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1.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097255

ABSTRACT

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic has progressed, numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2 have arisen, with several displaying increased transmissibility. Methods: The present study compared dose-response relationships and disease presentation in nonhuman primates infected with aerosols containing an isolate of the Gamma variant of SARS-CoV-2 to the results of our previous study with the earlier WA-1 isolate of SARS-CoV-2. Results: Disease in Gamma-infected animals was mild, characterized by dose-dependent fever and oronasal shedding of virus. Differences were observed in shedding in the upper respiratory tract between Gamma- and WA-1-infected animals that have the potential to influence disease transmission. Specifically, the estimated median doses for shedding of viral RNA or infectious virus in nasal swabs were approximately 10-fold lower for the Gamma variant than the WA-1 isolate. Given that the median doses for fever were similar, this suggests that there is a greater difference between the median doses for viral shedding and fever for Gamma than for WA-1 and potentially an increased range of doses for Gamma over which asymptomatic shedding and disease transmission are possible. Conclusions: These results complement those of previous studies, which suggested that differences in exposure dose may help to explain the range of clinical disease presentations observed in individuals with COVID-19, highlighting the importance of public health measures designed to limit exposure dose, such as masking and social distancing. The dose-response data provided by this study are important to inform disease transmission and hazard modeling, as well as to inform dose selection in future studies examining the efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines in animal models of inhalational COVID-19.

2.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 275-340,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082391

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are present in most animal species. Some animals may then serve as a reservoir or intermediate hosts of viruses causing mild or severe to fatal diseases in humans and other animals. Infected humans may also transmit coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV)-2, to animals, including captive endangered animal species. This chapter focuses on coronaviruses of wild and semidomesticated animals, including viruses from bats, rodents, nonhuman primates, ferrets, minks, and rabbits. The ability of coronaviruses to rapidly mutate and to exchange their genetic material with other coronaviruses leads to the production of variants able to infect and adapt to new host species. Special attention is given to coronaviruses of bats and rodents since they appear to have hosted ancestral coronaviruses that indirectly lead to zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic human viruses, including SARS-CoV, the closely related SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East respiratory syndrome virus. The RNA genomes of several bat coronaviruses, such as WIV1 and WIV16, are very similar to SARS-CoV. Coronaviruses in animals primarily cause severe disease in the respiratory, central nervous, and digestive systems but may damage other organ systems as well. Further studies on wildlife coronaviruses are advisable to avoid human epidemics or pandemics as well as to protect endangered animal species.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071929

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for a broad-spectrum and protective vaccine due to the emergence and rapid spreading of more contagious SARS-CoV-2 strains. We report the development of RBMRNA-176, a pseudouridine (Ψ) nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccine encoding pre-fusion stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ectodomain, and evaluate its immunogenicity and protection against virus challenge in mice and nonhuman primates. A prime-boost immunization with RBMRNA-176 at intervals of 21 days resulted in high IgG titers (over 1:819,000 endpoint dilution) and a CD4+ Th1-biased immune response in mice. RBMRNA-176 vaccination induced pseudovirus-neutralizing antibodies with IC50 ranging from 1:1020 to 1:2894 against SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped wild-type and variant viruses, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Kappa. Moreover, significant control of viral replication and histopathology in lungs was observed in vaccinated mice. In nonhuman primates, a boost given by RBMRNA-176 on day 21 after the prime induced a persistent and sustained IgG response. RBMRNA-176 vaccination also protected macaques against upper and lower respiratory tract infection, as well as lung injury. Altogether, these findings support RBMRNA-176 as a vaccine candidate for prevention of COVID-19.

4.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:16, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716597

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, regular handwashing, and self-isolation are being touted as preventive measures to tackle the spread of COVID-19. But, for the majority of Indians, complying with such norms are privileges that they cannot afford.

5.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

6.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2057220

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the most important healthcare and social challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression and quality of life among women with chronic pain during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

7.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):11-27, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory disease with a high prevalence. According to the research and statistical data, in January 2021, there have been 92,262,621 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than two million deaths. Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the main cause of this disease. In addition to the respiratory system, the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract, central-peripheral nervous system, circulatory system, and kidneys. Therefore, any therapeutic action to reduce COVID-19-related symptoms and complications is essential. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature and preprints on the efficacy of erythropoietin (EPO) and recombinant human EPO as a safe stimulant and tissue protector in the treatment of COVID-19. We also briefly described the structure of coronavirus, its pathogenesis, and the structure of EPO and recombinant human EPO. All relevant articles published in the Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched. According to the results, EPO is a cytoprotective cytokine induced by hypoxia. The pleiotropic effects of EPO are associated with its erythrocyte-forming, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory activities. It also exerts protective effects on the heart, lungs, kidneys, arteries, and central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been demonstrated that EPO can increase hemoglobin levels, thereby increasing oxygen delivery to the tissues. Therefore, recombinant human EPO therapy can be used for counteracting the adverse effects of COVID-19 including hypoxic myocarditis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, and brain-spinal cord ischemic injury. Overall, the use of EPO and recombinant human EPO therapy increases blood coagulation, tumor growth, thromboembolism, and purification of red blood cells, which must be accompanied by anticoagulants such as heparin.

