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1.
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 16(3):302-308, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033604

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 the deadly virus, was declared a pandemic by WHO in March, 2020 because of its virulent nature. It has been a piece of work to understand the mechanism of action and the disease pathology of the virus, due to its novel origin. The quality of healthcare is seen to be severely degrading during these times. The two different types of COVID tests that are commonly available in the facility are RTPCR and Rapid Antigen Test or RAT. These help to identify whether the person is infected with the virus or not. With the current management being successful in majority of the cases, we should also consider strengthening the existing modalities. Objective: To find the prevalence of COVID-19 patients and study their clinical course and outcome Material and methods: Data regarding covid-19 patients was collected on basis of demographic profile by using google foms questionnaire at Dr. D.Y. Patil Hospital, Navi Mumbai. Results: A total of 500 patients were included in the present study with male preponderance with 61.4%. 99% patients were tested COVID positive, 73.2% had a history of exposure to COVID patients, 80% had a positive travel history, 99% lab tests were positive. 50.4% duration of the treatment lasted for 7-14 days. 67.6% were treated in the wards, whereas, the remaining 32.4% were treated in the ICU. 19.6% patients required mechanical ventilator support. 51% patients required oxygen therapy. 80.2% did not require intubation. All the patients were on antibiotics, and majority of the patients, i.e. 99.8% were on immuno-boosters as well. Antivirals were administered in 80.6%. 82.8% were discharged with a negative swab. Out of the 17.2% patients with positive swab, mortality was seen in 6.2% patients. 3.4% patients were referred to different centers, while the treatment of the remaining 7.6% patients was continued for a longer period of time. Conclusion: A stepwise perspective of non-pharmaceutical interventions, screening and testing procedures, implementation and compliance to distancing, hygiene measures and use of masks at airports, railway stations, other public places with pragmatic testing and tracing are effective measures that can be implemented. Worldwide numerous clinical trials are taking place for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Although, there is a rapid comprehensive expansion in regard to COVID-19 and few agents appear to be promising, there are no definitely proven effective therapies at this time. Evaluation of several agents by Scientists and researchers are progressive and commendable.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica ; 91(3-4):95-96, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033587

ABSTRACT

Introduction Pfizer-BioNTech collaboration started in 2018 in order to develop mRNA flu vaccine. Because of the covid19 pandemic the two companies started to focus on mRNA vaccine development for the prevention of covid19 infection. In March they signed the Letters of Intent. Initially there were four vaccine candidates including unmodified mRNA, nucleoside-modified mRNA and self-amplifying mRNA. For further development the nucleoside- modified mRNA was chosen. In April Phase 1/2 study was completed in Germany and in May in the USA. Two 30 μg doses 3 weeks apart induced neutralizing antibody titers comparable to natural infection and strong CD4+ and CD8+ Tcell responses were observed. Phase 2b/3 clinical trial started in July involving more than 43.000 participants in 153 sites. The result showed 95% efficacy with mild and moderate local and systemic events. For safety reason all participants will be followed for 2 years after the second dose. Based on rolling review regulatory agencies were able to approve within a short period of time in December 2020, first MHRA in UK, then FDA authorized for Emergency Use and EMA granted Conditional Marketing Authorization on 21 December 2021 for 16 years old and older. The first shipments were sent all European countries on 27 December. Direct shipments to vaccination centers on ultra-low temperature (minus 9060 degree of centigrade) using dry ice. Each thermal shipping container has a temperature monitoring device. All shipments are tracked via GPS monitoring device to ensure end-to-end distribution within required temperatures. In May EMA granted an extension of indication for covid-19 vaccine to include in children aged 12-15. The effect of vaccine was investigated in 2260 children aged 12-15, about half of them received dummy injection. Of the 1,005 children receiving the vaccine, none developed COVID-19 compared to 16 children out of the 978 who received the dummy injection. This means that, in this study, the vaccine was 100% effective at preventing COVID-19. The most common side effects in children aged 12 to 15 are similar like those in people aged 16 and above. They include pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle and joint pain, chills and fever. These effects are usually mild or moderate and improve within a few days from the vaccination. EMA granted approval for booster dose (third dose) for immune weakened people 28 days after the second dose, and 6 months after the second dose for 18 years of age and older. Approval is based on the clinical program evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a booster dose of covid-19 vaccine. A booster dose of the vaccine elicited significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the initial SARS-CoV-2 virus (wild type), as well as the Beta and Delta variants, when compared with the levels observed after the two-dose primary series. The reactogenicity profile within seven days after the booster dose was typically mild to moderate, and the frequency of reactions was similar to or lower than after dose two. The efficacy is this trial was 95,6%. In October 2021 FDA authorized for emergency use of covid-19 for children 5 through 111 years of age. For this age group, the vaccine is to be admin-istered in a two-dose regimen of 10 μg (0,2 ml) doses given 21 days apart. EUA is supported by clinical data showing a favorable safety profile and high vaccine efficacy of 90.7% in children 5 through 11 years of age during a period when Delta was the prevalent strain. In 2021 we have already distributed 1,8B doses to 146 countries by end of September. In 2022 we plan to distribute 4B doses. (Figure Presented).

