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1.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e357-e363, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated reduced risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in neurosurgical patients secondary to prophylaxis with both heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. The ability to monitor low-molecular-weight heparin by obtaining anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) serum levels provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of patients who have anti-Xa levels outside of the goal range (0.2-0.4/0.5 IU/mL) and investigate incidence of major bleeding and VTE. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted on neurosurgical patients receiving enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis between August 2019 and December 2020. Significance testing was conducted via Fisher exact test and independent samples t test. RESULTS: The study included 85 patients. Patients were less likely to have an anti-Xa level in the goal range if they were male, had a higher weight, or were morbidly obese. Three neuroendovascular patients (3.5%) experienced a major bleed. Serum anti-Xa levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced major bleeds compared with patients who did not (0.45 ± 0.16 IU/mL vs. 0.28 ± 0.09 IU/mL, P = 0.003). Patients with a supraprophylactic anti-Xa level (>0.5 IU/mL) were more likely to experience a major bleed (P = 0.005). One VTE event occurred: the patient experienced a pulmonary embolism with anti-Xa level at goal. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin dosing for VTE prophylaxis in neurosurgical patients may help prevent major bleeding. These data suggest that a higher anti-Xa level may predispose patients to major bleeding. Further evaluation is needed to identify the goal anti-Xa level for VTE prophylaxis in this population.


Subject(s)
Enoxaparin/blood , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/trends , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221074353, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650421

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although initial reports concentrated on severe respiratory illness, emerging literature has indicated a substantially elevated risk of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokine release has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and activation of coagulation pathways, as evident by elevated D-dimer levels and deranged coagulation parameters. Both macrovascular and microvascular thromboses have been described in observational cohort and post-mortem studies. Concurrently, preliminary data have suggested the role of therapeutic anticoagulation in preventing major thromboembolic complications in moderately but not critically ill patients. However, pending results from randomized controlled trials, clear guidance is lacking regarding the intensity and duration of anticoagulation in such patients. Herein, we review the existing evidence on incidence and pathophysiology of COVID-19 related thromboembolic complications and guide anticoagulation therapy based on current literature and societal consensus statements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
3.
J Interv Med ; 4(2): 62-65, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 or most commonly known as COVID-19 is a trending global infectious disease which a few months ago was affirmed as a global health emergency or a pandemic by the WHO Emergency Committee. The common symptoms manifested in this pandemic disease are high grade fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath and flu like symptom which can evolve into severe respiratory disorders such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or end-organ failure. Factors that contribute to the severity or high mortality rate in COVID-19 include old age, comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, neutrophilia, and organ and coagulation dysfunction. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and other various coagulopathies including Venous thromboembolism have known to become a major contributing factor to high mortality rate. Venous thromboembolism is a disease which is a combination of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prophylactic anticoagulation in patients prone to or with a pre-existing history of venous thromboembolism is associated with decreased mortality in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This review article focuses upon COVID-19 and increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients infected by COVID-19 along with the role it has in high mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(7): 513-520, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to evaluate central pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with Covid-19. The association with severe radiological pulmonary changes, prophylactic anticoagulation and ICU care was assessed. METHODS: From 1 March until 31 May 2020, all in-hospital patients with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2-RNA and PE diagnosed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography were identified through diagnostic codes in medical charts. PE was characterised as central/peripheral and unilateral/bilateral. Covid-19 related lung changes were evaluated scoring the proportion of affected lung (max-score score 25) for all five lobes in both lungs. ICU and non-ICU patients were included and anticoagulant regimens were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1162 patients with Covid-19, 41 were diagnosed with PE (cumulative incidence 3.5%), and of these 63.4% (=overall 2.2%) had central PE. PE on admission was present in 46.3%. No differences were seen in the distribution of central vs. peripheral PE in relation to prophylactic anticoagulation (p=.317). Of ICU patients 82.4% were diagnosed with central PE compared to 50.0% among non-ICU patients (p=.05). No association was observed between the presence of central PE and the extent of radiological Covid-19 changes (p=.451). Mild (0-12 p) and severe (13-25 p) pulmonary changes were seen in 63.4% and 36.6% of patients respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, and especially in ICU-patients, a high proportion of central PE was seen and many were diagnosed at admission. No association between central PE and prophylactic anticoagulation, or the extent of pulmonary Covid-19 changes was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 299-302, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597963

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to be associated with a heightened risk of thromboembolism. However, the risk associated with mild and moderate illness from COVID-19 is unknown, and there is no current recommendation for prophylaxis against thromboembolism in patients after hospital treatment, unless there are established thrombophilic risk factors. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with massive saddle pulmonary embolism 1 week after initial hospital discharge, which was treated successfully with thrombolysis. This case raises the question of whether extended prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered even in low-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Heart Disease/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Pulmonary Heart Disease/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy
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