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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343325

ABSTRACT

For over twenty-five years, the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) has undermined the constitutional rights of incarcerated people. For people behind bars and their allies, the PLRA makes civil rights cases harder to bring and harder to win—regardless of merit. We have seen the result in the wave of litigation relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Beginning March 2020, incarcerated people facing a high risk of infection because of their incarceration, and a high risk of harm because of their medical status, began to bring lawsuits seeking changes to the policies and practices augmenting the danger to them. Time and again, courts have thrown cases out based on the PLRA —especially, on the PLRA’s instruction to dismiss civil rights cases unless “such administrative remedies as are available are exhausted” (that is, unless the incarcerated plaintiff worked the complaint all the way through the prison’s or jail’s grievance system). The pandemic has exposed a particularly egregious problem: the mismatch between a mandate to use internal grievance systems and those grievance systems’ systemic inability to address emergency situations. Here, we propose three solutions. First, incarcerated plaintiffs should be allowed to proceed with their federal lawsuits if the press of an emergency renders a prison’s or jail’s grievance system “unavailable” because it is unable to process their complaint quickly enough to offer any relief. As we describe below, this is already the right answer under existing case law—but so far, many district courts have declined to follow this path. The second proposal focuses on possible actions at the state and local levels, because it is corrections agencies, not the PLRA, that determine what procedures must be exhausted or whether the defense is raised in litigation. Any prison or jail unhappy with allowing incarcerated plaintiffs to proceed in federal court or amenable to allowing them to access court quickly in emergency circumstances could implement working emergency grievance systems. We provide some parameters to guide any such system. In addition, state legislatures could enact legislation forfeiting or waiving the exhaustion defense in cases seeking emergency relief. The third solution addresses the reluctance of district judges to excuse non-exhaustion when they should;we propose that the PLRA be amended to pretermit the “availability” inquiry by eliminating the statutory exhaustion requirement in emergency situations. We offer suggested legislative text to accomplish this end.

2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022924

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSaliva molecular tests have shown a similar sensitivity and specificity compared to nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected Lombardy prisons, generating the need for extensive contact tracing activities and for detecting asymptomatic carriers. The availability of a less invasive test in a setting that hosts a high-risk and often hard-to-reach population, suggests its possible use in prisons. MethodsThe study was carried out on a population of new incomers in Milan San Vittore pre-trial prison. All the new incomers were submitted to quarantine and to saliva test and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) for SARS-CoV-2 detection at the entry and at the end of quarantine before their admission in community (Protocol 1-February 2(nd) to March 5(th), 2021). Starting from March 8(th) to July 30(th), 2021, the screening protocol was adjusted to avoid biases in sample collection (Protocol II), and saliva testing was performed at entrance. Results12/1,120 enrolled subjects were excluded from the study. Among the 1,080 processed samples, 1 tested positive, 5 weakly positive, 1,069 negative, 3 were invalid, and 2 samples tested positive for the viral gene N2 only, with Ct value above 38. During Protocol I, 6/156 coupled saliva/NPS tests were discordant due to food ingestion prior saliva collection, prompting us to establishing Protocol II. ConclusionsSaliva molecular testing is feasible in prison setting, being less invasive and easier to use, and reliable. Acceptability was very high even in a complex context as that of newly incarcerated persons.

3.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 80, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2015392

ABSTRACT

This review evaluates the state of academic literature on disaster resilience and sustainability of incarceration infrastructures, focusing on engineering and architecture. The increasing frequency and intensity of climate crises, including global pandemics and ecological disasters, and the rise of mass incarceration around the world makes such a review timely. We conducted six targeted searches to identify relevant journal articles and two additional searches for literature on resilience and sustainability of schools for comparison. We present data on the results for all search categories, including search terms and qualitative interpretation of the literature. For three of our searches, we present metadata on the specific intersection with incarceration infrastructures investigated, type of facility, and location. We supplement our database search with governmental and nongovernmental agency publications. The results of our search demonstrate a dearth in academic research published at the intersection of incarceration, disaster resilience, and sustainability. This gap in the literature signals a lack of attention and knowledge about the ways researchers and practitioners as well as governmental agencies can predict and mitigate the impact of disasters on incarcerated people's lives. Overall, this paper offers an introduction on the topic of resilience and sustainability of engineering and architectural design for incarceration infrastructure, as well as future areas for additional research including how engineers and architects can engage with questions of prison abolition and justice.