3.
Voprosy Ginekologii, Akusherstva i Perinatologii ; 21(3):28-35, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033519

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the effectiveness of different preventive measures for novel coronavirus infection in pregnant women. Patients and Methods. This study included 125 pregnant women hospitalized with moderate to severe laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between September and November 2021 (the fourth pandemic wave), and 175 pregnant women who were not infected with COVID-19 during the same period. All women in these two groups were comparable for gestational age (II–III trimesters, 24–39 weeks), age (20–40 years), social status, parity, body mass index, and had no known COVID-19 risk factors. Results. Our findings revealed that vaccination 3-5 months before pregnancy (OR = 4.12;95% CI 1.28–13.27;χ2 = 0.022), inconsistent use and/or non-timely replacement of face masks (OR = 5.71;95% CI 2.83–11.51) were associated with the increased risk of COVID-19 in the second and third trimesters of gestation. It was showed that systematic (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) intranasal administration of recombinant interferon alpha-2b (IFN-α;Grippferon) as compared with a single application after exposure to COVID-19 reduced the disease incidence rate and there was no evident risk of illness (OR = 0.08;95% CI 0.05–0.14;19.2% vs 74,3%, p < 0.001). This can be explained by the fact that women were mostly infected in unpredictable conditions (e.g., 29.2% of pregnant women were infected from family members, 23.9% had unknown source of exposure). The use of umifenovir, not currently authorised for the medication-assisted prevention of COVID-19 in pregnant women, and rectal administration of IFN-α suppositories did not reduce the disease incidence rate. Rectal use of IFN-α suppositories by pregnant women off-label increased the incidence (32.0 vs 15.4%, p = 0.001) and risk of developing novel coronavirus infection (OR = 2.58;95% CI 1.48–4.50). Conclusion. There is a need to improve awareness among pregnant women about the mandatory and timely vaccination against COVID-19 during pregnancy and the importance of strict adherence to wearing face masks. Increased efforts should be made to monitor and inform pregnant women about the use of only authorised medication-assisted preventive measures of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as intranasal administration of recombinant IFN α-2b (Grippferon). During the epidemic rise in COVID-19 cases, the systematic intranasal administration of recombinant interferon-based medication Grippferon (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) is recommended for pregnant women.

4.
Pulmonologiya ; 31(6):792-798, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033501

ABSTRACT

The main focus in the course of COVID-19 goes on assessing the overall immune response. The role of mucosal immunity in this disease has not been studied sufficiently. The study aimed to analyze published data about secretory IgA as a significant indicator of the mucosal immune response of the respiratory tract in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Articles were identified via PubMed bibliographic database. The time-span of research was two years (2020, 2021). Results. The search identified 54 articles. There is evidence that secretory IgA (sIgA) is the main antibody isotype of the mucosal immunity. It is produced in quantities significantly higher than those of all other isotypes of immunoglobulins combined. sIgA antibodies are effective against various pathogens, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus, due to mechanisms such as neutralization, suppression of adhesion to the mucosal surface and invasion of epithelial cells, agglutination and facilitating the removal of pathogenic microorganisms with the mucosal secretions. Virus-specific IgA antibodies in the blood serum are detected in patients with COVID-19 as early as two days after the first symptoms, while IgM or IgG class antibodies appear only after 5 days. We accessed the efficacy of intranasal immunization as to induction of predominant production of sIgA in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Conclusion. The current information on the local immune response of the respiratory mucosa is important for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, diagnosis, and development of new methods of treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):5508-5516, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033485

