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1.
Health Education ; 121(3):265-274, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the psycho-social aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pakistan. The study was conducted in Pakistan by using an online survey technique. The rationale to opt for this method was mainly based on the country's lock-down situations, social distancing and for the care of respondents. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,536 individuals participated from different parts of the country. An attitudinal scale was administered consisting of statements to measure (dis)agreement of the individuals facing the current situations of COVID-19. The ethical considerations and confidentiality of the respondents were opted by describing the purpose of research on the first page of the questionnaire. Findings: The study findings showed that the cost of personal protective equipment (PPE), social isolation and loss of intimacy have favourable positive effects on the psychological problems of individuals through the mediation of fake news and misinformation during COVID-19. Furthermore, the study findings were interpreted as per the effects of current situations of epidemic, i.e. COVID-19 on the psycho-social life of individuals. Research limitations/implications: This paper is purely limited to the quantitative approach including variables, i.e. COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. Practical implications: The present research will enhance the awareness and knowledge regarding psychological problems faced by the individuals during COVID-19. It will be a significant addition to the existing body of knowledge in the field of health and well-being. It will also provide guidelines to students, research scholars, policymakers and academicians to develop policies in future to improve the health of people during epidemics such as COVID-19 and similar nature of outbreak in the future. Originality/value: This paper focused on an important gap in the research on COVID-19 in the country in the context of COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Webology ; 19(2):4304-4314, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958316

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) as a pandemic affects all sectors including the dental and oral health service sector. To control the spread of COVID-19, the Government has implemented several Health protocols by issuing recommendations for safe dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic, namely by using level 3 PPE. A dentist and other medical personnel in carrying out their work have enormous duties and responsibilities to patients. This study aims to o assess how patient satisfaction is with the workload of medical personnel in the dental and oral health services of Makassar City during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is a descriptive-analytic study conducted at 3 dental and oral services in Makassar City by taking secondary data about the workload of medical personnel and looking for PRIM data through filling outpatient satisfaction questionnaires. The statistical analysis test used was the Chi-square test and continued with the multivariate logistic regression test. From the secondary data, the results of the workload figures in the dental and oral health services in Makassar showed that the three RSGMs had high workload criteria. The total number of respondents who filled out the patient satisfaction assessment questionnaire was 201 respondents. The results of statistical tests using Fisher's Exact Test showed that there was a relationship between clinical satisfaction and workload (p=0.000), non-clinical satisfaction with workload (p=0.044), and overall satisfaction with workload (p=0.015). The follow-up multivariate logistic regression test showed that the variables of clinical satisfaction, non-clinical satisfaction, and overall satisfaction had p-value = 0.008;p=0.825 and p=0.812. Patient satisfaction in dental and oral health services in Makassar City which consists of clinical services, non-clinical services, and overall services is related to the workload of medical personnel. Then, after further testing multivariate logistic regression, the variable patient satisfaction in clinical services has the strongest relationship with the workload of medical personnel

3.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1115-1119, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957939

ABSTRACT

Sadly, Celina's experience at the US border is not uncommon, although her ultimate admission to the United States is rare indeed. Because ofthe confluence of MPP and the 2020 invocation of 42 US Code 265 (hereafter "Title 42"), an obscure public health policy last updated in 1944, more than a million expulsions of migrants and asylum seekers occurred at the US border in fiscal year 2021 alone, contrary to international law.1 POLICY BACKGROUND The policy known today as Title 42 originated in a 1944 law called the Public Health Service Act, which (among other things) granted the federal government quarantine powers and the power to prevent the introduction of disease at the border. Robert Redfield, then director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), determined that introduction into congregate settings of persons from Canada or Mexico would increase the already serious danger to the public health of the United States to the point of requiring a temporary suspension of the introduction of covered aliens into the United States.3 The same order also noted the logistical challenges of preventing the transmission ofCOVID-19 at the border: Widespread, compulsory federal quarantines or isolations of such persons pending test results are impracticable due to the numbers of persons involved, logistical challenges, and CDC resource and personnel constraints.3 Although the US government did not have access to vaccines or rapid tests in March 2020, they need not have adopted such an extreme policy to protect the public's health. Given the barriers to effective implementation of PPE [personal protective equipment] and administrative controls to prevent the spread of [COVID-19] in immigration detention centers, an evidence-based public health approach suggests . . . the release of detainees from immigration detention centers, as this strategy will reduce the likelihood of person-to-person infection and enhance the possibility of engaging in meaningful social distancing and hygienic practices as directed by the CDC.4(p112) That the US government invoked Title 42 for those coming through land borders but instituted only temporary travel bans for other international travelers and did not institute interstate travel bans underscores how unnecessary these extreme measures truly were, even in the early days of COVID-19.5 In addition to the challenges posed by the use of Title 42 to prevent the entry of asylum seekers during COVID-19, MPP-often referred to as the Remain in Mexico program- creates additional barriers for migrants seeking to enter the United States.