8.
Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences ; 30(2), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057029

ABSTRACT

The current study sought to examine the clinical, laboratory, and imaging aspects of COVID-19-positive critically sick patients who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at three hospitals in Rash City, Iran. The goal of this retrospective study was to examine 138 COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized to the intensive care unit. Data on the study participants' demographics, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and prognosis of the diseases were taken from their medical records. 138 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalised to the intensive care unit were the subject of this retrospective analysis. Patient records were used to extract information about the patient, including demographic details, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and disease outcomes. The majority of the patients in this study were male and between the ages of 55 and 69. The most prevalent underlying conditions were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic heart disease;the most prevalent symptoms were shortness of breath, fever, and cough. The most prevalent lung Computer Tomography (CT) scan finding was ground glass opacities, and the most frequent laboratory findings in the study participants were an increase in LDH, ESR, CRP, neutrophil percentage, and lymphopenia. A 90.58% fatality rate was recorded. This study showed that the majority of patients with severe disease presentations were older, had a history of underlying disease, symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, and fever, substantial lung involvement in imaging, and altered laboratory findings. Despite medical treatment and mechanical ventilation, mortality remained high.

9.
Revista de Investigacion en Agroproduccion Sustentable ; 6(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056879

ABSTRACT

Efficiency in shrimp farming is due to the use of an extensive system that includes fewer larvae per pool, which increases productivity, improves financial results, and even the environmental impacts generated during these operations. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect supply in the Ecuadorian shrimp sector. To this end, some statistical techniques such as linear regression and hypothesis testing were used. A bibliographic study was carried out regarding shrimp production in Ecuador, taking as reference the data provided by the National Chamber of Aquaculture and public control entities and reviewing the unprecedented impact on the current COVID19 sanitary crisis and the reduction of shrimp demand affecting Ecuador's income. Finally, it was observed that the research variables considered directly impact crustacean production, and a mathematical model was established.

10.
Dermatologia, Revista Mexicana ; 66(2):196-204, 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in a period of 3 months after COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective and longitudinal study done from October 1st to November 30th, 2020, in which patients older than 18 years, recovered from COVID-19, were evaluated from day 14 to day 90 after the infectious process. RESULTS: There were included 204 patients (113 women and 91 men);51% of patients developed symptoms and hair loss was the most frequent of them, followed by itching and xerosis. Telogen effluvium was the most frequent diagnosis (29.4%), with a mean disease onset of 39.15 days;11.6% developed rash, the most common was the morbilliform and papulosquamous rash. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent form of cutaneous affection in postinfectious period of COVID-19 is telogen effluvium;however, it is possible to find other manifestations, such as xerosis cutis and rash.

11.
Dermatologia, Revista Mexicana ; 66(1):16-24, 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic, the use of multiple products for disinfection and prevention of COVID-19 transmission was widespread, many of them topically administered. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with the perception and use of topical products for the prevention of COVID-19 in Peruvian populations., MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data analysis was done applying a survey to Peruvian adults, who were asked about the belief or use of different products, according to whether they believed in or used at least one of them. In addition, the association was sought according to socio-educational and occupational characteristics. RESULTS: There were included 3509 participants. The product that they perceived the most that could prevent COVID-19 was the mixture of 4% sodium hypochlorite, vinegar and alcohol (37%), but the one they used the most was 4% sodium hypochlorite (11%). In the multivariate analysis, it was found that women were those who had a positive perception of the topical use of these products (p value < 0.001), adjusted for the marital status of the respondents. However, when the use was analyzed, women were the ones who used these products the least (p value = 0.028), those who were working used these products the most (p value = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the Peruvian population does not perceive or use topical products to prevent COVID-19.

12.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):80-96, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056737

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2'-O-methyltransferase is responsible for the capping of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and consequently the evasion of the host's immune system. This study aims at identifying prospective natural inhibitors of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 2'O-methyltransferase (2'-OMT) through an in silico approach. Materials and Method: The target was docked against a library of natural compounds obtained from edible African plants using PyRx - virtual screening software. The antiviral agent, Dolutegravir which has a binding affinity score of -8.5 kcal mol-1 with the SARS-CoV-2 2'-OMT was used as a standard. Compounds were screened for bioavailability through the SWISSADME web server using their molecular descriptors. Screenings for pharmacokinetic properties and bioactivity were performed with PKCSM and Molinspiration web servers respectively. The PLIP and Fpocket webservers were used for the binding site analyses. The Galaxy webserver was used for simulating the time-resolved motions of the apo and holo forms of the target while the MDWeb web server was used for the analyses of the trajectory data.

