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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 244: 114803, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104848

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease is one of the key targets for drug development against COVID-19. Most known SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors act by covalently binding to the active site cysteine. Yet, computational screens against this enzyme were mainly focused on non-covalent inhibitor discovery. Here, we developed a deep learning-based stepwise strategy for selective covalent inhibitor screen. We used a deep learning framework that integrated a directed message passing neural network with a feed-forward neural network to construct two different classifiers for either covalent or non-covalent inhibition activity prediction. These two classifiers were trained on the covalent and non-covalent 3CL protease inhibitors dataset, respectively, which achieved high prediction accuracy. We then successively applied the covalent inhibitor model and the non-covalent inhibitor model to screen a chemical library containing compounds with covalent warheads of cysteine. We experimentally tested the inhibition activity of 32 top-ranking compounds and 12 of them were active, among which 6 showed IC50 values less than 12 µM and the strongest one inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease with an IC50 of 1.4 µM. Further investigation demonstrated that 5 of the 6 active compounds showed typical covalent inhibition behavior with time-dependent activity. These new covalent inhibitors provide novel scaffolds for developing highly active SARS-CoV-2 3CL covalent inhibitors.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 244: 114853, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068912

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused worldwide the current outbreak called COVID-19. Despite multiple countermeasures implemented, there is an urgent global need for new potent and efficient antiviral drugs against this pathogen. In this context, the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential viral enzyme and plays a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription. Its specific cleavage of polypeptides after a glutamine residue has been considered as a key element to design novel antiviral drugs. Herein, we reported the design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel α-ketoamides as covalent reversible inhibitors of Mpro, exploiting the PADAM oxidation route. The reported compounds showed µM to nM activities in enzymatic and in the antiviral cell-based assays against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In order to assess inhibitors' binding mode, two co-crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in complex with our inhibitors were solved, which confirmed the covalent binding of the keto amide moiety to the catalytic Cys145 residue of Mpro. Finally, in order to interrogate potential broad-spectrum properties, we assessed a selection of compounds against MERS Mpro where they showed nM inhibitory potency, thus highlighting their potential as broad-spectrum coronavirus inhibitors.

3.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054709

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a contagious disease. Paxlovid, a combination of Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir, was granted emergency use authorization by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of COVID-19 on December 22, 2021. These are peptidomimetic coronavirus main protease inhibitors. Nirmatrelvir is a proline derivative. The present patent describes similar proline- like compounds, their preparation, use, and pharmaceutical composition, and treatment.

4.
Journal of Biotech Research ; 13:177-188, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033805

ABSTRACT

The 3C protease is distinguished from most proteases due to the presence of cysteine nucleophile that plays an essential role in viral replication. This peculiar structure encompassed with its role in viral replication has promoted 3C protease as an interesting target for therapeutic agents in the treatment of diseases caused by human rhinovirus (HRV). However, the molecular mechanisms surrounding the chirality of inhibitors of HRV 3C protease remain unresolved. Herein using in silico techniques such molecular dynamic simulation and binding free estimations via molecular mechanics poisson-boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA), we present a comprehensive molecular dynamics study of the comparison of two potent inhibitors, SG85 and rupintrivir, complexed with HRV3C protease. The binding free energy studies revealed a higher binding affinity for SG85 of 58.853 kcal/mol than that for rupintrivir of 54.0873 kcal/mol and this was found to be in correlation with the experimental data. The energy decomposition analysis showed that residues Leu 127, Thr 142, Ser 144, Gly 145, Tyr 146, Cys 147, His 161, Val 162, Gly 163, Gly 164, Asn 165, and Phe 170 largely contributed to the binding of SG85, whereas His 40, Leu 127, and Gly 163 impacted the binding of rupintrivir. The results further showed that His 40, Glu 71, Leu 127, Cys 147, Gly 163, and Gyl 164 were crucial residues that played a key role in ligand-enzyme binding, and amongst these crucial residues, His 40, Glu 71, and Cys 147 appeared to be conserved in the active site of HRV-3C protease when bound by both inhibitors. These findings provided a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics and structural features and would serve as guidance in the design and development of potent novel inhibitors of HRV.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(6): 511-524, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031555

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy (CPT). Materials and Methods: A series of subclass analyses were performed on the previously published outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Clinical Trial Registry of India, number CTRI/2020/05/025209). The subclass analyses were performed on the outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed RCT (patient recruitment between May 15, 2020 and October 31, 2020). Data on the plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines from the same cohort of patients were also used to characterize the heterogeneity of the putative anti-inflammatory function of convalescent plasma (CP) in addition to passively providing neutralizing antibodies. Results: Although the primary clinical outcomes were not significantly different in the RCT across all age groups, significant immediate mitigation of hypoxia, reduction in hospital stay, and significant survival benefit were registered in younger (<67 years in our cohort) patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and acute respiratory distress syndrome on receiving CPT. In addition to neutralizing the antibody content of CP, its anti-inflammatory proteome, by attenuation of the systemic cytokine deluge, significantly contributed to the clinical benefits of CPT. Conclusion: Subgroup analyses revealed that clinical benefits of CPT in severe coronavirus disease 2019 are linked to the anti-inflammatory protein content of CP apart from the anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibody content.