4.
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 16(2):206-211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957668

ABSTRACT

Purpose: to analyze of the use of Covid-19 Personal Protective Equipment on health workers at Salewangang Hospital, Maros Regency. Methods: The type of research used is the analytical survey method of research conducted without intervention to the research subject. Data collection regarding free and dependent variables was carried out online using Google Form and the results of Google Form data collection Results: Availability of personal protective equipment has a significant effect on the behavior of using personal protective equipment Covid-19, Knowledge of health workers has a significant effect on behavior of using personal protective equipment Covid-19, Attitudes of health workers have a significant effect on behavior of using personal protective equipment Covid-19 in health workers at the Salewangang Hospital, Maros Regency with a sig. 0.000 Conclusion: there is a relation between personal equipment on helath workers at the sallewangan hospital at maros regency.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 157614, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956331

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic in December 2019, there have been global surges of single-use plastic use. Due to the importance of personal protective equipment (PPE) and sanitation items in protecting against virus transmission and from testing, facemasks, respirators, disposable gloves and disposable wet wipes have become global staples in households and institutions. Widespread use and insufficient infrastructure, combined with improper waste management have resulted in an emerging category of litter. With widespread presence in the environment, such items pose a direct threat to wildlife as animals can interact with them in a series of ways. We examined the scope of COVID-19 pandemic-related debris, including PPE and sanitation items, on wildlife from April 2020 to December 2021. We document the geographic occurrence of incidents, debris types, and consequences of incidents that were obtained from social media searches, unpublished reports from colleagues, and reports available from the citizen science database "Birds and Debris". There were 114 unique sightings of wildlife interactions with pandemic-related debris (38 from 2020 and 76 from 2021). Within the context of this dataset, most incidents involved birds (83.3 %), while fewer affected mammals (10.5 %), invertebrates (3.5 %), fish (1.8 %), and sea turtles (0.9 %). Sightings originated in 23 countries, and consisted mostly of entanglements (42.1 %) and nest incorporations (40.4 %). We verified sightings by contacting the original observers and were able to identify replicated sightings and increase the resolution of the data collected compared with previously published results. Due to the complexities associated with global use and accessibility of digital platforms, we likely underestimate the number of animals harmed by debris. Overall, the global scope of this study demonstrates that online and social media platforms are a valuable way to collect biologically relevant citizen science data and track rapidly emerging environmental challenges.

6.
Appl Acoust ; 197: 108940, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956084

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) has become 'the new normal'. Both surgical masks and N95 masks with a face shield are widely used in healthcare settings to reduce virus transmission, but the use of these masks has a negative impact on speech perception. Therefore, transparent masks are recommended to solve this dilemma. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies regarding the effect of PPE on speech perception. This study aims to compare the effect on speech perception of different types of PPE (surgical masks, N95 masks with face shield and transparent masks) in healthcare settings, for listeners with normal hearing in the audiovisual or auditory-only modality. The Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB)-like Mandarin speech stimuli were digitally recorded by a G.R.A.S KEMAR manikin without and with masks (surgical masks, N95 masks with face shield and transparent masks). Two variants of video display were created (with or without visual cues) and tagged to the corresponding audio recordings. The speech recording and video were presented to listeners simultaneously in each of four conditions: unattenuated speech with visual cues (no mask); surgical mask attenuated speech without visual cues; N95 mask with face shield attenuated speech without visual cues; and transparent mask attenuated speech with visual cues. The signal-to-noise ratio for 50 % correct scores (SNR50) threshold in noise was measured for each condition in the presence of four-talker babble. Twenty-four subjects completed the experiment. Acoustic spectra obtained from all types of masks were primarily attenuated at high frequencies, beyond 3 kHz, but to different extents. The mean SNR50 thresholds of the two auditory-only conditions (surgical mask and N95 mask with face shield) were higher than those of the audiovisual conditions (no mask and transparent mask). SNR50 thresholds in the surgical-mask conditions were significantly lower than those for the N95 masks with face shield. No significant difference was observed between the two audiovisual conditions. The results confirm that wearing a surgical mask or an N95 mask with face shield has a negative impact on speech perception. However, wearing a transparent mask improved speech perception to a similar level as unmasked condition for young normal-hearing listeners.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 242: 113908, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955788

