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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736940

ABSTRACT

Contrary to public perception, hypertension remains one of the most important public health problems in the United States, affecting 46% of adults with increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and kidney diseases. The mechanisms underlying poorly controlled hypertension remain incompletely understood. Recent development in the Cre/LoxP approach to study gain or loss of function of a particular gene has significantly helped advance our new insights into the role of proximal tubule angiotensin II (Ang II) and its AT1 (AT1a) receptors in basal blood pressure control and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension. This novel approach has provided us and others with an important tool to generate novel mouse models with proximal tubule-specific loss (deletion) or gain of the function (overexpression). The objective of this invited review article is to review and discuss recent findings using novel genetically modifying proximal tubule-specific mouse models. These new studies have consistently demonstrated that deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or its direct downstream target Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) selectively in the proximal tubules of the kidney lowers basal blood pressure, increases the pressure-natriuresis response, and induces natriuretic responses, whereas overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein or AT1 (AT1a) receptors selectively in the proximal tubules increases proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption, impairs the pressure-natriuresis response, and elevates blood pressure. Furthermore, the development of Ang II-induced hypertension by systemic Ang II infusion or by proximal tubule-specific overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein was attenuated in mutant mice with proximal tubule-specific deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or NHE3. Thus, these recent studies provide evidence for and new insights into the important roles of intratubular Ang II via AT1 (AT1a) receptors and NHE3 in the proximal tubules in maintaining basal blood pressure homeostasis and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Angiotensin II/genetics , Animals , Blood Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Gain of Function Mutation , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Loss of Function Mutation , Mice , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/metabolism
2.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(2):491-492, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1706884

ABSTRACT

Case Report The purpose of this study is to describe a case study of possible glycosuria-induced hypernatremia in a patient hospitalized with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Used Case study and literature review Summary of Results A 55-year-old man with a past medical history of non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes and hypertension developed hypernatremia, glycosuria, and acute kidney injury in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia after resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. The patient was initially admitted with a positive SARS-COVID-19 screening, a creatinine of 1.1 mg/dL (0.5-1.2) with glycosuria, and sodium of 137 mmol/L (136-145). Seventeen days into his hospital admission for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, he developed hypernatremia (147 mmol/L). Over the subsequent twenty-two days, the patient continued to have hypernatremia up to 153 mmol/L refractory to treatment. In addition, the patient had persistent glycosuria and an elevated creatinine of 2.3 mg/dL (greater than thirty percent above his baseline). His total fluid balance was +1444 mL during this phase of hospitalization. The patient's electrolyte derangements concomitant with his worsening renal function suggests possible Fanconi syndrome. We hypothesize this is secondary to COVID-19. Conclusion COVID-19 has been shown to be associated with renal dysfunction, including acute tubular injury, such as membranous nephropathy and Fanconi syndrome. Experimental data have suggested that COVID-19 can infect renal proximal tubular cells via the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 with subsequent development of incomplete Fanconi syndrome preceding acute kidney injury. Studies have also shown that glycosuria, proteinuria, pyuria, and hematuria may occur with COVID-19 regardless of comorbidities. We concluded our patient developed refractory hypernatremia secondary to glycosuria induced incomplete Fanconi syndrome due to COVID- 19.

3.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 151(SUPPL 256):17S, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623121

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) affects up to one in two critically ill patients. The cellular mechanisms of kidney tubule repair after acute kidney injury are poorly characterized in humans. Methods: We recruited 5 patients admitted to the Geneva University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit for severe COVID19 and experiencing AKI. For each of them, a kidney biopsy was performed before the planned withdrawal of resuscitation measures. We further applied single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze the kidney in the first days after acute injury. Results: After data processing and quality control, we obtained 20,165 single-cell transcriptomes. The most prominent finding in the snRNAseq analyses was in the proximal tubule (PT) compartment. We defined two cell populations corresponding to mature and undifferentiated PT cells, connected by two cell state transitions (Figure 1). Undifferentiated PT cells display an injured pattern characterized by metabolic impairment, reduction of the tubule transport function, and expression of injury markers confirmed in immunochemistry. We found that tubule repair follows two converging patterns involving the plasticity of mature tubule cells and the expansion and differentiation of progenitor-like cells. Tubule repair by cell plasticity displayed substantial similarities among mice and men and determined the transient expansion of undifferentiated tubule cells with altered functional and metabolic properties. Progenitorlike cells marked by PROM1 proliferated in response to injury and followed a differentiation process characterized by the sequential activation of the WNT, NOTCH, and HIPPO signaling pathways. Conclusions: Here we generated the first map of PT injury and repair in humans. Taken together, our analyses reveal cell states transitions and fundamental cellular hierarchies underlying kidney injury and repair in patients.