13.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):55-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056736

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the frontline of the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design guided the study. Census method guided the recruitment of all the 378 nurses in the hospital who met the study's inclusion criteria.

14.
Saude e Pesquisa ; 14(2):333-340, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056619

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of COVID-19 according to the positivity of the rapid tests and the associated factors in the population of the state of Para. This is a cross-sectional, analytical, retrospective study, developed with cases of COVID-19 in individuals notified and residing in the state of Para. Information was collected on the State Transparency Portal. Positivity for rapid tests of the disease was considered as the outcome variable. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify associations between variables. The incidence of COVID-19 was 46% (95% CI: 45.7-46.2). Being male, over 80 years old and waiting 22 days or more to perform the tests after the onset of symptoms increased the chances for a positive result. It can be concluded that there is a high incidence of COVID-19 in the state. Non-pharmacological measures and case tracking strategies are important alternatives to mitigate the pandemic.

15.
Saude e Pesquisa ; 14(2):247-259, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056618

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the quality of life (QOL) of dental students in the 2019 Coronavirus Disease pandemic (COVID-19). A cross-sectional study was carried out with undergraduate students in Dentistry from Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the state of Ceara, Brazil. Data collection took place in May 2020, online, using questionnaires with sociodemographic, course-related and behavioral variables, in addition to the World Health Organization Questionnaire for Quality of Life-bref (WHOQOL-bref). Multinomial logistic regression was performed. 864 students participated in this study. Variables such as higher income (p = 0.034), having religion (p = 0.010), having health insurance (p = 0.005), satisfaction with sleep quality (p < 0.001), absence of insomnia (p < 0.001) and practicing physical activity always (p < 0.001) were associated with greater satisfaction regarding QOL. The QoL of dental students was classified in the dissatisfaction category, being perhaps impacted by the pandemic of COVID-19. Variables that reflected a more economically favorable living condition were associated with satisfaction with the quality of life of this public in the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(7):1061-1065, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056575

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate mental health and its associated factors in college students during COVID-19 confinement in campus, and to provide a scientific basis for mental health education.

17.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(7):1055-1060, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056574

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the prevalence and related factors of depressive symptoms in Chinese college students before and after the COVID-19 epidemic and to provide a reference for mental health education and management.

18.
Journal of Chongqing Medical University ; 45(7):1031-1033, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056460

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of sterilization and disinfection procedures at two different levels before entering the residence of medical rescue teams fighting against coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in infection prevention and control. A total of 160 medical team members who came from our hospital to aid Wuhan were taken as study objects. During that period implementing two different procedures, their temperature, health condition, nucleic acid testing results and adverse reports were analyzed. The number of adverse reports was 0 during 10 days when high-intensity disinfection procedures were implemented. Before the simplified procedure put into use, there were 8 cases about psychological acceptance in the first seven days;the simplified procedure was carried out when there was no adverse reports 7 days later. During the isolation period, the body temperature was monitored twice a day, without any abnormality;two nucleic acid testing results were both negative. The simplified process is a more scientific and reasonable disinfection process. Confronted with the prevention and control of the COVID-19, we must maintain a scientific and rational attitude and adopt right and reasonable measures, which is more conducive to security.

19.
Journal of Chongqing Medical University ; 45(7):1019-1022, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056459

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the chest imaging finding of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in rehabilitation period. The clinical and imaging data of 80 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed as common type by the First People's Hospital of Xiaogan City, Hubei Province from 21 January 2020 to 23 February 2020 were collected. The discharge standard of the convalescent stage contained body temperature returned to normal over 3 days, significant improvement of respiratory tract symptoms and obviously absorbed inflammation as well as two negative consecutive respiratory tract pathogenic nucleic acid tests showed by the pulmonary imaging. HRCT manifestations of patients were dynamically observed and were compared with those at the time of admission. Typical syndrome and lesion distribution and morphology at convalescence stage were observed. HRCT of COVID-19 patients in convalescent period showed that the absorption of "fly swatter breaking sign" and "water inclusion sign" was decreased, with earlier and more obvious absorption of water inclusion sign. Compared with HRCT at the time of admission, localized patchy ground glass foci in the dorsolateral or posterior basal segments of both lungs, multi segmented ground glass density foci and diffusely distributed ground glass foci in the convalescent stage were obvious, the remaining interlobular interstitial and interlobular septal thickening, subpleural are shadow and irregular fibrous cord shadow foci among some patients were found and no obvious mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion were found. The decrease of absorption of "broken fly swatter sign" and "wrapped water pipe sign" is a typical manifestation of the improvement of the general COVID-19 in the rehabilitation period. In the rehabilitation period, the discharged patients often left ground glass like changes, thickening of interlobular septum and/or interlobular septum, subpleural are shadow and residual interstitial inflammation. Only by popularizing HRCT in the clinical follow-up can effectively observe the dynamic changes of residual lesions, reduce the residual lesions and lower the risk of developing interstitial fibrosis.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 35(3):344-350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056451
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