6.
Chembiochem ; 23(19): e202200327, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999838

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and potential novel epidemic coronaviruses underline the importance of investigating various viral proteins as potential drug targets. The papain-like protease of coronaviruses has been less explored than other viral proteins; however, its substantive role in viral replication and impact on the host immune response make it a suitable target to study. This review article focuses on the structure and function of the papain-like protease (PLpro ) of SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern, and compares it to those of other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. The protease's recognition motif is mirrored in ubiquitin and ISG15, which are involved in the antiviral immune response. Inhibitors, including GRL0617 derivatives, and their prospects as potential future antiviral agents are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papain , Aniline Compounds , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzamides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Humans , Naphthalenes , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry
7.
J Pharm Drug Res ; 3(2): 341-361, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989782

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 in February 2020 by World Health organization (WHO) was identified as main cause of SARS like pneumonia cases in Wuhan city in Hubei Province of China at the end of 2019. This been recently declared as Global Pandemic by WHO. There is a global emergency to identify potential drugs to treat the SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no specific treatment against the new virus. There is a urgency to identifying potential antiviral agents to combat the disease is urgently needed. An effective and quick approach is to test existing antiviral drugs against. Whole genome analysis and alignment carried out using BLASTn, SMART BLAST and WebDSV 2.0 had shown more than 238 ORF's coding for proteins mostly origin from Bat SARS coronavirus and root genomic origin from Archaea. Molecular docking results against protein targets Furin, papain like proteases, RdRp and Spike glycoprotein had shown paritaprevir, ritonavir, entecavir and chloroquine derivatives are the best drugs to inhibit multi targets of coronavirus infection including natural compounds corosolic acid, baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid with minimal inhibitory concentrations. Thus we propose use of paritaprevir, entecavir, ritonavir and chloroquine derivatives as best drug combination along with niacinamide, folic acid and zinc supplements to treat novel coronavirus infection. We also propose use of plant protease inhibitors (PI's) and Anti-IL8, IL-6, IL-2 as future drug models against coronavirus.

8.
Virology ; 574: 18-24, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984216

ABSTRACT

The global scourge of COVID-19 is a serious threat to public health, but effective therapies remain very limited for this disease. Therefore, the discovery of novel antiviral agents is urgently needed to fight against COVID-19. In the lifecycle of SARS-CoV-2, the causing pathogen of COVID-19, papain-like protease (PLpro) is responsible for the cleavage of polyprotein into functional units as well as immune evasion of vaccines. Hence, PLpro has been regarded as an attractive target to develop antiviral agents. Herein, we first developed a robust and simple sandwich-like fluorescence polarization (FP) screening assay for the discovery of PLpro inhibitors, and identified anacardic acid as a novel competitive inhibitor against PLpro in vitro with an IC50 value of 24.26 ± 0.4 µM. This reliable FP screening assay could provide a prospective avenue for rapid discovery of antiviral agents targeting PLpro in a large-scale screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Fluorescence Polarization , Humans , Papain , Peptide Hydrolases , Prospective Studies
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(10): 1354-1362.e6, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982767

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease (3CLpro) is an attractive therapeutic target, as it is essential to the virus and highly conserved among coronaviruses. However, our current understanding of its tolerance to mutations is limited. Here, we develop a yeast-based deep mutational scanning approach to systematically profile the activity of all possible single mutants of the 3CLpro and validate a subset of our results within authentic viruses. We reveal that the 3CLpro is highly malleable and is capable of tolerating mutations throughout the protein. Yet, we also identify specific residues that appear immutable, suggesting that these may be targets for future 3CLpro inhibitors. Finally, we utilize our screening as a basis to identify E166V as a resistance-conferring mutation against the clinically used 3CLpro inhibitor, nirmatrelvir. Collectively, the functional map presented herein may serve as a guide to better understand the biological properties of the 3CLpro and for drug development against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938685