ABSTRACT

Disposable facemasks are a primary tool to prevent the transmission of SARS-COV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, plastic waste generated from their disposal represents a significant environmental problem that can be reduced by maximizing the service life of disposable masks. We evaluated the effect of repeated wearing on the fitted filtration efficiency (FFE) of N95, KF94, KN95, and procedure/surgical masks. The FFEs of masks were compared following extended wearing with and without washing. Results reveal that most disposable facemasks can retain a high level of their baseline FFE after extended wearing, even after 40 h of wearing. Laundering disposable masks degraded FFE in some instances. We conclude that the durability of disposable facemask performance is considerably longer than their intended single use indication, suggesting that reusing disposable masks is a safe means of reducing plastic waste in the environment.

8.
Era's Journal of Medical Research ; 8(2):174-184, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955359

ABSTRACT

Since the first coronavirus patient was identified in Bangladesh on March 8, the most controversial issue is about the exact level of the infection in Bangladesh. Conformly with the population density the number of COVID-19 tests is inadequate. As the number of tests increases, so does the number of infections, making it difficult to predict the spread of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. In this case, the unplanned initiatives are particularly responsible in other for unplanned measures, lack of public awareness, and lack of proper knowledge. In this case, the Ministry of Health has made three major mistakes, three important features of the medical system in Bangladesh have been mentioned. It is more effective to prevent COVID-19 by isolating the infected person by further testing COVID-19 until effective treatment is available and to provide adequate and effective masks and personal protective equipment (PPE). In this case, the COVID-19 testing kit invention has received a good response in many countries of the world. This study focuses on the comprehensive data verification, selection, and evaluation of COVID-19 in Bangladesh and its implications for the future, what to do to address and prevent the COVID-19 challenge, and effective treatment against the coronavirus (COVID-19). It is hopeful that the discussion of the material mentioned in this research paper will help to strike a balance between the government, citizens, and experts which will be feasible in improving the current situation in COVID-19 Bangladesh and reducing its severity.

9.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(4):468-471, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954408

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, several viral epidemics such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and 2003, H1N1 influenza in 2009, and Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus in 2012 have been recorded. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions across the globe and has been a unique public health challenge with its increased rates of contagion and transmission. This outbreak was likely to have started from a zoonotic transmission event associated with a large sea-food market that also traded live wild animals. An exponential increase in the number of nonzoonotic cases in late December 2019, pointed toward the risk of human-to-human transmission. This led to a faster spread of infection and made the outbreak difficult to contain. The situation was unique in the busy Emergency Department (ED) of our institution, where regular emergency care could not be halted but had to be modified to accommodate COVID-19 confirmed and suspect patients. The ED needed to develop standard operating protocols to isolate and manage these patients, without putting other patients and health-care workers at risk of infection. This is a story of evolving practices in the ED of a leading tertiary care center of South India. © 2022 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

10.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences ; 14:S444-S448, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954378

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an immense global health challenge. It also had a profound impact on dentistry with all elective treatment grinding to half initially and a slow phased return to normal services. The aim of the article is to provide an insight into the effect of COVID-19 on endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among endodontists of various southern states of India was conducted from January 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021, using an online questionnaire. A total of 300 dentists who perform endodontic treatment in daily clinical practice were chosen for the survey. The information was coded, entered, and analyzed utilizing SPSS 20.0 version. Results: A total of 263 questionnaires were answered by the selected group. About 92.01% of endodontists have made changes in infection control including modification in their personal protective equipment and duration of the interval between their appointments. A whopping 74.14% of endodontists faced the economic loss of varying degrees due to the pandemic. In general tremendous changes have been occurred in their daily practice following the pandemic. Conclusion: The pandemic's current and enduring consequences on every part of our lives have been a cause of pain and frustration, but it has also highlighted the human spirit's resilience. Ideally, endodontists must be able to select the best arrangements for safely performing their procedures. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences ; 14:S439-S443, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954377