4.
Virginia Law Review ; 108(1):147-221, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2012851

ABSTRACT

Budget constraints, bipartisan desire to address mass incarceration, and the COVID-19 crisis in prisons have triggered state and federal officials to seek alternatives to incarceration. As a result, invasive electronic surveillance such as GPS-equipped ankle monitors, smartphone tracking, and suspicionless searches of electronic devices is often touted as a humane substitute for incarceration. This type of monitoring, which I term "punitive surveillance," allows government officials, law enforcement, and for-profit companies to track, record, search, and analyze the location, biometric data, and other meta-data of thousands of people on probation and parole. With virtually no legal oversight or restraint, punitive surveillance deprives people of fundamental rights, including privacy, speech, and liberty. Building on the critique that punitive surveillance is a form of racialized carceral control, this Article makes three contributions: First, drawing on original empirical research of almost 250 public agency records governing the operation of electronic ankle monitoring, this Article reveals non-obvious ways that punitive surveillance, like incarceration, strips people of basic rights and liberties. In particular, the records show how monitoring restricts movement, limits privacy, undermines family and social relationships, jeopardizes financial security, and results in repeated loss of freedom. Unlike traditional probation and parole, punitive surveillance is more intensive, restrictive, and dependent on private surveillance companies. Second, this Article explains how, and why, courts' labeling of such surveillance as a "condition" of punishment or a regulatory measure stems from a misunderstanding of this surveillance and punishment jurisprudence. Third, and most ambitiously, this Article raises the question of whether a fundamental rights analysis, a regulatory response, or an abolitionist approach is the most effective way of limiting if not outright eliminating punitive surveillance.

5.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2000807

ABSTRACT

Introduction:The US South is the epicenter of the epidemic of mass incarceration. Prisons have experienced substantial challenges in preventing COVID-19. Incarcerated individuals and prison staff are at a high risk for infection due to minimal available preventive measures. Prisons are not closed systems and many staff come from communities in close proximity to the facility. Characteristics of the communities immediately surrounding prisons are an overlooked but critical factor to better understand the role prisons play in pandemics.Methods:We used facility-level COVID-19 data from the COVID Prison Project to identify the number of unique outbreaks between May 2019 and May 2020. We used a county-level composite indicator of economic distress (DCI score) to identify the environment surrounding each prison (2015–2019). We modeled the number of outbreaks to DCI scores using negative binomial regression, adjusting for race/ethnicity (African American and Latino/Hispanic), age (65 and older), and rurality level.Results:Our sample included 570 prisons in 368 counties across 13 Southern states. We found that score was positively and significantly associated with prison COVID-19 outbreaks (aRR, 1.012;p < 0.0001), and rurality was potentially a stronger surrogate measure of economic distress (aRR, 1.35;p, 0.02). Economic stability is a key precursor to physical health. Poorer communities have been disproportionately impacted by the pandemic, and we found that prisons located in these communities were more susceptible to recurring outbreaks. Prison-based disease prevention interventions should consider the impact that the outside world has on the health of incarcerated individuals.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(10-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1989840

ABSTRACT

The intersection between criminal justice and technology is fairly understudied, despite increasing technological advancements in the world and within the criminal justice system. A rather recent addition to the technological landscape of prison is the adoption of tablets used by imprisoned people for communication and connection with loved ones and other activities, which is particularly important given the context of COVID-19, a virus which caused a global pandemic from 2020-2022. While the use of tablets by imprisoned people appears to be a new trend, the use of tablets in prison both prior to and during the pandemic has remained an untested phenomenon, not yet evaluated by social scientists. The dissertation sought to address this gap in literature by interviewing fifteen people formerly incarcerated in the Ohio State Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRC) and surveying a difficult to reach population, people currently incarcerated in ODRC (n=78), concerning their communication with loved ones using tablets and its meaning on their life and re-entry into society. The results of this study indicate that tablets are socially-situated in nature, and therefore the meaning of tablets depends upon the use of tablets by imprisoned people which is mediated by several factors concerning imprisoned people's individual and environmental contexts. The quantitative study indicates that imprisoned people's use and experience of tablets prior to and during COVID-19 is mediated by their demographic characteristics such as their age, parental status, marital status, and years served in prison, according to the quantitative study. The qualitative study indicates that several factors concerning imprisoned people's life inside of prison (e.g., technical glitches and correctional officers' attitudes) and outside of prison (e.g., their support system and financial standing) mediate their use of tablets in prison, and ultimately undermine the meaning of tablets for imprisoned people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X221110809, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986545

ABSTRACT

During COVID and lockdown, many prisoners have not only been affected by infection transmission in crowded and ill-equipped institutions, they have also been separated from a range of supports, including loss of family and professional supports and support for prisoners with addiction and/or mental health problems has been disrupted. This paper reports on evidence of how peer-based recovery organizations have attempted to mitigate these adverse effects, based on a case study of one prison in the North-West of England, using a range of routine reporting data and original research data. The paper shows how prison-based peer recovery support has not only continued through lockdown but grown both in the prison and in continuing care on release. The key conclusion is that Lived Experience Recovery Organizations (LEROs) have a vital role to play in offering continuing care to prison populations both to support early recovery and to sustain change around release back into the community, in COVID but also more generally.