ABSTRACT

Protease inhibitors are widely studied since the unrestricted activity of proteases can cause extensive organ lesions. In particular, elastase activity is involved in the pathophysiology of acute lung injury, for example during SARS-CoV-2 infection, while serine proteases and thrombin-like proteases are involved in the development and/or pathology of the nervous system. Natural protease inhibitors have the advantage to be reversible and with few side effects and thus are increasingly considered as new drugs. Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KTPIs), reported in the venom of various organisms, such as wasps, spiders, scorpions, and snakes, have been studied for their potent anticoagulant activity and widespread protease inhibitor activity. Putative KTPI anticoagulants have been identified in transcriptomic resources obtained for two blister beetle species, Lydus trimaculatus and Mylabris variabilis. The KTPIs of L. trimaculatus and M. variabilis were characterized by combined transcriptomic and bioinformatics methodologies. The full-length mRNA sequences were divided on the base of the sequence of the active sites of the putative proteins. In silico protein structure analyses of each group of translational products show the biochemical features of the active sites and the potential protease targets. Validation of these genes is the first step for considering these molecules as new drugs for use in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coleoptera , Animals , Coleoptera/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases
11.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911505

ABSTRACT

One inhibitor of the main SARS-CoV-2 protease has been approved recently by the FDA, yet it targets only SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Here, we discovered inhibitors containing thiuram disulfide or dithiobis-(thioformate) tested against three key proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication, including Mpro, SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro), and human cathepsin L. The use of thiuram disulfide and dithiobis-(thioformate) covalent inhibitor warheads was inspired by an idea to find a better alternative than disulfiram, an approved treatment for chronic alcoholism that is currently in phase 2 clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2. Our goal was to find more potent inhibitors that target both viral proteases and one essential human protease to reduce the dosage, improve the efficacy, and minimize the adverse effects associated with these agents. We found that compounds coded as RI175, RI173, and RI172 were the most potent inhibitors in an enzymatic assay against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, and human cathepsin L, with IC50s of 300, 200, and 200 nM, which is about 5-, 19-, and 11-fold more potent than disulfiram, respectively. In addition, RI173 was tested against SARS-CoV-2 in a cell-based and toxicity assay and was shown to have a greater antiviral effect than disulfiram. The identified compounds demonstrated the promising potential of thiuram disulfide or dithiobis-(thioformate) as a reactive functional group in small molecules that could be further developed for treatment of the COVID-19 virus or related variants.

12.
Biomedicines ; 10(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883997

ABSTRACT

During an emergency, such as a pandemic in which time and resources are extremely scarce, it is important to find effective and rapid solutions when searching for possible treatments. One possibility in this regard is the repurposing of available "on the market" drugs. This is a proof of the concept study showing the potential of a collaboration between two research groups, engaged in computer-aided drug design and control of viral infections, for the development of early strategies to combat future pandemics. We describe a QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) based repurposing study on molecular topology and molecular docking for identifying inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. The aim of this computational strategy was to create an agile, rapid, and efficient way to enable the selection of molecules capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 protease. Molecules selected through in silico method were tested in vitro using human coronavirus 229E as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Three strategies were used to screen the antiviral activity of these molecules against human coronavirus 229E in cell cultures, e.g., pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment. We found >99% of virus inhibition during pre-treatment and co-treatment and 90-99% inhibition when the molecules were applied post-treatment (after infection with the virus). From all tested compounds, Molport-046-067-769 and Molport-046-568-802 are here reported for the first time as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds.

13.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 12(10): 3924-3933, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881691

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses are critically dependent upon virally encoded proteases to cleave the viral polyproteins into functional proteins. Many of these proteases exhibit a similar fold and contain an essential catalytic cysteine, offering the opportunity to inhibit these enzymes with electrophilic small molecules. Here we describe the successful application of quantitative irreversible tethering (qIT) to identify acrylamide fragments that target the active site cysteine of the 3C protease (3Cpro) of Enterovirus 71, the causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in humans, altering the substrate binding region. Further, we re-purpose these hits towards the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 which shares the 3C-like fold and a similar active site. The hit fragments covalently link to the catalytic cysteine of Mpro to inhibit its activity. We demonstrate that targeting the active site cysteine of Mpro can have profound allosteric effects, distorting secondary structures to disrupt the active dimeric unit.

14.
Data Science for COVID-19: Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives ; : 397-422, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872866

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus family is as old as the 1930s when it first showed symptoms in chicken. The virus thereafter kept evolving and it has significantly taken over a large percentage of people worldwide in the form of this new pandemic. As of the present day, there is no treatment available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), although supportive therapy and preventive measures have shown a tremendous control rate among certain patients. Drugs like remdesivir, camostat, nafamostat, ritonavir/lopinavir, several monoclonal antibodies, and CPs are in their early phases of trials. There are approved by the WHO under an emergency use authorization program. Favipiravir has entered its phase 3 clinical trial and is supported by evidence to show no or less adverse effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine development is accelerating its pace, and vaccines will probably become available by the end of the year 2020. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

15.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(Suppl. 2):S202-S285, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863785

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 13 papers focusing on the effect of green tea extract in modulating the antibacterial activity of standard antibiotics against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, in silico screening of Ziziphus spina-christi and Strychnos ligustrine compounds as a proteinase inhibitor of SARS-COV-2, antioxidant and antifungal propterties of palu shallot (Allium ascalonicum var. aggregatum), probiotic properties and safety of lactic acid bactera isolated from South Sulawesi ethnic cheese, pharmacognostics of 2 Orthoshipon aristatus varieties and effect of honey consumption after physical exercises on electrolytes and blood sugar levels, among others.

