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1.
National Science Review ; 9(4):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821757

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant flared up in late May in Guangzhou, China. Transmission characteristics of Delta variant were analysed for 153 confirmed cases and two complete transmission chains with seven generations were fully presented. A rapid transmission occurred in five generations within 10 days. The basic reproduction number (R-0) was 3.60 (95% confidence interval: 2.50-5.30). After redefining the concept of close contact, the proportion of confirmed cases discovered from close contacts increased from 43% to 100%. With the usage of a yellow health code, the potential exposed individuals were self-motivated to take a nucleic acid test and regained public access with a negative testing result. Facing the massive requirement of screening, novel facilities like makeshift inflatable laboratories were promptly set up as a vital supplement and 17 cases were found, with 1 pre-symptomatic. The dynamic adjustment of these three interventions resulted in the decline of Rt from 5.00 to 1.00 within 9 days. By breaking the transmission chain and eliminating the transmission source through extending the scope of the close-contact tracing, health-code usage and mass testing, the Guangzhou Delta epidemic was effectively contained.

2.
Telemedicine and E-Health ; : 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Owing to the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, the demand for telemedicine has increased. However, the awareness of and experience with telemedicine among the Korean population have not been investigated. Therefore, we examined Korean outpatients' experience with and awareness of telemedicine.Methods: From December 2020 to March 2021, we conducted a survey exploring the awareness of and experience with telemedicine of outpatients who were consecutively enrolled by family physicians from four hospitals. The participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, experience, satisfaction, preference, and future considerations concerning telemedicine. We evaluated factors associated with satisfaction with telemedicine experiences using multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the 563 study participants, 364 participants had experience with telemedicine. More than 95% of the telemedicine visits were performed by telephone consultation, and the most common disease type for telemedicine visits was chronic diseases (67.5%). Overall, 82.4% of the participants were satisfied with telemedicine. More than 90% of the participants were satisfied with telemedicine in terms of saving time and money relative to hospital visits, no risk of infection, and convenience. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, adults aged >= 65 years (odds ratio [OR] 3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-8.68), residents of a metropolitan city (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.41-32.55), and those with knowledge of telemedicine (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.21-7.26) were more likely to be satisfied with their telemedicine experience, compared with their counterparts. For chronic diseases, participants with telemedicine experience were significantly more likely to prefer telemedicine for revisits, compared with those with no telemedicine experience. Nonetheless, most respondents recognized that telemedicine requires improvement.Conclusions: Most Korean outpatients showed high satisfaction with telemedicine. Telemedicine may be considered in various medical situations in the future. Therefore, building a practical system for telemedicine and changes in the medical environment are required.

3.
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era ; 21(2):111-149, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821564
4.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 155664, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821476

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance for infectious disease expanded greatly during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a collaboration between sanitation engineers and scientists, the most cost-effective deployment of wastewater surveillance routinely tests wastewater samples from wastewater treatment plants. To evaluate the capacity of treatment plants of different sizes and characteristics to participate in surveillance efforts, we developed and distributed a survey to New York State municipal treatment plant supervisors in the summer and fall of 2021. The goal of the survey was to assess the knowledge, capacity, and attitudes toward wastewater surveillance as a public health tool. Our objectives were to: (1) determine what treatment plant operators know about wastewater surveillance for public health;(2) assess how plant operators feel about the affordability and benefits of wastewater surveillance;and (3) determine how frequently plant personnel can take and ship samples using existing resources. Results show that 62% of respondents report capacity to take grab samples twice weekly. Knowledge about wastewater surveillance is mixed with most supervisors knowing that COVID-19 can be tested in wastewater but having less knowledge about surveillance for other public health issues such as opioids. We find that attitudes toward wastewater testing for public health are directly associated with differences in self-reported capacity of the plant to take samples. Further, findings suggest a diverse capacity for sampling across sewer systems with larger treatment plants reporting greater capacity for more frequent sampling. Findings provide guidance for outreach activities as well as important insight into treatment plant capacity as they are connected to internal factors such as size and resource availability. These may help public health departments understand the limitations and ability of wastewater surveillance for public health benefit.

5.
Indian Veterinary Journal ; 98(8):9-12, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820647

ABSTRACT

While thecovid -19 pandemic has been devastating and disrupting the normal life of people across the globe, veterinarians have crucial obligations, opportunities, and contributions to make the country self-reliant, self-sufficient and self-sustaining. They accomplish this by enhancing the health and wellbeing of animals, environment and community. They also aid in detecting and responding to zoonotic diseases, maintaining food security and water quality, and promoting wildlife and ecosystem health. Failing to seize this moment could definitely undermine public health and global security for generations. Despite the fact that the strategic modifications of the veterinary education system, client dealing as well as the trade and investment regulations implemented in the aftermath of the covid-19 pandemic has an immense prospective for progress, there are several pitfalls in this system. This must be addressed in order to face the challenge, accept the future and relinquish the opportunities to create a more sustainable profession.

