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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884164

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether people with disabilities-cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, or at least one of these disabilities-report more COVID-19-related negative lifestyle changes than those without disabilities, and whether psychological distress (MHI-5) mediates the association between disabilities and negative lifestyle changes. Information about COVID-related lifestyle changes among people with disabilities is scarce. We analyzed population-based data from the 2020 FinSote survey carried out between September 2020 and February 2021 in Finland (n = 22,165, aged 20+). Logistic regressions were applied to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions on negative lifestyle changes-sleeping problems or nightmares, daily exercise, vegetable consumption, and snacking. To test for a mediation effect of psychological distress, the Karlson-Holm-Breen method was used. People with all disability types reported increased sleeping problems or nightmares, and decreased vegetable consumption during the pandemic more frequently than those without. People with mobility and cognitive disabilities more frequently reported decreased daily exercise. People with cognitive disabilities more often reported increased snacking. Psychological distress mediated associations between disabilities and negative lifestyle changes, with the highest association between cognitive disabilities and increased sleeping problems or nightmares (B = 0.60), and the lowest between mobility disabilities and decreased daily exercise (B = 0.08). The results suggest that strategies to promote healthy lifestyles should consider people with disabilities. Alleviating their psychological distress during crisis situations could be one approach.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884132

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic struck the globe and disrupted various aspects of psychological wellbeing, more so in frontline workers. Research on assessing the seroprevalence of COVID-19 has been scarce; in addition, there are limited studies assessing the association between the seroprevalence of COVID-19 and psychological distress. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of COVID-19 and the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine whether sociodemographic variables, occupational information variables, coping styles, and psychological processes might contribute to the development of psychological distress. A cross-sectional study involving 168 Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) front liners was carried out to assess these issues. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was employed to assess psychological distress, together with the COVID-19 Rapid Test Kit Antibody (RTK Ab) and a series of questionnaires, including a sociodemographic and occupational information questionnaire, the Balanced Index of Psychological Mindedness (BIPM) questionnaire, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), and the Brief COPE questionnaire. The results demonstrated a seroprevalence of COVID-19 at 8.3% (95% CI = 5.0-14.0). Non-healthcare workers (HCWs) had a higher COVID-19 prevalence. Meanwhile, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among front liners was low (3.0%, 3.6%, and 1.2%, respectively). Younger people (aged 30 years old or less) and HCWs had a higher prevalence of psychological distress; being a HCW was significantly associated with a higher level of anxiety. Dysfunctional coping and psychological inflexibility were consistently found to be predictors for higher levels of the three psychological distress variables. This study suggested some alternatives that could be explored by mental health providers to address mental health issues among front liners at universities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
4.
Sage Open ; 12(2):20, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883498

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc globally. Besides devastating physical health consequences, the mental health consequences are dire as well and are predicted to have a long-term impact for some individuals and communities and society as a whole. Specific keywords were entered into various popular databases at three points in time (June 2020, April 2021, and February 2022). Articles about COVID-19 that focused on mental health and/or discussed improving resilience/coping were reviewed by the authors. A total of 119 publications were included. The pandemic is certainly a chronic stressor for many people, and some may be traumatized in the aftermath which may lead to stress-related disorders. The psychological impacts of this stress and trauma are reported and findings presented around three key themes: mental health impact, impact in the workplace, and improving resilience. In addition, particularly vulnerable populations are discussed and some of the violence and inequities they might face. Resilience literature offers keys to promoting positive mental wellbeing during and after the pandemic. Being able to effectively respond to the heterogeneity of specific situations while building resilience is addressed. Prevention, preparedness, Psychological First Aid training, and trauma informed practice can all contribute to building resilience and promoting peri/post-traumatic growth at all levels of society. This narrative review provides an overview of the literature on mental health and resilience in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors propose that, through the use of the accumulated empirical knowledge on resilience, we can mitigate many of the most damaging outcomes. Implications for mental health professionals, policy suggestions, and future research directions are explored.

5.
Sport Sci Health ; : 1-13, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881516

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This review aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental health to elite athletes. The emotional background influenced their sport career and was examined by questionnaires. Methods: We included original studies that investigated psychological outcomes in elite athletes during COVID-19 lockdown. Sixteen original studies (n = 4475 participants) were analyzed. Results: The findings showed that COVID-19 has an impact on elite athletes' mental health and was linked with stress, anxiety and psychological distress. The magnitude of the impact was associated with athletes' mood state profile, personality and resilience capacity. Conclusion: The lockdown period impacted also elite athletes' mental health and training routines with augmented anxiety but with fewer consequences than the general population thanks to adequate emotion regulation and coping strategies.

