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1.
Health Affairs ; JOUR(11):1559-1561, 41.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2101206
2.
International Journal of Health Policy and Management ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101008

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid, strategic action is required to mitigate the negative and unequal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial well-being (FWB) of global populations. Personal financial strain (FS) worsened most significantly among systematically excluded groups. Targeted government-and community-led initiatives are needed to address these inequities. The purpose of this applied research was to identify what works for whom, under what conditions, and why in relation to community and government initiatives that promote personal and household FWB and/or address FS in high income economies.Methods: We employed a critical realist analysis to literature that reported on FWB/FS initiatives in high income countries. This included initiatives introduced in response to the pandemic as well as those that began prior to the pandemic. We included sources based on a rapid review. We coded academic, published literature (n=39) and practice-based (n=36) reports abductively to uncover generative mechanisms - i.e., underlying, foundational factors related to community or government initiatives that either constrained and/or enabled FWB and FS.Results: We identified two generative mechanisms: 1. neoliberal ideology;and, 2. social equity ideology. A third mechanism, social location (e.g., characteristics of identity, location of residence), cut across the two ideologies and demonstrated for whom the initiatives worked (or did not) in what circumstances. Neoliberal ideology (i.e., individual responsibility) dominated initiative designs, which limited the positive impact on FS. This was particularly true for people who occupied systematically excluded social locations (e.g., low-income young mothers). Social equity-based initiatives were less common within the literature, yet mostly had a positive impact on FWB and produced equitable outcomes.Conclusion: Equity-centric initiatives are required to improve FWB and reduce FS among systemically excluded and marginalized groups. These findings are of relevance now as nations strive for financial recovery in the face of the ongoing global pandemic.

3.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; JOUR(11), 22.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100065

ABSTRACT

Traffic-related emissions continue to be a significant source of air pollution in the United States (US) and around the globe. Evidence has shown that previous policies implemented to restrict -traffic flows have affected air pollution levels. Thus, mitigation strategies associated with the COVID-19 pandemic that modified population-level mobility patterns provide a unique opportunity to study air pollution change across the US. For instance, to slow the spread of the pandemic, state and local governments started implementing various mitigation actions, including stay-at-home directives, social distancing measures, school closures, and travel restrictions. This scoping review aimed to summarize the existing evidence about how air quality changed through mitigation practices throughout the pandemic in the US. We found 66 articles that fit our inclusion criteria. Generally, the consolidated results revealed that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) decreased across the country. Studies observed mixed directions and magnitudes of change for fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Few articles tried to explain this notable heterogeneity in air quality changes by associating contextual factors, such as mobility, traffic flow, and demographic factors. However, all studies agreed that the change in air pollution was nonuniform across the US and even varied within a city.

5.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 14-18, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100344

ABSTRACT

Durante dos años y medio, tanto en Colombia como en el resto del mundo, hemos enfrentado la pandemia generada por el SARS-CoV-2, agudizando los múltiples problemas de salud pública que venían cursando a manera de sindemias. Tal es el caso de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles asociadas, entre otros factores, a los malos hábitos alimenticios, especialmente por el gran consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y bebidas azucaradas. En julio del 2021, se aprobó la Ley 2120, por medio de la cual se adoptaron medidas para fomentar entornos alimentarios saludables. Entre estas medidas, también se promueve que los alimentos empacados, procesados y que afectan negativamente la salud humana, tengan un sello que identifique sus componentes y valor nutricional para informar a los consumidores sobre el producto que están comprando o consumiendo. Entre las enfermedades más prevalentes en Colombia que afectan la salud bucal, se encuentran las caries y las periodontitis, ambas con factores de riesgo comunes con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Dados sus costos y prevalencia, dichas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles resultan primordiales desde un enfoque de gestión del riesgo en salud pública, siendo, quizá, su gravedad mayor durante la pandemia generada por el SARS CoV-2. Asimismo, se especula que la población confinada pudo llegar a consumir más comida chatarra durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en comparación con otros períodos, además, porque en aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, el confinamiento obligado se asocia con mayor sedentarismo y con un menor número de controles médicos regulares, asuntos que se han reportado previamente. La promulgación de la ley de comida chatarra no va a cambiar los hábitos de alimentación de los colombianos "de la noche a la mañana" y, por esto, se necesita con urgencia implementar procesos de educación y sensibilización frente a los efectos adversos de los alimentos procesados y ultraprocesados en la salud.