16.
Virology ; 570: 18-28, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839384

ABSTRACT

The challenge continues globally triggered by the absence of an approved antiviral drug against COVID-19 virus infection necessitating global concerted efforts of scientists. Nature still provides a renewable source for drugs used to solve many health problems. The aim of this work is to provide new candidates from natural origin to overcome COVID-19 pandemic. A virtual screening of the natural compounds database (47,645 compounds) using structure-based pharmacophore model and molecular docking simulations reported eight hits from natural origin against SARS-CoV-2 main proteinase (Mpro) enzyme. The successful candidates were of terpenoidal nature including taxusabietane, Isoadenolin A & C, Xerophilusin B, Excisanin H, Macrocalin B and ponicidin, phytoconstituents isolated from family Lamiaceae and sharing a common ent-kaurane nucleus, were found to be the most successful candidates. This study suggested that the diterpene nucleus has a clear positive contribution which can represent a new opportunity in the development of SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Netw Model Anal Health Inform Bioinform ; 11(1): 11, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827293

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the causative organism for a pandemic disease with a high rate of infectivity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to assess the affinity between several available small molecule and proteins, including Abl kinase inhibitors, Janus kinase inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, and Papain-like protease inhibitors, using binding simulation, to test whether they may be effective in inhibiting COVID-19 infection through several mechanisms. The efficiency of inhibitors was evaluated based on docking scores using AutoDock Vina software. Strong ligand-protein interactions were predicted among some of these drugs, that included: Imatinib, Remdesivir, and Telaprevir, and this may render these compounds promising candidates. Some candidate drugs might be efficient in disease control as potential inhibitors or lead compounds against the SARS-CoV-2. It is also worth highlighting the powerful immunomodulatory role of other drugs, such as Abivertinib that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and the progression of COVID-19 infection. The potential role of other Abl kinase inhibitors, including Imatinib in reducing SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titers, immune regulatory function and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), indicate that this drug may be useful for COVID-19, as the SARS-CoV-2 genome is similar to SARS-CoV.

18.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820170

ABSTRACT

In the present work, and for the first time, three whey protein-derived peptides (IAEK, IPAVF, MHI), endowed with ACE inhibitory activity, were examined for their antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and Human Rhinovirus 3C protease (3Cpro) by employing molecular docking. Computational studies showed reliable binding poses within 3CLpro for the three investigated small peptides, considering docking scores as well as the binding free energy values. Validation by in vitro experiments confirmed these results. In particular, IPAVF exhibited the highest inhibitory activity by returning an IC50 equal to 1.21 µM; it was followed by IAEK, which registered an IC50 of 154.40 µM, whereas MHI was less active with an IC50 equal to 2700.62 µM. On the other hand, none of the assayed peptides registered inhibitory activity against 3Cpro. Based on these results, the herein presented small peptides are introduced as promising molecules to be exploited in the development of "target-specific antiviral" agents against SARS-CoV-2.

19.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(Suppl. 2):S208-S214, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818854

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by the coronavirus have become an important concern in early 2020. The coronavirus is a new type of virus that is included in the SARS-CoV-2 group. One of the possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inhibition involves protease receptors inhibition. This research was aimed to in silico screening of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., and Strychnos ligustrine active ingredients as the main protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 by assessing the ligand-binding affinity in the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease protein. The molecular docking method is generally used to predict the inhibitory site and bonds formation. In the current study, some generally used antiviral compounds from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) were also used to compare the affinity strength of the test compound against the protease receptor (code of 5R7Y). The inhibitory activity against the main protease receptor proven by the ChemPLP score is more negative than the receptor's native ligand and the comparison compounds. Jubanine B, a compound of Z. spina-christi has the most robust inhibition activity on the SARS-CoV-2 protease receptor. Results of this study can be concluded that this can be used to develop as a candidate for traditional medicine against SARS-CoV-2 but still it required some more in vitro and in vivo studies.

20.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 58: 128526, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814173

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted global economies and public health. Although vaccine development has been successful, it was not sufficient against more infectious mutant strains including the Delta variant indicating a need for alternative treatment strategies such as small molecular compound development. In this work, a series of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors were designed and tested based on the active compound from high-throughput diverse compound library screens. The most efficacious compound (16b-3) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition with an IC50 value of 116 nM and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro when compared to PLpro and RdRp. This new class of compounds could be used as potential leads for further optimization in anti COVID-19 drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/chemistry
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