6.
Metas de Enfermeria ; 25(4):49-58, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876546

ABSTRACT

Objective: to explore the effects of lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyles of the overall population and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Method: a cross-sectional descriptive study. Non-probability snowball sampling was conducted through WhatsApp. After the pilot survey, an ad-hoc questionnaire was distributed on sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle variables during lockdown. The parametric tests used for analysis were Student- Fisher's t and Pearson's Chi-squared test, and odds ratio with CI95%. Results: the study included 184 HCPs and 460 non-HCPs. The median age of the sample was 40.4 (SD: 12.8) years, they were mostly women (66.9%) with university education (65.8%). More HCPs had positive test results for COVID-19, OR= 17.1 (9.1- 32.1) or symptoms compatible with COVID-19, OR= 2.1 (1.4- 3.1). The psychological impact of lockdown was higher in HCPs, OR= 1.5 (1.0-2.1). There were no significant differences in the activities carried out during quarantine, except for telework (p< 0.001). The degree of concern self-reported by 68.0% of the non-HCP population was "Very concerned" and "Highly concerned", similarly to HCPs (65.8%) (p= 0.218). Healthy lifestyles were maintained during lockdown, except for physical exercise which was worse in both groups (66.3% of HCPs and 66.4% of non-HCPs). Smoking and/or alcohol intake increased between 20 and 30% in both groups. Conclusions: changes were perceived among HCPs and non- HCPs regarding occupation during lockdown, psychological impact or tendency to get infected. It is essential to introduce resources for mental healthcare, particularly for HCPs. © 2022 DAE Editorial, Grupo Paradigma. All rights reserved.

7.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(2): 198-205, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876289

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to analyse how the health crisis associated with the COVID-19 pandemic affected psychoactive substance consumption in Uruguay. Methods: An online survey was answered by 1,916 Uruguayan citizens between March and April 2020 regarding psychoactive substance use before and after the instauration of a recommended quarantine, increases in frequency and volume of use (during the quarantine) of the psychoactive substance they reported as having consumed the most in the year prior to the quarantine and psychological distress experienced during the last month. Results: The main substances consumed during the quarantine were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and psychopharmaceuticals. Approximately 28% of respondents increased the volume (and 17.7%, the frequency) of use of the substance they had consumed the most the year before the instauration of the quarantine. Moreover, 5.7% initiated the consumption of a new psychoactive substance during the quarantine, mostly marijuana and psychopharmaceuticals. Psychological distress was significantly higher among women, participants under 30 and among those that increased the volume of their most or second preferred psychoactive substance. The group reporting an increase in the volume of use exhibited greater psychological distress. Conclusion: These results indicate an association between the instauration of the recommended quarantine in Uruguay and greater psychoactive substance use during the period as well as an association between increased psychoactive substance use during this period and levels of psychological stress. These results are relevant in terms of public health and policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology
8.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 128, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) crisis has changed many aspects of frontline nurses' lives. Nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 reported experiencing significant psychological distress and work-related anxiety. This study aimed to assess the perceived stress and quality of life among frontline nurses fighting against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 322 frontline nurses fighting against COVID-19 in hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using the two following online questionnaires: the Perceived Stress Scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief. Data were compiled from October 23, 2020, to November 25, 2020. Data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and regression analysis test in the SPSS-21. RESULTS: Average perceived stress scores was 30.27 (standard deviation [SD] = 7.01). Average quality of life subscale scores consist of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment were 57.71 (SD = 12.74), 44.3 (SD = 15.58), 45.61 (SD = 16.99), and 47.6 (SD = 18.11), respectively. There was an inverse significant association between all the subscales of quality of life and perceived stress (P = 0.008). Based on the multiple linear regression analysis, the variables of age, gender, marital status, and perceived stress were the significant predictors of quality of life subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Paying serious attention to addressing the concerns of frontline nurses, especially those who are at high risk, is necessary. It is recommended to take action as soon as possible to reduce the perceived stress and improve quality of life on nurses who care for patients with COVID-19.