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In December 2019, the global outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was announced. The pandemic has cast a spotlight like never before on health-care professionals in general, and nurses in particular. Nurses have been dubbed "warriors" by the general public for their determination to provide frontline care to patients with the disease, despite the risk of exposure and a lack of professional resources. The goal of the study was to assess the obstacles and consequences faced by Kerala nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2021 among Kerala nurses. A total of 1630 nurses were chosen using a randomized sampling technique. The data were gathered using a semi-structured self-reported questionnaire. The information was entered into a database and analyzed using SPSS program version 16.0. Results: After analyzing the data, seven themes emerged: (a) love for the profession;(b) frustration for being labeled as "COVID Nurses";(c) fear of infection and transmission;(d) personal protective equipment uncertainty;(e) workplace safety especially against hospital violence;(f) burnout in nurses;and (g) job stress. Conclusion: Nurses undertook a hazardous rescue mission and played an essential contribution in COVID-19 pandemic. Over the course of intensive work, they underwent significant psychological changes. Nurses burnout and occupational stress must be addressed with effective interventions. In order to mitigate the pandemic, the administration should also promote a healthy workplace and have a positive attitude and harmonious connection with the frontline personnel. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 40(2): 165-170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954368

ABSTRACT

Background: Managing anxiety in children during the pandemic will be a concern for many pediatric dentists. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the anxiety levels in children aged between 4 and 9 years about the pediatric dentists donning a personal protective equipment (PPE) for dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic era in Bengaluru. Methods: The study was done in two parts with a sample size of 100 each. The first part was a questionnaire-based survey addressed to the pediatric dentists practicing in Bengaluru. The second part of the study was clinical assessment of dental anxiety at three time intervals (T1, T2, and T3) using the animated emoji scale. Results: The study revealed that 87% use preprocedural behavior management post-COVID. Majority of the dentists donned the PPE before conditioning the child (59%) and 41% wore the PPE after conditioning the child. The mean anxiety level in the study children showed an increase in anxiety level at T2 of 3.58 (P < 0.001 ± 1.32) in children aged 4-6 years when compared to T1 and T3 of 3.27 (P < 0.001 ± 1.64) and 3.07 (P < 0.001 ± 1.32), respectively. Conclusion: Children aged between 4 and 6 years showed increased levels of anxiety compared to the 7-9-year age group to the pediatric dentists donning a PPE during treatment in the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatric dentists also showed a satisfactory knowledge regarding disinfection and fumigation procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Dentists , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Neurosurg Case Lessons ; 2(1): CASE21246, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing the standard of care to patients with glioblastoma (GBM) during the novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge, particularly if a patient tests positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Further difficulties occur in eloquent cortex tumors because awake speech mapping can theoretically aerosolize viral particles and expose staff. Moreover, microscopic neurosurgery has become difficult because the use of airborne-level personal protective equipment (PPE) crowds the space between the surgeon and the eyepiece. However, delivering substandard care will inevitably lead to disease progression and poor outcomes. OBSERVATIONS: A 60-year-old man with a left insular and frontal operculum GBM was found to be COVID-19 positive. Treatment was postponed pending a negative SARS-CoV-2 result, but in the interim, he developed intratumoral hemorrhage with progressive expressive aphasia. Because the tumor was causing dominant hemisphere language symptomatology, an awake craniotomy was the recommended surgical approach. With the use of airborne-level PPE and a surgical drape to protect the surgeon from the direction of potential aerosolization, near-total gross resection was achieved. LESSONS: Delaying the treatment of patients with GBM who test positive for COVID-19 will lead to further neurological deterioration. Optimal and timely treatment such as awake speech mapping for COVID-19-positive patients with GBM can be provided safely.

14.
JMIRx Med ; 3(2): e30344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951914

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19, clinical and health care demands have been on the rapid rise. Major challenges that have arisen during the pandemic have included a lack of testing kits, shortages of ventilators to treat severe cases of COVID-19, and insufficient accessibility to personal protective equipment for both hospitals and the public. New technologies have been developed by scientists, researchers, and companies in response to these demands. Objective: The primary objective of this review is to compare different supporting technologies in the subjugation of the COVID-19 spread. Methods: In this paper, 150 news articles and scientific reports on COVID-19-related innovations during 2020-2021 were checked, screened, and shortlisted to yield a total of 23 articles for review. The keywords "COVID-19 technology," "COVID-19 invention," and "COVID-19 equipment" were used in a Google search to generate related news articles and scientific reports. The search was performed on February 1, 2021. These were then categorized into three sections, which are personal protective equipment (PPE), testing methods, and medical treatments. Each study was analyzed for its engineering characteristics and potential social impact on the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 9 articles were selected for review concerning PPE. In general, the design and fabrication of PPE were moving toward the direction of additive manufacturing and intelligent information feedback while being eco-friendly. Moreover, 8 articles were selected for reviewing testing methods within the two main categories of molecular and antigen tests. All the inventions endeavored to increase sensitivity while reducing the turnaround time. However, the inventions reported in this review paper were not sufficiently tested for their safety and efficiency. Most of the inventions are temporary solutions intended to be used only during shortages of medical resources. Finally, 6 articles were selected for the review of COVID-19 medical treatment. The major challenge identified was the uncertainty in applying novel ideas to speed up the production of ventilators. Conclusions: The technologies developed during the COVID-19 pandemic were considered for review. In order to better respond to future pandemics, national reserves of critical medical supplies should be increased to improve preparation. This pandemic has also highlighted the need for the automation and optimization of medical manufacturing.