6.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):1672-1678, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820632

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Globally anemia is one of the most important health problems. Adolescents are young people between the ages of 10 to 19 years. Anemia in adolescence may cause a wide range of functional consequences across the life course, including reduced resistance to infection, impaired physical performance and neurodevelopment, and suboptimal schooling outcomes. Aims and objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anemia, to determine the morphological types and patterns of anemia and to assess the etiological factors for different types of anemia among adolescent age group of Eastern India. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted in the department of Hematology at a tertiary care center in Bihar with a sample size of 200 cases. All patients belonging to adolescent age group (10-19 years) having sign and symptoms of anemia were chosen for study whereas children less than 10 years, patients on hematinic and Covid and viral positive cases were excluded. Clinical and demographic data along with hematological findings were retrieved from medical records and data were analysed by SPSS version 25. Results: 55% (n=110) patients were males while 45% (n=90) were females. Amongst males, 31.9% (n=23) were anemic in early adolescent age group and 39.4% (n=15) were anemic in age group 15-19years. While in females, 48.8% (n=21) were anemic in early adolescents and 78.7% (n=37) were anemic in late adolescent age group. Overall prevalence of anaemia among the study subjects was found to be 40.9 %. The prevalence of mild and moderate anaemia was almost similar, each comprising of 39.1% and 39 % respectively whereas 3.1% cases had severe anaemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst adolescents was a moderate public health problem. Factors associated with anemia were low socioeconomic status, rural background, larger family size, poor dietary habits and personal hygiene.

7.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):2360-2374, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820591

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus outbreak has challenged the medical, public health infrastructure and economic status of nearly all countries across the World. The main issue of concern with SARS-CoV-2 has been the high infectivity rate and the high mortality rate especially, observed during the wave 2 of COVID-19. The symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 are often misleading with influenza and another respiratory tract seasonal viral infection as, majority of the patients report common constitutional symptoms. Hence, correct diagnosis for COVID-19 may play a key role in early detection, management and curtailment in the transmission rate.Therefore, apart from limiting this outbreak, efforts need to be made to plan comprehensive and stringent measures to develop diagnostic tools to prevent future outbreaks of this zoonotic disease. The present manuscript provides a detailed description of various indices and parameters which are currently being used for easier, rapid, accurate diagnosis, medical managementand prognosis assessment of COVID-19 patients in various stages of the disease.

8.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 48:102348, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted stringent public health measures such as hand hygiene, face mask wearing, and physical distancing to contain the spread of the viral infection. In this retrospective study, the secondary outcomes of those public health measures on containing other respiratory infections among the Thai population were investigated. Hospitalization data spanning from 2016 to 2021 of six respiratory infectious diseases, namely influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis (TB), were examined. First, the expected respiratory infectious cases where no public health measures are in place are estimated using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Then the expected number of cases and the observed cases were compared. The results showed a significant drop in the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases by an average of 61%. The reduction in hospitalization is significant for influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever (p < 0.05), while insignificant for TB (p = 0.54). The notable decrease in the incidence of cases is ascribed to the implementation of public health measures that minimized the opportunity for spread of disease. This decline in cases following relaxation of pandemic countermeasure is contingent on its scope and nature, and it is proof that selective physical distancing, hand hygiene, and use of face masks in public places is a viable route for mitigating respiratory morbidities.

9.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 155663, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819600

ABSTRACT

Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) is emerging as a reliable platform for quantifying microorganisms in the field of health-related water microbiology. This paper reviews the fundamental principles of dPCR and its applications for health-related water microbiology. The relevant literature indicates increasing adoption of dPCR for measuring fecal indicator bacteria, microbial source tracking marker genes, and pathogens in various aquatic environments. The adoption of dPCR has accelerated recently due to increasing use for wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 the virus that causes COVID-19. The collective experience in the scientific literature indicates that well-optimized dPCR assays can quantify genetic fragments of microorganisms without the need for a calibration curve and often with superior analytical performance (i.e., greater sensitivity, precision, and reproducibility) than quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Nonetheless, dPCR should not be viewed as a panacea for the fundamental uncertainties and limitations associated with measuring microorganisms in health-related water microbiology. With dPCR platforms, the sample analysis cost and processing time typically are greater than qPCR. However, if improved analytical performance (i.e., sensitivity and accuracy) is required, dPCR can be an alternative option for quantifying microorganisms, including pathogens, in aquatic environments.