4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 86-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cultured cell lines are widely used for research in the physiology, pathophysiology, toxicology, and pharmacology of the renal proximal tubule. The lines that are most appropriate for a given use depend upon the genes expressed. New tools for transcriptomic profiling using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) make it possible to catalog expressed genes in each cell line. METHODS: Fourteen different proximal tubule cell lines, representing six species, were grown on permeable supports under conditions specific for the respective lines. RNA-Seq followed standard procedures. RESULTS: Transcripts expressed in cell lines variably matched transcripts selectively expressed in native proximal tubule. Opossum kidney (OK) cells displayed the highest percentage match (45% of proximal marker genes [TPM threshold =15]), with pig kidney cells (LLC-PK1) close behind (39%). Lower-percentage matches were seen for various human lines, including HK-2 (26%), and lines from rodent kidneys, such as NRK-52E (23%). Nominally, identical OK cells from different sources differed substantially in expression of proximal tubule markers. Mapping cell line transcriptomes to gene sets for various proximal tubule functions (sodium and water transport, protein transport, metabolic functions, endocrine functions) showed that different lines may be optimal for experimentally modeling each function. An online resource (https://esbl.nhlbi.nih.gov/JBrowse/KCT/) has been created to interrogate cell line transcriptome data. Proteomic analysis of NRK-52E cells confirmed low expression of many proximal tubule marker proteins. CONCLUSIONS: No cell line fully matched the transcriptome of native proximal tubule cells. However, some of the lines tested are suitable for the study of particular metabolic and transport processes seen in the proximal tubule.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Transcriptome , Animals , Biological Transport , Cell Line , Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Internet , Mice , Opossums , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Rats , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Species Specificity , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1329-1337, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to investigate incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 823 COVID-19 patients with at least two evaluations of renal function during hospitalization from four hospitals in Wuhan, China between February 2020 and April 2020. Clinical and laboratory parameters at the time of admission and follow-up data were recorded. Systemic renal tubular dysfunction was evaluated via 24-h urine collections in a subgroup of 55 patients. RESULTS: In total, 823 patients were enrolled (50.5% male) with a mean age of 60.9 ± 14.9 years. AKI occurred in 38 (40.9%) ICU cases but only 6 (0.8%) non-ICU cases. Using forward stepwise Cox regression analysis, we found eight independent risk factors for AKI including decreased platelet level, lower albumin level, lower phosphorus level, higher level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), urea, and prothrombin time (PT) on admission. For every 0.1 mmol/L decreases in serum phosphorus level, patients had a 1.34-fold (95% CI 1.14-1.58) increased risk of AKI. Patients with hypophosphatemia were likely to be older and with lower lymphocyte count, lower serum albumin level, lower uric acid, higher LDH, and higher CRP. Furthermore, serum phosphorus level was positively correlated with phosphate tubular maximum per volume of filtrate (TmP/GFR) (Pearson r = 0.66, p < .001) in subgroup analysis, indicating renal phosphate loss via proximal renal tubular dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The AKI incidence was very low in non-ICU patients as compared to ICU patients. Hypophosphatemia is an independent risk factor for AKI in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hypophosphatemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypophosphatemia/epidemiology , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1115-1123, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301248