9.
Int J Adv Couns ; : 1-21, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872564

ABSTRACT

International students continue to experience myriad of challenges, some of which further transpired disproportionately during the COVID-19 pandemic era. To this effect, this study investigated psychological capital (PsyCap), psychological distress, and well-being among 188 international students attending U.S universities. Results using Hayes PROCESS indicated that well-being mediated the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress and in particular moderated the relationship between PsyCap and depression. When higher education institutions are considering steps to mitigate psychological distress experienced by international students during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, based on the findings of our study, we suggest investing efforts and resources into two aspects: (a) promotion of positive mental health and well-being and (b) identification and development of positive psychological capital. We further discuss these results and implications for mental health promotion of international students in light of its limitations and recommendations for future research.

10.
Psychological Medicine ; 52(7):1386-1392, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1872001

ABSTRACT

BackgroundNo studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.MethodsThis was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.ResultsKegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).ConclusionKegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Psychological Medicine ; 52(7):1321-1332, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870943

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected public health and wellbeing. In response to the pandemic threat of the coronavirus epidemic, several countries, including China, adopted lockdown and quarantine policies, which may cause psychological distress. This study aimed to explore the psychological impact of province-wide lockdown and personal quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak in China as well as the corresponding risk factors and protective factors.MethodsWe examined the immediate (2-week) and delayed (2-month) impact of province-wide lockdown and personal quarantine on psychological distress in a national sample of 1390 Chinese residents.ResultsNo immediate impact of province-wide lockdown on psychological distress was observed, whereas personal quarantine increased individuals’ anxiety, fear, and anger. Despite the lack of initial association, psychological distress increased among those in province-wide lockdown. Self-stigma and personal control both significantly moderated the association between lockdown and psychological distress, but in different directions. Those with higher self-stigma and lower personal control were more impacted by the lockdown. Government support moderated the impact of quarantine on psychological distress, but not that of lockdown.ConclusionsThe delayed effects of lockdown and quarantine on psychological distress were observed, and self-stigma, social support, and perceived control moderate the relationships. This study is the first to demonstrate the psychological costs of province-wide lockdowns on individuals’ mental health, providing evidence of the need for mitigation strategies and timely public mental health preparedness in countries with recent outbreaks of COVID-19.

12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 151: 633-637, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent that pre-COVID-19 comorbid PTSD-depression symptoms prospectively predict mental distress among older adults during COVID-19. METHODS: We used the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel), and focused on older adults who participated in 2015 and 2020 and were aged 60 years old or above in 2020 (N = 754). Mental distress was measured via symptoms of depression, feeling anxious\nervous, and loneliness. RESULTS: Older adults who suffered from PTSD-depression comorbidity prior to the pandemic showed the highest risk of feeling more depressed, anxious\nervous, and lonelier than those with no pre-pandemic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that it would be beneficial to prioritize those older adults with a comorbid PTSD-depression diagnosis for interventions, as they are at the highest risk for mental distress in the event of a new stressor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
13.
Geriatr Nurs ; 46: 132-136, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867151

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exposed healthcare workers (HW) to heavy workload and psychological distress. This study was aimed to investigate distress levels among Italian physicians, nurses, rehabilitation professionals and healthcare assistants working in geriatric and long-term care services, and to explore the potential role of resilience as a protective resource. The General Health Questionnaire-12, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and a demographic survey were completed by 708 Italian HWs. Distress and resilience levels were compared between professionals through ANOVA; the contribution of sex, age, professional role, and resilience to distress was explored through regression analyses. Physicians reported significantly higher resilience and distress levels than rehabilitation professionals and healthcare assistants respectively. Women, HWs aged above 45, physicians, and participants reporting low resilience levels were at higher risk for distress. Findings suggest the importance of supporting HW's resilience to counterbalance the pandemic related distress.

14.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866684

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to examine the relationship of fear of COVID-19 with well-being and life satisfaction through psychological distress among the college students in India. The study was conducted in two waves of the pandemic-during first and second waves of the COVID-19 among college students. A survey was conducted among 768 and 884 students in first and second waves of COVID-19 respectively for this purpose. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The study found out that the fear of COVID-19 positively related to psychological distress and negatively to well-being and life satisfaction and the effects were stronger in second wave. Also, the psychological distress mediates the relationship between fear of COVID-19 with well-being and life satisfaction, and the relationships were stronger during second wave. Proper coping strategies and mechanisms can be helpful to overcome the difficulties of such situation.