ABSTRACT

Hypovitaminosis D was shown to be prevalent in this research of 124 people who were COVID-19 positive. With a p-value of 0.001, greater serum concentrations of inflammatory markers like COVID-19 were significantly related with lower vitamin D levels (D-dimer, CRP, and ferritin). One way to gauge the severity of COVID-19 infection is by looking at the serum vitamin D level. An increased risk of acute respiratory infection is linked to vitamin D deficiency. The processes through which vitamin D influences the immune system are complex. The usual immunomodulatory activity appears to be inhibited with reduced serum vitamin D concentrations, favoring a pro-inflammatory phase. Less effective macrophage activity and antigen presentation may be caused by insufficient vitamin D levels. As a result, low vitamin D levels may potentially contribute to a delayed or dysregulated response to the body's initial contact with SARS-CoV-2 or prevent the construction of an effective defense in cases of established SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inflammation and the biological functions of the innate and adaptive immune systems are linked to vitamin D. Coronavirus illness risk or severity have been observed to be inversely correlated with blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in observational studies (COVID-19). The significance of vitamin D in COVID-19 has been attributed to a number of pathways, such as the modulation of immunological and inflammatory responses, control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, and participation in glucose metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Patients with COVID-19 may be more likely to experience catastrophic consequences if their 25(OH)D levels are low, not only because of the hyperinflammatory state that is often present but also because it aggravates cardiovascular disease and impaired glucose metabolism that already exist. Some randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that supplementing with vitamin D is helpful for lowering coronavirus 2 RNA positivity in SARS, but not for lowering intensive care unit admission or all-cause death in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. According to the most recent research, taking a vitamin D supplement to keep your serum 25(OH)D level at or above 30 ng/mL (recommended range: 40–60 ng/mL) may help lower your risk of developing COVID-19 and its serious consequences, such as death. According to worldwide recommendations, it is prudent to suggest vitamin D supplements to those who have vitamin D shortage or insufficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic, even though additional well-designed research are necessary.

6.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):3656-3661, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033477

ABSTRACT

The continents have been overtaken by chaos and tragedy as COVID-19 performs its cosmic dance. In such a situation, life satisfaction indices could decline while mental stress is likely to rise. The stress and life satisfaction levels among diabetes patients were expressed using descriptive statistics. The association between perceived stress and life satisfaction was examined using the chi-square test. The number of diabetic patients at our institution who were willing to enroll was a total of 140. Participants in the research had an average age of 52.38 + 14.9 years. 46.4 percent of the study's participants were above the age of 55. There is an urgent need to introduce stress busters because half (50%) of the participants reported moderate to high levels of stress. Additionally, about 20% of the individuals reported having trouble with stress. Stress may negatively affect a diabetic patient's ability to control their blood sugar, thus therapies that reduce or manage stress may be crucial in preventing the development of major diabetes problems in the future. Keywords:.

7.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):3190-3200, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033476

ABSTRACT

Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds, and prayers and peace be upon the Messenger as a mercy to the worlds, and upon those who followed his path, his path, and his Sunnah until the Day of Resurrection, and a religion. And the employees and workers in all the fiefs of the state because of their negative effects, especially on the economy, the country that is the basis of life. Therefore, the plan required that it be titled Corona and its impact on the Islamic economy, and the plan consisted of one topic and three demands, in which the most important problems facing society were summarized after defining The Corona pandemic in the Arabic language, then I explained the legal ruling and the opinions of the jurists. The plan included the first topic: a definition of the title: Corona and its impact on the Islamic economy. It has three demands: The first requirement: Definition of the Corona pandemic: The second requirement: Corona and its impact on the Islamic economy: The third requirement: Preventive measures to prevent the impact of the Corona pandemic on sustainable development in financial crises: This is in a nutshell.... I ask God for payment, success, and success for us and for you in word and deed.