Durante dos años y medio, tanto en Colombia como en el resto del mundo, hemos enfrentado la pandemia generada por el SARS-CoV-2, agudizando los múltiples problemas de salud pública que venían cursando a manera de sindemias. Tal es el caso de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles asociadas, entre otros factores, a los malos hábitos alimenticios, especialmente por el gran consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y bebidas azucaradas. En julio del 2021, se aprobó la Ley 2120, por medio de la cual se adoptaron medidas para fomentar entornos alimentarios saludables. Entre estas medidas, también se promueve que los alimentos empacados, procesados y que afectan negativamente la salud humana, tengan un sello que identifique sus componentes y valor nutricional para informar a los consumidores sobre el producto que están comprando o consumiendo. Entre las enfermedades más prevalentes en Colombia que afectan la salud bucal, se encuentran las caries y las periodontitis, ambas con factores de riesgo comunes con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Dados sus costos y prevalencia, dichas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles resultan primordiales desde un enfoque de gestión del riesgo en salud pública, siendo, quizá, su gravedad mayor durante la pandemia generada por el SARS CoV-2. Asimismo, se especula que la población confinada pudo llegar a consumir más comida chatarra durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en comparación con otros períodos, además, porque en aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, el confinamiento obligado se asocia con mayor sedentarismo y con un menor número de controles médicos regulares, asuntos que se han reportado previamente. La promulgación de la ley de comida chatarra no va a cambiar los hábitos de alimentación de los colombianos "de la noche a la mañana" y, por esto, se necesita con urgencia implementar procesos de educación y sensibilización frente a los efectos adversos de los alimentos procesados y ultraprocesados en la salud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Colombia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies
6.
Korean J Women Health Nurs ; 26(2): 106-108, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099985
7.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099401