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is associated with poor prognosis. Early prediction and intervention of AKI are vital for improving clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients. As lack of tools for early AKI detection in COVID-19 patients, this study aimed to validate the USCD-Mayo risk score in predicting hospital-acquired AKI in an extended multi-center COVID-19 cohort. METHODS: Five hundred seventy-two COVID-19 patients from Wuhan Tongji Hospital Guanggu Branch, Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital, and Wuhan No. Ninth Hospital was enrolled for this study. Patients who developed AKI or reached an outcome of recovery or death during the study period were included. Predictors were evaluated according to data extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Of all patients, a total of 44 (8%) developed AKI. The UCSD-Mayo risk score achieved excellent discrimination in predicting AKI with the C-statistic of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.84-0.91). Next, we determined the UCSD-Mayo risk score had good overall performance (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.32) and calibration in our cohort. Further analysis showed that the UCSD-Mayo risk score performed well in subgroups defined by gender, age, and several chronic comorbidities. However, the discrimination of the UCSD-Mayo risk score in ICU patients and patients with mechanical ventilation was not good which might be resulted from different risk factors of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the performance of UCSD-Mayo risk score in predicting hospital-acquired AKI in COVID-19 patients was excellent except for patients from ICU or patients with mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269953

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 212, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly variable between individuals, ranging from asymptomatic infection to critical disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Such variability stresses the need for novel biomarkers associated with disease outcome. As SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a kidney proximal tubule dysfunction with urinary loss of uric acid, we hypothesized that low serum levels of uric acid (hypouricemia) may be associated with severity and outcome of COVID-19. METHODS: In a retrospective study using two independent cohorts, we investigated and validated the prevalence, kinetics and clinical correlates of hypouricemia among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to a large academic hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Survival analyses using Cox regression and a competing risk approach assessed the time to mechanical ventilation and/or death. Confocal microscopy assessed the expression of urate transporter URAT1 in kidney proximal tubule cells from patients who died from COVID-19. RESULTS: The discovery and validation cohorts included 192 and 325 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Out of the 517 patients, 274 (53%) had severe and 92 (18%) critical COVID-19. In both cohorts, the prevalence of hypouricemia increased from 6% upon admission to 20% within the first days of hospitalization for COVID-19, contrasting with a very rare occurrence (< 1%) before hospitalization for COVID-19. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 148 days (50-168), 61 (12%) patients required mechanical ventilation and 93 (18%) died. In both cohorts considered separately and in pooled analyses, low serum levels of uric acid were strongly associated with disease severity (linear trend, P < 0.001) and with progression to death and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in Cox (adjusted hazard ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 3.6-7.8, P < 0.001) or competing risks (adjusted hazard ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval 10.4-41.4, P < 0.001) models. At the structural level, kidneys from patients with COVID-19 showed a major reduction in urate transporter URAT1 expression in the brush border of proximal tubules. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, low serum levels of uric acid are common and associate with disease severity and with progression to respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Uric Acid/blood , Aged , Belgium , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organic Anion Transporters/metabolism , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies
10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney involvement is frequent among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and occurrence of AKI is associated with higher mortality in this population. The objective of this study was to describe occurrence and significance of proteinuria in this setting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS : We conducted a single-center retrospective study to describe the characteristic features of proteinuria measured within 48 hours following admission among patients with COVID-19 admitted in a tertiary care hospital in France, and to evaluate its association with initiation of dialysis, intensive care unit admission, and death. RESULTS: Among 200 patients with available data, urine protein-creatinine ratio at admission was ≥1 g/g for 84 (42%), although kidney function was normal in most patients, with a median serum creatinine of 0.94 mg/dl (interquartile range, 0.75-1.21). Median urine albumin-creatinine ratio was 110 mg/g (interquartile range, 50-410), with a urine albumin-protein ratio <50% in 92% of patients. Urine retinol binding protein concentrations, available for 85 patients, were ≥0.03 mg/mmol in 62% of patients. Urine protein-creatinine ratio ≥1 g/g was associated with initiation of dialysis (odds ratio, 4.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.03 to 13.0; P<0.001), admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio, 3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.93 to 6.71; P<0.001), and death (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.90 to 6.54; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Proteinuria is very frequent among patients admitted for COVID-19 and may precede AKI. Low levels of albuminuria suggest a predominant tubular origin, confirmed by the elevated levels of urine retinol binding protein. Urine protein-creatinine ratio ≥1 g/g at admission is strongly associated with poor kidney and patient outcome.