8.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-341950

ABSTRACT

The closing of schools and reliance on virtual schools impacted all children. For historically marginalized children—children of color, children who are not fluent in English, children with disabilities, and children experiencing homelessness, the pandemic either continued or exacerbated the deprivation of federal protections that school districts are to provide to them. This Article will examine how educational disparities presented and persist during the COVID-19 pandemic, in Louisiana.

9.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1123-1125, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958265

ABSTRACT

The California Prison Industry Authority (CALPIA), a semiautonomous prison labor agency under the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, runs two optical laboratories operated by people incarcerated at Valley State Prison and California State Prison, Solano,1 and these laboratories supply ophthalmic lenses to eligible Medicaid recipients, such as this young patient. Documents we obtained through a public records request revealed that our state's public health agency, the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS), agreed to pay CALPIA up to $37.9 million for the 2021/22 fiscal year for optical services alone. CALPIA wages in prison-based optical shops range between $0.35 and $1.00 per hour,6 up to 55% of which can be deducted by law for restitution and administrative costs, resulting in an effective pay rate as low as $0.16 per hour.7 Courts have routinely rejected legal challenges to these meager wages by concluding that, because the Thirteen Amendment permits the involuntary servitude of incarcerated people, the federal minimum wage law does not apply to prison labor.8 The result is a strange supply chain that is not always transparent or top of mind: medical devices produced by poorly paid imprisoned people are provided to the poorest members of free society, such as the infant who needed sight-saving glasses. Others have called for public health officials, researchers, and physicians to address the sprawling reach of the prison industrial complex.14 Medical providers could use their position of authority to advocate better pay and conditions for incarcerated workers who produce the very devices that providers prescribe.

10.
Health and Human Rights ; 24(1):117, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958099

ABSTRACT

Knight et al argue that pandemic treaty should include reporting in prisons. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic it was not hard to anticipate that transmission would be exacerbated in places where individuals were in close contact, ventilation systems were inadequate, and the availability of health care and prevention measures were limited. These conditions are all found in locations such as cruise ships, college dormitories, and prisons. Yet, while great effort was taken to prevent transmission in the first two of these settings, one was often overlooked: prisons. Despite overcrowding, communal meals, and frequent turn-over in detainees and staff, responses to COVID-19 in detention facilities--including jails, prisons, and immigration detention centers--were often limited, and actions taken to reduce risk and cases and deaths in detention were often unreported.

11.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(4): 281-291, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942950

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe existing evidence and identify future directions for intervention research related to improving HIV care outcomes for persons with HIV involved in the carceral system in the USA, a population with high unmet HIV care needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Few recent intervention studies focus on improving HIV care outcomes for this population. Successful strategies to improve care outcomes include patient navigation, substance use treatment, and incentivizing HIV care outcomes. Technology-supported interventions are underutilized in this population. Notable gaps in the existing literature include intervention research addressing HIV care needs for cisgender and transgender women and those under carceral supervision in the community. Future research should address existing gaps in the literature and respond to emergent needs including understanding how the changing HIV care delivery environment resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and the approval of new injectable ART formulation shape HIV care outcomes in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Patient Navigation , Transgender Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938755

ABSTRACT

Respecting the consent and confidentiality of a patient is an underlying element in establishing the patient's trust in the physician and, implicitly, obtaining the patient's compliance. In particular, cases of inmate patients require increased attention in order to fulfill this goal against a background of institutional interferences, which, in certain situations, may endanger the autonomy of the physician and their respect for the inmate's dignity. The purpose of this article is to depict the characteristics of consent and confidentiality in a prison environment, in special cases, such as hunger strikes, violent acts, HIV testing, COVID-19 measures, and drug use, bringing into focus the physician and the inmate in the context of the particular situation where the target is disciplining someone in order for them to conform to social and juridical norms. Respecting the dignity of the inmate patient requires an adequate approach of informed consent and confidentiality, depending on each case, considering the potential unspoken aspects of the inmate's account, which can be key elements in obtaining their compliance and avoiding malpractice claims.