8.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(6):9236-9244, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033442

ABSTRACT

Maqāsīd Syāriah is an important component in the religion of Islam, especially understanding the text and syará evidence. It is also the meaning and purpose required by the syará in prescribing a law to ensure the welfare of mankind. Apart from that, it also has its own importance in measuring and considering something in order to protect the welfare and reject mafsadah. Following the Covid-19 pandemic that hit the world, all muftis throughout Malaysia have used this method in giving the verdict related to practical of worship throughout the pandemic. The application of the elements of maqāsīd syāriah is able to ensure the safety and well-being of the ummah to be in line with the demands and tenets of Islam. This article will also discuss the role of maqāsīd syāriah in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. The research method used is a quantitative method by using questionnaires to obtain virginity and information accurately. This study finds that the role of maqāsīd syāriah in the princip dharuriyyāt al-khams;is to maintain the originality of religion, good life, sober mind, descendanty, and property is able to prevent the transmission of Covid-19. Iis also referred to the principle of dharuriyyāt in helping various issues that arise especially the Fatāwā (verdicts) that have been decided by ruling authorities. Thus understanding the role of maqāsīd as a whole can ease people in performing worship according to the Islam.

9.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(9):3768-3777, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033427

ABSTRACT

December 2019 has become one of the most surprising days in the whole world in light of the flare-up of a most infectious sickness brought about by novel Covid or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study is conducted to assess the benefits of the use of home remedies to prevent the cause of Covid-19 and evaluate the assessment of dietary changes and physical activity in the prevention of Covid-19. A questionnaire-based online survey is conducted using Google forms consisting of multiple-choice questions about home remedies, lifestyle and dietary changes made by the people during this pandemic. These home remedies included using different types of herbal preparations, steam inhalation, physical exercise and OTC medications for prophylaxis. Questions likewise included about being infected by Coronavirus-19(during first wave or second) and their recovery period, additionally collected their viewpoint for changes made, for example how much they are useful in the prevention of the attack and whenever encountered any undesirable impacts. Total responses were 210, among which 121(57.6%) responses were from females and 89(42.4%) from males. 65 people tested Covid positive (42 during the first wave and 23 during the second wave). 118(56.2%) of people think these changes are very beneficial. (Rated 4 and 5 out of 5 points). From our survey, we concluded that different herbal preparations of their composition, which they thought are helpful, and steam inhalations have been used. Rating regarding the use and effectiveness was also found to be average. Further studies are needed to prove and provide clear evidence about adverse and side effects associated with the use of herbal products.

10.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):DC33-DC38, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033411

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is crucial to determine possible factors associated with exacerbation of the disease due to the alarming global spread, morbidity and mortality associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). It is important to determine the co-morbidities associated with this disease which will help in better treatment of patients in time and to make amendments to management policy. Aim: To compare the clinical features, and predisposing factors (socio-demographic factors and co-morbidities) influencing the outcome in COVID-19 infected patients admitted in a tertiary care centre in the first and second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India. The data was collected from the electronic resource which was maintained by the institute Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) health record reporting database for the duration of June 2020 to August 2021. This data included patient’s demographic details (age, sex, address, contact number), other details (history of close contacts, international travel) clinical history, different types of symptoms (ICMR patient category), co-morbidities, number of patients requiring ICU admission, type of sample, the outcome in terms of death and discharge, cause of death. The analysis was done for the complete data and then for two separate durations of the first and second wave which were compared later with Chi-square test (Bivariate analysis). Results: A total of 8841 patients were involved and the majority of patients in the study were between the age group of 30-75 years, there was a predominance of males in first and second waves with 6514 (73.7%) and 5795 (58.6%) respectively. The paediatric patients had a mortality rate of 100% (n=7) found in the second wave. Fever (39%) and dyspnea (22%) were found as the commonest presentation in both waves. Gastrointestinal manifestations were observed relatively more in the second wave. The serious patients on ventilator were found to have (>91%) the highest mortality. It appeared that the highest attributable risk to severity and mortality (eight to ten times increased) was due to hypertension, diabetes and other co-morbidities. Pregnancy did not predisposed to be as a risk factor. Conclusion: Prompt management and preventive care are needed for patients with co-morbidities to avoid the exacerbation of COVID-19 as well as drug cross interactions.