10.
Saúde Soc ; 30(4): e191008, 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1817557

ABSTRACT

Resumen En América Latina, el 15% de las mujeres son trabajadoras domésticas remuneradas. Esta ocupación se realiza casi en el 80% de los casos bajo la informalidad, por lo que se trata de una ocupación sin protección social ni derechos laborales. A su vez, la salud de las trabajadoras domésticas debe considerarse, al menos, bajo una triple determinación: la precarización del empleo, las desigualdades de clase social, y las de género. Es importante generar marcos normativos que reduzcan las desigualdades en salud de los/as trabajadores/as precarios/as, en este sentido, Argentina y Uruguay promovieron la promulgación de leyes laborales sobre trabajo doméstico remunerado. En el presente artículo se describen las experiencias entre ambos países sobre los alcances e impactos en la salud del proceso de regularización de este empleo. Sin embargo, se observa un impacto limitado de la formalización del empleo en el trabajo doméstico remunerado, con dificultades para aplicar el modelo de protección del trabajo asalariado tradicional. La legitimación de los derechos también puede llevar a la salud pública y a la salud de los/as trabajadores/as hacia nuevos desafíos y tensiones, que se agravan en el contexto de la pandemia por covid-19.


Abstract In Latin America, 15% of women are paid domestic workers. Being a job without social security or labor rights, almost 80% of this work is done informally. In this sense, the health of these domestic workers should be considered at least under three aspects: precarization of work, social inequality, and gender inequality. Before the need for regulatory frameworks aimed at reducing health inequalities among informal workers, Argentina and Uruguay promoted the enactment of labor laws regarding paid domestic work. This study describes the experiences of both countries, considering the scope and impact of this formalization process on health. The results indicate that formalizing paid domestic work had but a limited impact, with difficulties in applying the traditional model of paid work protection. This legitimation of labor rights may also pose more challenges and tensions for public health and occupational health, which are worsened in the context of the covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Women, Working , Public Health , Occupational Health , Employment
11.
Klimik Dergisi/Klimik Journal ; 35(1):30-35, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819125

ABSTRACT

Objective: Healthcare professionals will be key to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs because they are in the primary vaccination group. This study aims to measure and evaluate the acceptance, attitudes, and behaviors of healthcare professionals towards the COVID-19 vaccine.

12.
Klimik Dergisi/Klimik Journal ; 35(1):21-25, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819124

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency. Physicians are at high risk for COVID-19 due to their occupational exposure to infected patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the opinions of physicians, who are at the forefront of the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, on prophylaxis and probable vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 infection through a questionnaire.

13.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(12), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819094
14.
Investigacion Clinica ; 62(Suplemento 2):43-57, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818975

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the coronavirus disease COVID-19 began in China. Since then, millions of infections and deaths from this cause have been reported worldwide, particularly among health workers who have suffered the harsh onslaught of the pandemic in the context of healthcare systems collapsed by demand. In this sense, the objective of this work was to determine the prevalence, sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 present in health workers of the "Instituto Aut..nomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes" in M..rida-Venezuela. An observational, retrospective, single-center, documentary study was carried out, where 297 clinical-epidemiological records corresponding to 285 health workers were analyzed, in a period between March 16 and November 30, 2020. The records were separated into two groups, front-line workers and support workers. The overall positivity of the RT-PCRs performed was 31.6%. The frequency of positive confirmatory results was highest among support workers at 33.9%. Nursing staff had the highest positivity (39.5%). A seroprevalence of 34.3% was found in immunological tests. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among health care workers was higher among support workers compared to front-line workers. Therefore, general and work-specific prevention strategies should be strengthened to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among staff to ensure that they perform safely and effectively.

15.
Journal of Isfahan Medical School ; 39(655), 2022.
Article in Persian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818971

ABSTRACT

Background: At the time of disease outbreaks, hospital staff's mental health may be affected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the level of health anxiety of employees in the corona referral hospital and non-referral hospital of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

16.
IDB Working Paper Series - Inter-American Development Bank|2021. (IDB-WP-1270):39 pp. 42 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818858

ABSTRACT

In cities around the world, Covid-19 lockdowns have improved outdoor air quality, in some cases dramatically. Even if only temporary, these improvements could have longer-lasting effects on policy by making chronic air pollution more salient and boosting political pressure for change. To that end, it is important to develop objective estimates of both the air quality improvements associated with Covid-19 lockdowns and the benefits these improvements generate. We use panel data econometric models to estimate the effect of Bogot..s lockdown on fine particulate pollution, epidemiological models to simulate the effect of reductions in that pollution on long-term and short-term mortality, and benefit transfer methods to estimate the monetary value of the avoided mortality. We find that in its first year of implementation, on average, Bogot..s lockdown cut fine particulate pollution by more than one-fifth. However, the magnitude of that effect varied considerably over the course of the year and across the citys neighborhoods. Equivalent permanent reductions in fine particulate pollution would reduce long-term premature deaths by more than one-quarter each year, a benefit valued at $670 million per year. Finally, we estimate that in 2020-2021, the lockdown reduced short-term deaths by 31 percent, a benefit valued at $180 million.