15.
J Dev Phys Disabil ; : 1-16, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866649

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak affected the daily lives of individuals with Down syndrome, who were considered to have a higher risk of severe infection. While several studies have reported mental health issues in children and/or parents in the general population, no study has focused on people with Down syndrome and their caregivers. This study investigated the disinfection behaviors of individuals with Down syndrome and their caregivers' stress. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in October 2020. Caregivers of children and adults with Down syndrome were administered questionnaires including measures for practiced disinfection behavior in children, caregiver's child-related stress, and psychological distress. About half of the respondents' children practiced hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors, while physical distancing was performed less frequently. Habitual practices in physical distancing are affected by intellectual function. Logistic regression showed that caregivers' stress was associated with the irritability of individuals with the disorder (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-42.09) and the burden of infection-prevention behaviors for people with Down syndrome (adjusted OR = 4.26, 95% CI 1.88-9.65). This study showed the characteristics of disinfection behaviors in individuals with Down syndrome and associated factors for serious caregiver stress.

16.
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities ; 16(2):69-75, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1865057

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of an adapted compassion-focused therapy (CFT) group treatment programme for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID), specifically aimed to help address maladaptive conceptualisations of masculinity.Design/methodology/approach>Outcome measurements were competed at pre- and post-group and the effectiveness of the intervention were assessed using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test.Findings>Findings demonstrated that the treatment group showed significant differences in their “gender role conflict” subscales including the Success, Power, Control and “Restrictive Affectionate Behavior Between Men” subscales;however, no significant differences were found on the Restrictive Emotionality or Conflicts Between Work and Leisure subscales. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on participants psychological well-being, psychological distress, anxiety, self-compassion or quality of life measures.Research limitations/implications>Limitations include that a lack of qualitative information regarding outcomes, a lack of control group and a small number of participants may have impacted the outcome of the research.Practical implications>The Men’s Masculinity group had a positive impact on the participant’s sense of success, power and control, so it could be considered that this group enabled participants to feel more powerful and in control of their difficulties which is associated with the “drive” system of CFT.Originality/value>Overall, this study adds to the small but growing literature that supports using CFT groups as a stand-alone psychological intervention when working with people with an ID.

17.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 17(1): 11, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health effects of healthcare work during the COVID-19 pandemic have been substantial, but it is not known how long they will persist. This study aimed to determine if hospital workers' burnout and psychological distress increased monotonically over 1 year, during which waves of case numbers and hospitalizations waxed and waned, or followed some other pattern. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal survey was conducted at four time-points over 1 year in a cohort of 538 hospital workers and learners, which included validated measures of burnout (emotional exhaustion scale of Maslach Burnout Inventory) and psychological distress (K6). Repeated measures ANOVA tested changes over time and differences between subjects by occupational role, age and ethnic group. The direction and magnitude of changes over time were investigated by plotting rates of high scores (using cut-offs) at each time-point compared to case rates of COVID-19 in the city in which the study took place. RESULTS: There were significant effects of occupational role (F = 11.2, p < .001) and age (F = 12.8, p < .001) on emotional exhaustion. The rate of high burnout was highest in nurses, followed by other healthcare professionals, other clinical staff, and lowest in non-clinical staff. Peak rates of high burnout occurred at the second or third measurement point for each occupational group, with lower rates at the fourth measurement point. Similarly to the results for emotional exhaustion, rates of high psychological distress peaked at the spring 2021 measurement point for most occupational groups and were higher in nurses than in other healthcare professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Neither emotional exhaustion nor psychological distress was rising monotonically. Burnout and psychological distress were consistently related to occupational role and were highest in nurses. Although emotional exhaustion improved as the case rate of COVID-19 decreased, rates of high emotional exhaustion in nurses and other healthcare professionals remained higher than was typically measured in hospital-based healthcare workers prior to the pandemic. Ongoing monitoring of healthcare workers' mental health is warranted. Organizational and individual interventions to support healthcare workers continue to be important.