11.
Journal of Internal Medicine of Taiwan ; 32(4):281-288, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033398

ABSTRACT

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still a lack of miracle drugs for treatment. Repurposing drugs such as Remdesivir and corticosteroids to treat COVID-19 are being studied. Traditional Chinese medicine was widely used during the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection in China in 2003. It was found that standard medical treatment combined with Chinese medicine treatment may improve the symptoms of SARS patients and speeding resolution of lung infiltration. The commonly used prescriptions for preventing the coronavirus infection are Sangjuyin plus Yupingfeng powder. Various Traditional Chinese medicines with potential to fight SARS-CoV-2 include Liquorice Root and Rhizome, Rhubarb, Heartleaf Houttuynia Herb, Indi-gowoad Root, Tangerine Peel, Scutellaria Root, and Red Sage Root and Rhizome etc. In addition, Chinese patent medicines including Shuanghuanglian Oral liquid, Lianhua Qingwen Capsule, Jinhua Qinggan Granule and Taiwan Chingguan Yihau are recognized as plausible agents for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia. The antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of selected Chinese herbal drugs may attribute to their inhibiting the binding of the coronavirus spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, inhibiting key enzymes such as 3-chymotrypsin-like protease and ribonucleic acid (RNA)- dependent RNA polymerase during viral replication, and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since most of the relevant studies mentioned the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of these agents were only in vitro and animal experiments, more randomized double-blind controlled trials are needed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy in future.

12.
Flora ; 27(2):317-323, 2022.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033380

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although there is limited data on the frequency of nosocomial infections in patients followed up in the intensive care unit due to COVID-19, the rate of empirical antibiotic use in these patients is quite high. In our study, it was planned to determine the frequency of nosocomial infections in patients hospitalized in intensive care units due to COVID-19, the pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, and to investigate the characteristics of these infections. Materials and Methods: Our study is a retrospective study in which the records of 590 adult patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 intensive care unit and followed prospectively between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 were examined. Results: In our study, nosocomial infection developed in 7.28% of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit due to COVID-19, and mortality was 93% in patients who developed nosocomial infections. Of these infections, 67.44% were lower respiratory tract infections, 25.58% were bloodstream infections, and 6.97% were urinary tract infections. While the median number of toatl hospital stay was 20 days, the median time since admission to infection was 12 days. Infections often developed with a single microorganism, and the most frequently isolated microorganisms are A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Conclusion: Nosocomial infections that develop in patients followed in the intensive care unit due to COVID-19, are seen in approximately 7% of patients, but are mortal. In this patient group, regular microbiological follow-up and implementation of strict infection control measures especially for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia;It is recommended to review the antibiotics frequently used in the follow-up and treatment of COVID-19 and to be selective in the decision to start empirical antibiotics in order to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance.

13.
Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery ; 26(3):S8-S10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033231

ABSTRACT

People affected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can have a wide variety of symptoms. Literature and public discussion forums report persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. More than 25% of COVID-19 survivors report hair loss as a persisting issue. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that hair loss as a potential long-term effect of COVID-19 is currently under investigation. This report may be the first case of hair loss in the patient with postCOVID-19 infection in Saudi Arabia.

15.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2032815

ABSTRACT

ImportanceTargeted analgosedation is a challenge in critically ill children, and this challenge becomes even more significant with drug shortages. ObservationsPublished guidelines inform the provision of analgosedation in critically ill children. This review provides insights into general approaches using these guidelines during drug shortages in Pediatric Intensive Care Units as well as strategies to optimize both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in these situations. Conclusions and relevanceConsidering that drug shortages are a recurrent worldwide problem, this review may guide managing these drugs in critically ill children in situations of scarcity, such as in pandemics or disasters.