12.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 6(4): 258-270, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has been responsible for the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, uses the cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for spike (S) protein priming. Meanwhile, the presence of B0AT1 (SLC6A19) may prevent TMPRSS2 from accessing the cutting position on ACE2. Identifying the expression of these cell receptor-related genes of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in various tissues, especially in the kidney. METHODS: The single-cell transcription datasets of the human cell landscape (HCL) and other relevant single-cell transcription databases were used to analyze the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and SLC6A19 in various organs and tissues, but mainly in the kidney. RESULTS: ACE2 was significantly expressed in the S1, S2, and S3 segments of proximal tubule (PT) cells. TMPRSS2 was widely expressed in several renal tubule populations extending from the PT cells to the collection system cell type, of which intercalated cells and the distal convoluted tubule cells showed more significant expression than PT cells. Unexpectedly, although expressed on various renal tubule populations, SLC6A19 was mainly enriched in PT cells, in line with ACE2 expression. Although alveolar-type (AT) 2 cells of the lung and intestinal epithelial cells expressed ACE2 as well as PT cells, AT 2 cells significantly expressed TMPRSS2 but not SLC6A19, while all 3 genes were significantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 was widely expressed in specific cell subgroups of various human tissues, especially in intestinal epithelial cells, kidney PT cells, and also AT 2 cells of the lung. These 3 types of cells demonstrated significant differences in the distribution of the cell receptor-related genes of SARS-CoV-2, which may indicate the diversity of cell surface structures and differences in the affinity between SARS-CoV-2 and cells.

13.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 311-320, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617330

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 causes severe multi-organ failure is largely unknown. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent organ damage in severe COVID-19 patients. Previous studies have shown that human renal tubule cells could be the potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Traditional cancer cell lines or immortalized cell lines are genetically and phenotypically different from host cells. Animal models are widely used, but often fail to reflect a physiological and pathogenic status because of species tropisms. There is an unmet need for normal human epithelial cells for disease modeling. In this study, we successfully established long term cultures of normal human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (KPTECs) in 2D and 3D culture systems using conditional reprogramming (CR) and organoids techniques. These cells had the ability to differentiate and repair DNA damage, and showed no transforming property. Importantly, the CR KPTECs maintained lineage function with expression of specific transporters (SLC34A3 and cubilin). They also expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, cancer cell line did not express endogenous SLC34A3, cubilin and ACE2. Very interestingly, ACE2 expression was around twofold higher in 3D organoids culture compared to that in 2D CR culture condition. Pseudovirion assays demonstrated that SARS-CoV spike (S) protein was able to enter CR cells with luciferase reporter. This integrated 2D CR and 3D organoid cultures provide a physiological ex vivo model to study kidney functions, innate immune response of kidney cells to viruses, and a novel platform for drug discovery and safety evaluation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Kidney/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , DNA Damage , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Organoids , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 362-370, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent data have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can infect renal proximal tubular cells via Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) . Our objective was to determine whether Fanconi syndrome is a frequent clinical feature in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 42 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients without history of kidney disease hospitalized in University Hospital of Nancy was investigated. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 28) or the Medical department (n = 14) and were screened at least once for four markers of proximal tubulopathy. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) follow-up was 19.7 (±12.2) days. Of the patients, 75% (30/40) showed at least two proximal tubule abnormalities (incomplete Fanconi syndrome). The main disorders were proteinuria (88%, n = 35), renal phosphate leak defined by renal phosphate threshold/glomerular filtration rate (TmPi/GFR) <0.77 (55%, n = 22), hyperuricosuria (43%, n = 17) and normoglycaemic glycosuria (30%, n = 12). At the time of the first renal evaluation, ICU patients presented more frequent (96 versus 62%, P = 0.0095) and more severe (844 ± 343 versus 350 ± 221 mg/g, P = 0.0001) proteinuria, and a trend for an increased number of proximal tubule abnormalities (P = 0.038). During follow-up, they presented a lower nadir of serum phosphate [median (interquartile range) 0.68 (0.43-0.76) versus 0.77 (0.66-1.07) mmol/L, P = 0.044] and Acute kidney Injury (AKI) during the hospitalization (P = 0.045). Fanconi syndrome preceded severe AKI KDIGO Stages 2 and 3 in 88% (7/8) of patients. Proximal tubular abnormalities (such as proteinuria, TmPi/GFR and glycosuria in five, two and two patients, respectively) were not detected anymore in recovering patients before hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Incomplete Fanconi syndrome is highly frequent in COVID-19 patients and precedes AKI or disappears during the recovery phase.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175942

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Death/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness/mortality , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/enzymology , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incidence , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiopathology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/enzymology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
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