13.
ZBORNIK PRAVNOG FAKULTETA SVEUCILISTA U RIJECI ; 43(2):411-429, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939692

ABSTRACT

The current sanitary emergency is not an unexpected event. At the beginning of 2020, COVID took the world by surprise;now, at the end of 2021, it is a problem we have to live with. The pandemic changed the notion of vulnerability, and it is necessary to equip support structures for the weakest subjects. The thesis is also confirmed in the relationship between criminal authority and people who, for various reasons, come into contact with it and who, due to the health measures, are in a situation of particular isolation and potential danger in terms of their own psycho-physical integrity. The concept of vulnerability takes on a new meaning: public authority has to take charge of the claims derived (albeit indirectly) from the health emergency. The inert conduct of states is reprehensible: it causes irreparable damage to individual rights, protected by supranational sources.

14.
JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL STUDIES ; 8(1):42-61, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939541

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess whether the declaration of the unconstitutional state of affairs by the Supreme Court, at the judgement of ADPF 347/DF, contributed to the improvement of the national prison system, especially after the onset of the pandemic. It intends to analyze the technique of structural litigation applied by Brazilian courts as a means capable of achieving a legitimate and effective intervention to solve complex public problems. From the research technique of bibliographic and documental review, data were extracted for analysis. The survey results indicate that, despite the success in recognizing the unconstitutional state of affairs, the recommendations and measures adopted by the Supreme Court were not sufficient to solve the problems of the criminal system, aggravated during the pandemic.

15.
The Journal of Southern History ; 88(3):605-609, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929206

ABSTRACT

In cooperation and consultation with the Southern Poverty Law Center, the SHA is building a database of historical experts who can speak to issues relevant to both organizations, including the history of disenfranchisement, hate crimes, and civil rights violations against all legally protected classes in the United States. SHA 2023 CALL FOR PAPERS Over the last few years, we have witnessed the flourishing of a deep conservatism in the South, from the embrace of former U.S. president Donald J. Trump's politics of resentment, to rampant voter suppression, to negative responses to COVID-19 restrictions and vaccine recommendations, to efforts to limit what can be taught in public schools about racism, to the undermining of abortion rights and gay rights. The SHA Program Committee invites proposals that will help us understand the landscape of employment, the rural/urban divide, the state of cultural conservatism, the rise of conservative political movements, and the development of political strategies deployed by conservatives in the region. What have been the relationships between conservatism and environmental transformation (including clearance of forest land to make room for plantation agriculture, the dredging of swamps to facilitate settlement, and environmental disasters such as oil spills)?

16.
Journal of Mens Health ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1929055

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on prisons across the world has been of much concern due to the increased risk of virus spread among a particularly vulnerable population. Efforts made to prevent spread of the virus have resulted in a range of restrictive measures with the aim of reducing contact between prisoners and staff. Unfortunately, restrictions have also resulted in increased time confined to cells, reduced occupation, and restricted access to services. The potential impact of this on a population that already presents with high rates of mental health difficulties requires consideration. Male prisoners may be at particularly high risk of experiencing negative outcomes. Methods: This study evaluated the impact of the pandemic and related changes upon the mental health of prisoners and staff within a male urban prison in the United Kingdom. A mixed methods approach with a convergent parallel design was used. Correlational and feature selection analysis was conducted on quantitative data. Qualitative data were subject to a thematic analysis. Findings were integrated at the point of summary and interpretation. Results: Prisoners and staff reported finding it hard to cope with changes and stressors associated with the pandemic. For prisoners, time spent locked in one???s cell with limited access to activities and support was associated with poor mental health outcomes, and salient themes emerged of feeling trapped, isolated and neglected. For staff, concerns about prisoner welfare and worry about catching the virus was associated with increased anxiety and worry. Additionally finding it hard to cope with constant changes at work and reduced staffing resulted in unhealthy coping behaviours such as drinking and smoking. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the implementation of additional restrictions, within the already restricted prison environment, has had a significant negative impact on the mental health of both prisoners and staff. The potential long-term mental health difficulties resulting from this require further investigation, as does the likely negative impact on staff wellbeing and staff turnover. The effects of the pandemic appear to have heightened an already desperate need to consider the mental health and wellbeing of prisoners and prison

17.
WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS & MOBILE COMPUTING ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1909873

