If urgent needs were identified, the IPCD was directly informed by the teams to initiate an extensive assistance operation. Thereby, additional staff and equipment were provided for every facility in need. Although most of them had implemented good management to face the pandemic, four emergency field support operations took place in facilities with uncontrolled outbreaks. Conclusions: This is the first reported support action for residential care facilities during the pandemic in France. As no major outbreaks were noticed later, this mission was deemed a success and met the residential care facilities' needs for support. Many facilities have expressed the need to cooperate with infection prevention and control specialists in the future, both during incidents, also in routine daily practice. This report highlights the need to maintain support for residential care facilities and to implement a permanent collaboration between hospitals and residential care facilities.

10.
JOURNAL OF GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ; 30(10), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939128

ABSTRACT

In view of epidemic prevention costs and social benefits, an evolutionary game model of epidemic prevention and control strategies between government departments and local people was constructed based on evolutionary game theory to explore the influence of strategic behaviors between government departments and local people, and MATLAB was used to conduct systematic simulation of the game model. Studies have shown that local people will cooperate with government departments when they implement surveillance strategies. Reducing the cost of emergency epidemic prevention and improving the social benefits of epidemic prevention are conducive to the development of government departments towards the direction of supervision strategy, and local people towards the direction of active epidemic prevention strategy, so as to achieve effective epidemic prevention and control.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938807

ABSTRACT

The implementation of a new service is often challenging when translating research findings into routine clinical practices. This paper presents the results of the implementation study of a pilot project for a diabetes and cardiovascular diseases risk-assessment service in Belgian community pharmacies. To evaluate the implementation of the service, a mixed method was used that follows the RE-AIM framework. During the testing stage, 37 pharmacies participated, including five that dropped out due to a lack of time or COVID-19-related temporary obligations. Overall, 502 patients participated, of which 376 (74.9%) were eligible for according-to-protocol analysis. Of these, 80 patients (21.3%) were identified as being at high risk for the targeted diseases, and 100 (26.6%) were referred to general practice for further investigation. We presented the limited effectiveness and the key elements influencing optimal implementation. Additional strategies, such as interprofessional workshops, a data-sharing platform, and communication campaigns, should be considered to spread awareness of the new role of pharmacists. Such strategies could also promote collaboration with general practitioners to ensure the follow-up of patients at high risk. Overall, this service was considered easy to perform and feasible in practice but would require financial and external support to ensure its effectiveness, sustainability, and larger-scale implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Community Pharmacy Services , Diabetes Mellitus , Pharmacies , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacists , Pilot Projects , Risk Assessment
12.
Duazary ; 19(2):116-128, 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934856

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection and the factors associated with COVID-19 in a geriatric institution in Cali, Colombia. This is an observational, cross-sectional study in institutionalized older adults after a COVID-19 outbreak. In a population of 252 adults who were screened for SARS-CoV-2. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, and geriatric clinimetry were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression models with prevalence ratios. Of this population, 84 (33.3%) were infected. A higher prevalence was found in adults ≥80 years (PR = 1.69 95% CI 1.16-2.47), with malnutrition (MNA <17) (PR = 1.44 95% CI 1.01-2.04 ) and with a Barthel index <60 (PR = 1.57 95% CI 1.09-2.25). Those infected presented mostly with fever (PR = 2.08 95% CI 1.39-3.09) and cough (PR = 1.61 95% CI 1.10-2.34). In conclusion, the prevalence of COVID-19 infection in institutionalized older adults is related to advanced age, malnutrition, and functional dependence.Alternate :El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de infección y los factores asociados con la COVID-19 en una institución geriátrica de Cali, Colombia. Se trata de un estudio observacional de corte transversal en adultos mayores institucionalizados durante un brote de COVID-19. En una población de 252 adultos a los cuales se les realizó tamización mediante pruebas para detección de SARS-CoV-2, se analizó la prevalencia de la infección por la COVID-19 y su relación con las características sociodemográficas, comorbilidades, síntomas y clinimetría geriátrica mediante modelos de regresión bivariados con razones de prevalencias. De esta población, 84 (33,3%) se infectaron. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de la enfermedad en adultos ≥80 años (RP= 1,69 IC 95% 1,16-2,47), con malnutrición (MNA<17) (RP= 1,44 IC 95% 1,01-2,04) y con un índice de Barthel <60 (RP= 1,57 IC 95% 1,09-2,25). Los infectados se presentaron en su mayoría con fiebre (RP= 2,08 IC 95% 1,39-3,09) y tos (RP= 1,61 IC 95% 1,10-2,34). En conclusión, la prevalencia de infección por COVID-19 en el adulto mayor institucionalizado se relaciona con edad avanzada, malnutrición y dependencia funcional.

13.
Journal of Prescribing Practice ; 4(7):312-316, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1934646

ABSTRACT

The emergency mental health practitioner's job involves providing immediate care to patients who are suffering a mental health crisis. Independent nurse prescribing supports this service through timely access to pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures or cognitive behavioural strategies. This case study involves a service user diagnosed with bipolar type II disorder who presents with suicidal ideation, and outlines the prescribing options available for short-term crises and long-term risk management. There is a complex balance of appraising physical and mental health including capacity, assessment of risk of self-harm and harm to others, and working in consultation to optimise adherence and concordance. The authors highlight the importance of using a person-centred approach, which includes family, carers and their wider support network, to develop a therapeutic relationship which promotes positive outcomes. This is further supported by utilising the most recent and up-to-date policy, guidelines and legislation, including local and national policies.