15.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:19057-19068, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:- Those who work with COVID-19 patients airways are especially vulnerable. We present an empirical bit-by-bit strategy in order to guard in-hospital airway treatment of individual along COVID-19 disease, whether they are suspected or confirmed. The COVID-19 patient's airway care raises the danger of HCW exposure. Challenging extubation takes more time and might even entail many treatments with both the possibility for aerosolization, therefore rigorous attention to personal protective equipment (PPE) regulations is required to keep clinicians safe. Whenever an patient's airway risk evaluation indicates that awake tracheal intubation is the best option, therapies that produce greater secretion aerosolization should have been prevented. For decrease the chances of hypoxemia, optimal preoxygenation with a tight sealed facial mask might well be conducted beforehand to initiation. AMBU Bag during initiation should be avoided unless the patient experiences O2 depletion. Patients must be fully sedated with complete muscular relaxation for such best intubating circumstances. As a first-line technique for airway management, video laryngoscopy be suggested. If urgent invasive airway access is available, we advocate using a surgical approach like scalpelbougie-tube instead of an aerosolizing producing treatment like transtracheal jet ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation for individuals with COVID-19 necessitates tracheal intubation. The researchers wanted to characterise immediate intubation procedures, assess success rates & problems, and see if there was any difference in practise and results among high- and low-income nations. The researchers hypothesized that geographical & operational variables influence effective emergency airway care amongst COVID-19 patients. METHODS:- Among March 23, 2020, as well as October 24, 2020, the researchers conducted a prospective interpretive research project that would include 4,476 case of emergencies tracheal intubation done by 1,722 healthcare professionals from 607 institutions throughout 32 nation in patients of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation. The researchers looked into the links among intubation & operators factors, as well as the key result of first-trail success. CONCLUSIONS:- Incidence of unsuccessful tracheal intubation as well as emergency surgical airway among COVID-19 patients who required emergency airway care were reported, as well as characteristics linked to enhanced efficacy. While treating COVID-19, the chances for tracheal intubation failures must be evaluated. © The Electrochemical Society

16.
Anaesthesia ; 77(9): 959-970, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948977

ABSTRACT

The evidence base surrounding the transmission risk of 'aerosol-generating procedures' has evolved primarily through quantification of aerosol concentrations during clinical practice. Consequently, infection prevention and control guidelines are undergoing continual reassessment. This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the perceptions of practicing anaesthetists regarding aerosol-generating procedures. An online survey was distributed to the Membership Engagement Group of the Royal College of Anaesthetists during November 2021. The survey included five clinical scenarios to identify the personal approach of respondents to precautions, their hospital's policies and the associated impact on healthcare provision. A purposive sample was selected for interviews to explore the reasoning behind their perceptions and behaviours in greater depth. A total of 333 survey responses were analysed quantitatively. Transcripts from 18 interviews were coded and analysed thematically. The sample was broadly representative of the UK anaesthetic workforce. Most respondents and their hospitals were aware of, supported and adhered to UK guidance. However, there were examples of substantial divergence from these guidelines at both individual and hospital level. For example, 40 (12%) requested respiratory protective equipment and 63 (20%) worked in hospitals that required it to be worn whilst performing tracheal intubation in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Additionally, 173 (52%) wore respiratory protective equipment whilst inserting supraglottic airway devices. Regarding the use of respiratory protective equipment and fallow times in the operating theatre: 305 (92%) perceived reduced efficiency; 376 (83%) perceived a negative impact on teamworking; 201 (64%) were worried about environmental impact; and 255 (77%) reported significant problems with communication. However, 269 (63%) felt the negative impacts of respiratory protection equipment were appropriately balanced against the risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Attitudes were polarised about the prospect of moving away from using respiratory protective equipment. Participants' perceived risk from COVID-19 correlated with concern regarding stepdown (Spearman's test, R = 0.36, p < 0.001). Attitudes towards aerosol-generating procedures and the need for respiratory protective equipment are evolving and this information can be used to inform strategies to facilitate successful adoption of revised guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Anesthetists , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Laparosc Endosc Robot Surg ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945953