17.
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica ; 39(1):104-110, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818847

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has shown in Peru the usefulness of having a structured laboratory surveillance system in operation for the last 22 years, such as Influenza, in response to the probable emergence of variants with epidemic or pandemic potential, initially in the form of sentinel units, and then strengthening and innovating, with own resources and external support to generate quality information. Biotechnological advances have been implemented for diagnostic confirmation and increased capacities in the national network of laboratories, facing to maintaining the efficiency, considering the diverse and complex realities of the regional levels, and overcoming difficulties in communication and articulation between institutions. It is necessary to consolidate this system with collaborative and coordinated work between components to boost its effectiveness and timeliness and promote genomic surveillance of new viruses and new variants, as currently occurs with SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Disease Prevention and Public Health Journal ; 15(2):96-102, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818746

ABSTRACT

Background: Age influences pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women aged less than 20 years old or pregnant adolescents are not physically and mentally ready to cope with pregnancy or childbirth. The husband's support highly determines the health status of the mother. This research aimed to determine the relationship between husband support and the behavior of pregnant adolescents to face pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Gombong District, Kebumen Regency. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional approach. The population was all pregnant women aged less than 20 years in the Gombong District, Kebumen Regency. It used a saturated sampling technique involving 256 people. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis to answer the percentage and the Chi-Square test to answer the research hypothesis. Results: The study showed that 130 (50.8%) husbands did not support the mothers, and 126 (49.2%) husbands supported the mothers. The result also showed that 116 (45.3%) of the pregnant women showed positive behavior, while140 (54.7%) pregnant women showed negative behavior. The chi-square test found a p-value of 0.005, which proved a significant relationship between the husband's support and the behavior of pregnant adolescents to overcome pregnancy during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Pregnant teenagers with husband support will prepare for pregnancy and childbirth programs more maturely to ensure the safety of both mother and fetus.

19.
Disease Prevention and Public Health Journal ; 15(2):64-70, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818745

ABSTRACT

Background: Hoax is still a problem in the era of information disclosure and technological advances currently. News or information containing hoax related to Covid-19 affects the handling effort of the Covid-19 pandemic. This research aimed to describe the behavior of health faculty students in responding to the hoaxes associated with Covid-19 on social media. Method: This research was a descriptive study. The sampling technique used was random sampling. The samples were 384 students who were required to complete the questionnaire. The statistical test used was descriptive statistical analysis. Results: The results obtained in this study were that respondents considered Facebook as the most widely used social media for spreading hoaxes (68%). Respondents thought that cross-checking the accuracy and validity of information is a step that should be performed when receiving hoax news (85%). Respondents stated that they dug up information through official government websites regarding the handling of Covid-19 to check the statement's truth (65%). Some respondents did not cross-check the news or information related to Covid-19 due to the assumption that someone else had done it. Conclusion: Most respondents have cross-checked news or information about Covid-19. Extracting information through official government websites on handling Covid-19 has also been taken to check the accuracy and validity of the statement.

20.
Medicinski Casopis ; 55(2):59-65, 2021.
Article in Croatian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818623

ABSTRACT

Objective. Determination of the correlations between the search for key terms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the course of the epidemic in Serbia. Methods. A survey was conducted as a cross-sectional study, in November 2020. The research was conducted through the Google Trends website. This open-access platform is based on automatic data collection to estimate the percentage of searches for relevant keywords of interest. The data collected were anonymous and were divided by days, months, years, and geographical regions. Results. The study included 32 key terms related to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a statistically significant positive correlation with the number of registered cases per day for the terms: "coronavirus", "corona", "covid-19", "covid", " COVID", "virus", "corona symptoms", "loss of smell", "loss of taste", "loss of smell and taste", "loss of sense of smell", "loss of sense of taste", "pneumonia", " COVID infirmary", "infirmary", " COVID test", "corona test", "PCR", "serology ", "antibodies ", "corona antibodies", "vaccine ", "corona vaccine". Conclusion. The shown correlation between the search for appropriate terms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the course of the epidemic in Serbia can significantly help in predicting the course of the COVID-19 epidemic. In the future, we should work on developing predictive models and software tools based on these resources, not only for COVID-19, but also for other diseases, which would monitor Internet searches in real-time, all with the aim of adequate and timely organization of public health activities.

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