18.
BMC Nurs ; 21(1): 128, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the Chinese government took measures to prevent and control the spread of the virus. In-person teaching was replaced by distance learning, which was an unknown challenge for students. In this context, little is known about the perceived distress of nursing students and the relationship between psychological capital, perceived distress, and psychological stress. This study examined the relationship between psychological capital, psychological distress, and perceived stress, and the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between perceived stress and psychological distress among nursing students. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and December 2020 using a convenience sampling method involving 359 undergraduate and specialist nursing students at a tertiary hospital in Shandong Province. Standardised instruments were used to measure psychological capital, psychological stress, and perceived stress. We used SPSS 24.0 and PROCESS macro to analyse the data. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in perceived stress among students based on whether they liked the nursing profession (P < 0.01). Relative to nursing college students, undergraduates experienced significantly higher levels of perceived stress (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in perceived stress according to gender, place of residence, and being an only child. Psychological distress was positively correlated (r = 0.632, p < 0.001) with perceived stress (r =-0.662, p < 0.001), whereas it was negatively correlated with psychological capital. Psychological capital played a potential mediating role in the relationship between psychological distress and perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress was negatively correlated with psychological capital, and positively correlated with perceived stress. Mediation analyses indicated that psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and psychological distress. Educators should therefore heed students' perceived stress and develop appropriate mental health counselling programmes for students in the curriculum that could help them reduce their psychological distress. In clinical practice, nursing managers must take effective measures, such as skills training, to improve the psychological capital of nursing students and reduce the negative impact of their psychological distress.

19.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 118: 110578, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864636

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggested that people with severe mental disorders were more vulnerable to the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few researches investigated the influence of global pandemics on people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical symptoms, psychological distress, and eye-tracking characteristics in CHR individuals and healthy participants. Forty-nine CHR individuals and 50 healthy controls (HC) were assessed by PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item version (PSS-10), and Coronavirus Impact Scale (CIS). Eye movement performances were measured by the tests of fixation stability, free-viewing, and anti-saccade. According to the mean score of CIS, participants were stratified into high-impact (n = 35) and low-impact (n = 64) subgroups. Compared with the HC group, CHR participants reported significantly higher levels of post-traumatic symptoms caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and showed abnormalities in most of the eye movement indexes. Among the altered indexes, the saccade amplitude of fixation stability test (far distractor), the scan path length of free-viewing test, and the accuracy of anti-saccade test were negatively affected by the severity of impact level in the CHR group. Moreover, the altered eye movement indexes were significantly associated with the total scores of CIS, PCL-5, and subscales of the Scale of Prodromal Syndromes (SOPS) among CHR individuals. Overall, our findings suggested the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the eye movement characteristics of CHR individuals. The present study provides valuable information on physiological distress related to the COVID-19 pandemic and sensitive neuropsychological biomarkers that interacted with social and environment stress in the CHR population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans , Pandemics , Prodromal Symptoms , Psychotic Disorders/psychology
20.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1):541-550, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863125

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic as a large scale stressor could have negative effects on the mental health of medical students. Since gender differences in mental health may exist, it is important to see if a large scale stressor like the pandemic may be associated with variances in the psychological distress between both genders. Objectives: To assess and compare the psychological distress of male and female medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1010 medical students from three universities in southwestern Nigeria with-in the first six months of the first reported case of the COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents were purposively selected. Data was ob-tained online on participants’ demographic and psychological distress using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 21, student t and chi-square tests were used to assess gender differences, and multivariate regression to assess the predictors of psychological distress among both genders. p values less than 0.05were considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, female participants (OR=1.455, 95% CI= 1.095-1.936) were twice more likely to have experienced psychological distress than males during the COVID-19 pandemic. Age (OR=0.922, 95% CI= 0.867-0.979), being in pre-clinical years (OR= 1.394, 95% CI= 1.004-1.938), having a family income less than 100,000 naira (OR= 1.379, 95% CI=1.442-6.723) a previous history of mental illness (OR=3.077, 95% CI= 1.430-6.615) and having a relative/acquaintance diagnosed with COVID 19(OR=1.646, 95% CI= 1.062-2.551) were independently associated with psychological distress among the respondents. When comparing both genders, among females, age (OR=0.886, 95% CI= 0.803-0.978), family income less than 100,000 naira (OR=1.898, 95% CI= 1.306-2.759) and a previous history of mental illness (OR=5.266, 95% CI= 1.894-14.635) were associated with psychological distress, while, being in pre-clinical years (OR= 1.713, 95% CI= 1.052-2.790) was associated with psychological distress among males. Conclusion: Females had more psychological distress compared to male students. It is recommended that gender-specific interven-tions addressing psychological distress among medical students are instituted. © 2022 Idowu OM et al. Licensee African Health Sciences.

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