14.
American Journal of Infection Control ; 50(7):S24-S24, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1930702

ABSTRACT

Failure to discontinue transmission-based precautions (TBP) for eligible ambulatory patients may decrease stakeholder buy-in, adherence, and experience. Successful removal is hindered by unclear criteria and inadequate resources. We sought to create a pre-visit review process to identify TBP removal opportunities to support stakeholders without exhausting resources. Study period was 11/02/2020 – 11/30/2021. We generated an electronic medical record (EMR) report of ambulatory encounters in the coming week with a TBP flag. Interventions tested included: A spreadsheet macro to filter and format the EMR report (implemented 01/29/21);Standardized IP chart review and notification;Clinical stakeholder engagement to define and evaluate process expectations. We used a standard t-test for weekly encounter and percent no-change review comparisons. During 11/02/2020-01/28/21, 3,111 encounters were reviewed for TBP removal. Of those, 310(9.96%) had TBP status updated, 1,134(36.45%) required email communication to determine status, and 1,667(53.58%) had no change. These no-change encounters included cystic fibrosis patients (remain in life-long TBP) and ineligible long term TBP. We built the macro to remove no-change encounters to focus on encounters needing review. During 1/29/21-11/27/21, 6,060 encounters were reviewed, with 1,818(30.00%) updated, 1,646(27.16%) requiring email, and 2,596(42.84%) no-change. Macro implementation reduced average reviewed encounters weekly (246 to 142, p<.0001) and the proportion of no-change encounters (56.36% to 47.39%, p=0.0224). Subjectively, reviews took less time (approximately 15 hours to 5 hours per week). Process standardization and stakeholder engagement were well-received. Macro utilization increased review efficiency by removing no-change encounters. Despite a reduction in pre- and post-implementation proportions of no-change encounters, there is still opportunity to further reduce time wasted on no-change encounters. Standardizing our process allowed for cross training of IPs, alleviating burden on others. Stakeholder engagement improved relationships between IPs and ambulatory staff.

15.
The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter ; 38(8):8-8, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1929774

ABSTRACT

We are wrestling with so many heavy dilemmas in our country and world right now, and "lil' Rhody" as people fondly refer to our lovely Ocean State, is not exempt. The children's mental health crisis is one that impacts us all. Between 2009 and 2019, the rate of Rhode Island students reporting feeling "sad or hopeless" for a 2‐week period within the past year rose from 25% to almost 33%. And in 2019, 17% of middle schoolers and 13% of high schoolers "seriously considered suicide" within the past year (YRBS). In general, rates like these are disproportionally higher for those most at risk — people of color, LGBTQ, and those with disabilities. The inequality and injustice in our society is not only a barrier, but also a cause for those most at risk for physical and mental health issues, especially those of the BIPOC community. Much like lack of green spaces, housing, and adequate food options in marginalized communities, there are also fewer resources and many structural barriers to healthcare (including mental healthcare) for these children from communities of color.

16.
Hospital Employee Health ; 41(7):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1929181

ABSTRACT

Battered by a two-year pandemic during which they often had to work under unsafe conditions without adequate personal protective equipment, healthcare workers are on the brink of a "burnout and mental health crisis" that will only worsen if sweeping actions are not taken, warned U.S. Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, MD, MBA.

17.
Hospital Employee Health ; 41(7):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1929164

ABSTRACT

The longstanding problem of patients and visitors attacking and verbally abusing healthcare workers has been worsened by the chaos and cultural divisiveness of the COVID-19 pandemic. If federal lawmakers cannot find a way to better protect healthcare workers now, will they ever?

18.
J Hosp Infect ; 126: 64-69, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wards caring for COVID-19 patients, including intensive care units (ICUs), have an important focus on preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to other patients and healthcare workers. AIM: To describe an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) in a COVID-19 ICU and to discuss key infection control measures enabling prompt termination of the cluster. METHODS: CPE were isolated from clinical specimens and screening swabs from intensive care patients with COVID-19 disease and from environmental screening. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was instrumental in informing phylogenetic relationships. FINDINGS: Seven clinical isolates and one environmental carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate - all carrying OXA-48, CTX-M-15 and outer membrane porin mutations in ompK35/ompK36 - were identified with ≤1 single nucleotide polymorphism difference, indicative of clonality. A bundle of infection control interventions including careful adherence with contact precautions and hand hygiene, twice weekly screening for multidrug-resistant organisms, strict antimicrobial stewardship, and enhanced cleaning protocols promptly terminated the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Prolonged use of personal protective equipment is common with donning and doffing stations at the ward entrance, leaving healthcare workers prone to reduced hand hygiene practices between patients. Minimizing transmission of pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 by careful adherence to normal contact precautions including hand hygiene, even during high patient contact manoeuvres, is critical to prevent outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. Appropriate antimicrobial stewardship and screening for multidrug-resistant organisms must also be maintained throughout surge periods to prevent medium-term escalation in antimicrobial resistance rates. Whole-genome sequencing is highly informative for multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales surveillance strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control , Klebsiella Infections , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/prevention & control , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pandemics , Phylogeny , beta-Lactamases/genetics
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929657
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