16.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A53-A54, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032500

ABSTRACT

Background Nottinghamshire Hospice's day therapy unit closed its doors to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Government advice was supporting discharge from hospital wherever possible (NHS England and NHS Improvement, 2020). When asked, more than four in five people say they would prefer to die at home (Hoare, Morris, Kelly, et al., 2015). Patients receiving care from specialist palliative care teams tend to do better than those without (Higginson & Evans, 2010). Aims To expedite the discharge of patients at end-of-life from hospital and prevent unnecessary hospital admission for those in the community so that more people achieve their preferred place of death (PPD) with the provision of a dedicated palliative care service. Methods March-May 2020: consultations with fast track continuing care (FTCC), model planning, internal consultation, workforce transformation. May-July 2020: recruitment, service launch. July-March 2021: continuous service provision. We worked closely alongside FTCC to support patients either in hospital that wished to come home but needed a package of care or, patients that were deteriorating at home and required end-of-life care. An initial assessment by a registered nurse from the Hospice Outreach Discharge Support (HODS) team meant more timely referral into extended palliative community services including provision of specialist equipment and access to other hospice services e.g. bereavement support. It also focuses on the completion of EPaCCS and ReSPECT forms identifying PPD. Results Number of patients treated by HODS May 20 - March 21 = 195. 64% (124) died at home. 23% (44) remained well enough to be discharged to domiciliary care agency. 10% (20) admitted to hospital. 3% (6) admitted to nursing home. Average length of stay on HODS = 10 days PPD achieved = 95.87% [4] Conclusion The creation of HODS allows more people at end-of-life to remain in their PPD and with greater access to support services preventing carer burnout and unnecessary admission to hospital.

17.
Anaesthesia ; 77:13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032350

ABSTRACT

Paediatric anaesthesia is already challenging for many anaesthetists, and the addition of a COVID-19-positive patient heightens the challenge even further as it puts an imminent risk to the operating room staff during an aerosol-generating procedure [1]. This report describes the anaesthetic management during the endoscopic removal of a coin in the oesophagus of a 7-year-old COVID-19-positive child. Description A 7-year-old male patient was brought to the emergency department by his parents after difficulty swallowing. The patient claimed to have swallowed a coin about 8 h before admission. The patient had nausea and throat pain;however, was still able to drink liquids. A chest X-ray confirmed a circular metal object was lodged between the C6 and C7 vertebrae. Routine testing of the patient resulted in a positive COVID-19 reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The patient and his family were consulted for a foreign-body extraction. Pre-operative preparation was performed in a special COVID-19 suite where negative-pressure operating theatres and extra cleaning protocols were in place. The entire operating team changed into personal protective equipment consisting of a full gown, N95 respirator, face shield and shoe covers. The patient was provided a gargle solution consisting of 1% povidone-iodine and saline. Rapid sequence induction was carried out with propofol and rocuronium. The patient was intubated using an endotracheal tube, and anaesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane. The surgical staff successfully removed the coin from the patient's oesophagus using forceps. The patient was given fentanyl and uneventfully extubated and transferred to the COVID-19 post-anaesthetic care unit. The operating room staff disrobed according to hospital protocols. Discussion Paediatric patients are only a minority of COVID-19 patients, and they are more likely to present asymptomatically [2]. This puts both patients and staff at risk. Paediatric patients further complicate the risk of spread as they are more likely to refuse to wear surgical masks, may require the presence of a parent/guardian, and may suffer from more anxiety related to an operation, further enhancing aerosol production [1]. This patient was given a 1% povidone-iodine gargling solution to reduce transmission to operating staff, as well as midazolam preoperatively to prevent crying related to anxiety and a bolus dose of fentanyl prior to extubation to prevent coughing. These steps were taken to provide a safe procedure for both patients and staff.