ABSTRACT

Objective: Surgeons are required to wear heavy personal protective equipment while delivering cares to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the impact of wearing double gloves on surgeons' performance in laparoscopic surgery. Methods: Eleven surgeons-in-training were recruited to perform laparoscopic cutting tasks in simulation while wearing none, one pair, and two pairs of surgical gloves. Forces applied to laparoscopic instruments were measured. Results: Wearing gloves prolonged task times (one pair of gloves: 301.6 ± 61.7 s; two pairs of gloves: 295.8 ± 65.3 s) compared with no gloves (241.7 ± 46.9 s; p = 0.043). Wearing double gloves increased cutting errors (20.4 ± 5.1 mm2) compared with wearing one pair of gloves (16.9 ± 5.5 mm2) and no gloves (14.4 ± 4.6 mm2; p = 0.030). Wearing gloves reduced the peak force (one pair of gloves: 2.4 ± 0.7 N; two pairs of gloves: 2.7 ± 0.6 N; no gloves: 3.4 ± 1.4 N; p = 0.049), and the total force (one pair of gloves: 10.1 ± 2.8 N; two pairs of gloves: 10.3 ± 2.6 N; no glove: 12.6 ± 1.9 N; p = 0.048) delivered onto laparoscopic scissors compared with wearing no glove. Conclusion: Combined effects of wearing heavy gloves and using tools reduced touching sensation, which limited the surgeons' confidence in performing surgical tasks. Increasing practice in simulation is suggested to allow surgeons for overcome difficulties brought by personal protective equipment.

18.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 22: 100796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945572

ABSTRACT

Background: Fighting Covid 19 at the forefront, increased the risk of infection and scarcity of resources have caused the ethical problems among nurses. It was planned to examine the ethical problems faced by nurses caring for Covid-19 patients and how they overcame the outcomes of these problems. Methodology: This qualitative study was conducted with 20 nurses who caring Covid 19 patients in Turkey. Data were collected between January 24 and February 21, 2021. Purposive sampling was used in the study and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Results: The research findings were discussed under two main themes as ethical problems and outcomes of ethical problems faced by nurses working in Covid-19 units. Then, 4 sub-categories for the theme of ethical problems (institutional problems, lack of knowledge and experience in nurses' new place of duty, enforcing nurses to do doctors' duties, problems encountered while caring for patients) and 2 sub-categories (emotions felt by nurses, coping strategies) for the theme of outcomes of ethical problems faced by nurses were defined. Conclusion: The findings emphasize that nurses face ethical problems while giving care to Covid 19 problems. The nature of health services requires an ethical perspective to protect and improve human health, especially in uncertain, difficult and risky situations. Nurses should be supported to provide the ethical perspective in the best way.

19.
Clin Infect Pract ; : 100142, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944566

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the lived experience of healthcare staff during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relating to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and investigate risks associated with PPE use, error mitigation and acceptability of mindfulness incorporation into PPE practice. Methods: A qualitative human factors' study at two Irish hospitals occurred in late 2020. Data was collected by semi-structured interview and included role description, pre-COVID-19 PPE experience, the impact of COVID-19 on lived experience, risks associated with PPE use, contributory factors to errors, error mitigation strategies and acceptability of incorporating mindfulness into PPE practice. Results: Of 45 participants, 23 of whom were nursing staff (51%), 34 (76%) had previously worn PPE and 25 (56%) used a buddy system. COVID-19 lived experience impacted most on social life/home-work interface (n=36, 80%). Nineteen staff (42%) described mental health impacts. The most cited risk concerned 'knowledge of procedures' (n=18, 40%). Contributory factors to PPE errors included time (n=15, 43%) and staffing pressures (n=10, 29%). Mitigation interventions included training/education (n=12, 40%). The majority (n=35, 78%) supported mindfulness integration into PPE practice. Conclusions: PPE training should address healthcare staff lived experiences and consider incorporation of mindfulness and key organisational factors contributing to safety.

20.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944006

ABSTRACT

The use of fit tested respirators in the workplace is required to protect health workers against airborne pathogens. The COVID-19 pandemic required rapid upscaling of fit testing which was achieved using the framework of a respiratory protection program. Implementing and sustaining such a program in the midst of a pandemic was challenging and required clear direction from a lead agency combined with stakeholder engagement.

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