ABSTRACT

In order to realize the security of prison perimeter, a prison perimeter intelligent monitoring system based on cloud intelligence technology is designed. Based on the multisupply chain collaboration framework, the prison network interface submodule and sniffer monitoring structure are connected on demand to complete the hardware execution environment of the prison perimeter intelligent monitoring system. Analyze the specific service mode of the cloud smart technology host, set the necessary cloud smart technology service monitoring protocol, judge the processing information parameters, select the prison perimeter remote communication port number, set the prison perimeter network IP address and password program, complete the construction of the software execution environment of the monitoring system, and intelligently monitor and track the abnormal conditions around the prison;combined with the relevant hardware and software structure, the design of prison perimeter intelligent monitoring system based on cloud intelligence technology is realized. The experimental results show that the DPI index of the designed system has an obvious upward trend, and the processing results are close to the original image results to avoid the impact caused by the change of monitoring scene.

18.
Journal of Criminal Psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1909127

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the use of low intensity in-cell workbooks within a psychological therapies service for male prisoners, an intervention adapted for use during the COVID-19 pandemic. It seeks to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing psychological distress, explore individuals’ progression through the service following engagement with the workbooks and, finally, to understand individual’s experiences of the intervention through evaluating feedback provided. Design/methodology/approach: CORE-10 scores from 66 male prisoners at a Category C prison were evaluated pre and post completion of an adapted in-cell workbook intervention, to explore the potential effectiveness of the intervention in reducing psychological distress. Qualitative feedback given by participants was also explored to understand individual’s experiences of engaging with the intervention. Findings: Evaluation of 66 male prisoners revealed significant reductions in psychological distress on the CORE-10. Findings demonstrated that over half of men included in the evaluation were “stepped-up” for further interventions as per the stepped-care treatment model. Feedback forms highlighted the value of the therapeutic relationship and a “something versus nothing” approach. Research limitations/implications: The paper considers several limitations to the research approach, of which future studies should seek to explore when carrying out similar research. Practical implications: The paper includes implications for the use of low intensity self-help interventions in prison psychological services, during a time when the provision of face-to-face interventions was limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value: The paper explores the use of self-help materials in psychological treatment settings, of which there is very little research on in prisons. In addition, the paper contributes to the body of research on psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

19.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901365

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The USA has a rapidly aging prison population that, combined with their poorer health and living conditions, is at extreme risk for COVID-19. The purpose of this paper is to compare COVID-19 mortality trends in the US prison population and the general population to see how mortality risk changed over the course of the pandemic. The authors first provide a national overview of trends in COVID-19 mortality; then, the authors assess COVID-19 deaths among older populations using more detailed data from one US state. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors used multiple publicly available data sets (e.g. Centers for Disease Control and prevention, COVID Prison Project) and indirect and direct standardization to estimate standardized mortality rates covering the period from April 2020 to June 2021 for the US and for the State of Texas. FINDINGS: While 921 COVID-19-related deaths among people in US prisons were expected as of June 5, 2021, 2,664 were observed, corresponding to a standardized mortality ratio of 2.89 (95%CI 2.78, 3.00). The observed number of COVID-19-related deaths exceeded the expected number of COVID-19-related deaths among people in prison for most of the pandemic, with a substantially widening gap leading to a plateau about four weeks after the COVID-19 vaccine was introduced in the USA. In the state population, the older population in prison is dying at younger ages compared with the general population, with the highest percentage of deaths among people aged 50-64 years. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: People who are incarcerated are dying of COVID-19 at a rate that far outpaces the general population and are dying at younger ages. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This descriptive analysis serves as a first step in understanding the dynamic trends in COVID-19 mortality and the association between age and COVID-19 death in US prisons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Prisons , United States/epidemiology
20.
BioLaw Journal ; 2021(3):401-414, 2021.
Article in English, Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893415

ABSTRACT

The introduction of telemedicine services in prison represents a fundamental opportunity to improve healthcare access by inmates and detainees, and thus to enhance the effectiveness of right to health. However, while in the US a number of penitentiaries are already offering remote healthcare assistance, the overall interest towards the development of telemedicine in prison in Europe is still scarce. As for the Italian context, the few attempts made at political level to foster the spread of telemedicine in prison have been ineffective. In addition, initiatives reported in this field are not adequately supported, which is a main hindrance to their stabilization in the routine practice. In this essay, the state-of-the-art in the field is drafted and an overview of the main risks and benefits of telemedicine in prison is provided. A specific attention is paid to the Italian situation, especially in the light of the implications posed by the advent of the health emergency provoked by CoViD-19 outbreak. © 2021

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