18.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032338

ABSTRACT

Objective: Some infectious diseases spread very fast, viruses such as COVID-19, once infected, do great harm to human body. In order to control the spread of infectious diseases, it is necessary to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases for research, understand the nature of infectious diseases and take reasonable measures to prevent them. However, in some places where infectious diseases with great transmission power have occurred, such as hospitals, sending personnel to collect microbial samples is in danger of being infected. In order to reduce this risk, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) can be used to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases. Low altitude UAV has the advantages of low cost, high flexibility and easy rapid deployment. Methods: Using wireless communication technology to control the UAV cluster network is a common method of UAV wireless remote control. With its flexible flight characteristics and good channel characteristics, UAV can stay in the air for a long time, and can also be used as an air base station to provide various communication services. If an infectious disease occurs in an area, then use the aviation UAV to enter the highly dangerous infectious disease area. The UAV is equipped with corresponding sensors to identify the specific situation of the disease, and then use special tools to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases, Including exudates, secretions, tissues, various disease body fluids, etc., for researchers to analyze the nature of infectious disease samples. Results: Various infectious diseases with high infectivity, such as COVID-19, are easy to spread. For this highly infectious virus, even if people use appropriate equipment and preventive measures, they may still be infected. The collection of microbial samples of infectious diseases by aviation UAV can prevent the staff from directly contacting with the virus of infectious diseases. This way improves the safety of the staff, which is a very effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Conclusion: Taking advantage of the flexibility of aerial UAV, some microbial samples with highly infectious diseases are collected, which is not only suitable for areas with infectious diseases, but also suitable for hospital wards and other places. Infectious diseases always have certain transmission routes and conditions, infectious diseases can be transmitted in many ways. The same infectious disease can be transmitted in many different ways. Respiratory infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, are mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract. Pathogens exist in the air or form aerosols, forming an air transmission characteristic. Once inhaled into the body, healthy people may be infected. However, as long as we master the mode of transmission of diseases and pay due attention to prevention, we can eliminate the occurrence of infectious diseases. In some areas with poor sanitary conditions and poor hygiene habits, there are more cases of infectious diseases. Therefore, for the prevention of various infectious diseases, especially COVID-19 viruses, we must strengthen personal disinfection, strictly isolate the source of infection, and make reasonable arrangements in management measures to reduce the occurrence of infectious cases.

19.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032333

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is still recurring so far. Considering that a great number of patients do examination in the same room and thus are exposed to high risks of cross infection, we should promote the epidemic prevention in the radiology department to prevent cross infection and another outbreak. Therefore, this article aims to share the experience and protocols of the radiology department of our hospital so as to help more hospitals and their radiology medical staff in epidemic prevention. Methods: We firstly collected three major epidemic prevention policies formulated by the radiology department since the outbreak, and then drew the schematic diagrams of patients' treatment routes under each measure, including the infection control team, the reconfiguration of the radiology department and the Examination procedures for patients with COVID-19. After three stages, we finally provide a specific machine for patients with COVID-19 to examine. Results: From January 18, 2020, our hospital has received 113 patients with COVID-19, among which 112 patients were discharged and 1 were dead. The total number of outpatients with fever-CT examinations was 2870, that of inpatients were 477. The number of DR exposures was 87, that of US examinations were 207, and that of MRI examinations was 148. No medical workers in the radiology department were diagnosed with COVID-19. Conclusions: Imaging examination has been an indispensable diagnostic method for COVID-19 since the outbreak. As the global epidemic situation is still unstable at present, radiology departments need to constantly improve the corresponding epidemic prevention and control measures, and formulate effective inspection plans for the patients with COVID-19, which can help patients and staff protect themselves against a high risk of COVID-19.

20.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(10): 2253-2266, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032022

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally, higher levels of PA, ET, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are correlated with reduced risk of CVD, including myocardial infarction, CVD-related death, and all-cause mortality. Although exact details regarding the ideal doses of ET, including resistance and, especially, aerobic ET, as well as the potential adverse effects of extreme levels of ET, continue to be investigated, there is no question that most of the world's population have insufficient levels of PA/ET, and many also have lower than ideal levels of CRF. Therefore, assessment and promotion of PA, ET, and efforts to improve levels of CRF should be integrated into all health professionals' practices worldwide. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the exercise effects on many areas related to CVD, from basic aspects to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Risk Factors
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