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 global epidemic, it is particularly important to use limited medical resources to improve the systemic control of infectious diseases. There is a situation where a shortage of medical resources and an uneven distribution of resources in China exist. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate understanding of the current status of the healthcare system in China and to improve the efficiency of their infectious disease control methods. In this study, the MP-SBM-Shannon entropy model (modified panel slacks-based measure Shannon entropy model) was proposed and applied to measure the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies (disposal efficiency) in China from 2012 to 2018. First, a P-SBM (panel slacks-based measure) model, with undesirable outputs based on panel data, is given in this paper. This model measures the efficiency of all DMUs based on the same technical frontier and can be used for the dynamic efficiency analysis of panel data. Then, the MP-SBM model is applied to solve the specific efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model caused by the objective data structure. Finally, based on the MP-SBM model, undesirable outputs are considered in the original efficiency matrix alignment combination for the deficiencies of the existing Shannon entropy-DEA model. The comparative analysis shows that the MP-SBM-Shannon model not only solves the problem of the efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model but also improves the MP-SBM model identification ability and provides a complete ranking with certain advantages. The results of the study show that the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies in China shows an upward trend, but the average combined efficiency is less than 0.47. Therefore, there is still much room for improvement in the efficiency of infectious disease prevention and control in China. It is found that the staffing problem within the Center for Disease Control and the health supervision office are two stumbling blocks.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e40558, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital contact tracing (DCT) apps have been implemented as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has focused on understanding acceptance and adoption of these apps, but more work is needed to understand the factors that may contribute to their sustained use. This is key to public health because DCT apps require a high uptake rate to decrease the transmission of the virus within the general population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand changes in the use of the National Health Service Test & Trace (T&T) COVID-19 DCT app and explore how public trust in the app evolved over a 1-year period. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study consisting of a digital survey in December 2020 followed by another digital survey and interview in November 2021, in which responses from 9 participants were explored in detail. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. This paper focuses on the thematic analysis to unpack the reasoning behind participants' answers. RESULTS: In this paper, 5 themes generated through thematic analysis are discussed: flaws in the T&T app, usefulness and functionality affecting trust in the app, low trust in the UK government, varying degrees of trust in other stakeholders, and public consciousness and compliance dropping over time. Mistrust evolved from participants experiencing sociotechnical flaws in the app and led to concerns about the app's usefulness. Similarly, mistrust in the government was linked to perceived poor pandemic handling and the creation and procurement of the app. However, more variability in trust in other stakeholders was highlighted depending on perceived competence and intentions. For example, Big Tech companies (ie, Apple and Google), large hospitality venues, and private contractors were seen as more capable, but participants mistrust their intentions, and small hospitality venues, local councils, and the National Health Service (ie, public health system) were seen as well-intentioned but there is mistrust in their ability to handle pandemic matters. Participants reported complying, or not, with T&T and pandemic guidance to different degrees but, overall, observed a drop in compliance over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to the wider implications of changes in DCT app use over time for public health. Findings suggest that trust in the wider T&T app ecosystem could be linked to changes in the use of the app; however, further empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to generalize the results because of the small, homogeneous sample. Initial novelty effects occurred with the app, which lessened over time as public concern and media representation of the pandemic decreased and normalization occurred. Trust in the sociotechnical capabilities of the app, stakeholders involved, and salience maintenance of the T&T app in conjunction with other measures are needed for sustained use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , State Medicine , Trust , United Kingdom
9.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(11): e38862, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the confinement that was implemented in Argentina generated a need to implement innovative tools for the strengthening of diabetes care. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a core element of diabetes care; however, because of COVID-19 restrictions, in-person diabetes educational activities were suspended. Social networks have played an instrumental role in this context to provide DSME in 2 cities of Argentina and help persons with diabetes in their daily self-management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2 diabetes education modalities (synchronous and asynchronous) using the social media platform Facebook through the content of posts on diabetes educational sessions in 2 cities of Argentina during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we explored 2 modalities of e-learning (synchronous and asynchronous) for diabetes education that used the Facebook pages of public health institutions in Chaco and La Rioja, Argentina, in the context of confinement. Social media metrics and the content of the messages posted by users were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 332 messages were analyzed. We found that in the asynchronous modality, there was a higher number of visualizations, while in the synchronous modality, there were more posts and interactions between educators and users. We also observed that the number of views increased when primary care clinics were incorporated as disseminators, sharing educational videos from the sessions via social media. Positive aspects were observed in the posts, consisting of messages of thanks and, to a lesser extent, reaffirmations, reflections or personal experiences, and consultations related to the subject treated. Another relevant finding was that the educator/moderator role had a greater presence in the synchronous modality, where posts were based on motivation for participation, help to resolve connectivity problems, and answers to specific user queries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show positive contributions of an educational intervention for diabetes care using the social media platform Facebook in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although each modality (synchronous vs asynchronous) could have differential and particular advantages, we believe that these strategies have potential to be replicated and adapted to other contexts. However, more documented experiences are needed to explore their sustainability and long-term impact from the users' perspective.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 806, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was revised in 2009 to be more congruent with national dietary guidelines. There is limited research examining effects of the revision on women's and children's health. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the revised WIC food package was associated with various indicators of physical and mental health for women and children. METHODS: We used 1998-2017 waves of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 81,771 women and 27,780 children) to estimate effects of the revised WIC food package on indicators of health for both women (self-reported health and body mass index) and children (anemia, mental health, and parent-reported health). We used difference-in-differences analysis, a quasi-experimental technique that assessed pre-post differences in outcomes among WIC-recipients while "differencing out" the secular underlying trends among a control group of non-recipients. RESULTS: For all outcomes evaluated for women and children, we were unable to rule out the null hypothesis that there was no effect of receiving the revised WIC food package. These findings were confirmed across several secondary analyses conducted to assess heterogeneity of effects and robustness of results. CONCLUSION: While we did not find effects of the revised WIC food package on downstream health indicators, studies using similarly robust methods in other datasets have found shorter-term effects on more proximal outcomes related to diet and nutrition. Effects of the modest WIC revisions may be less impactful on longer-term indicators of health, and future studies should examine the larger COVID-19-era expansion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Infant , Child , Female , Humans , Child Health , Women's Health , Food
11.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221131372, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated 2 innovative approaches that supported COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing (CI/CT) in Chicago communities: (1) early engagement of people diagnosed with COVID-19 by leveraging the existing Healthcare Alert Network to send automated telephone calls and text messages and (2) establishment of a network of on-site case investigators and contact tracers within partner health care facilities (HCFs) and community-based organizations (CBOs). METHODS: The Chicago Department of Public Health used Healthcare Alert Network data to calculate the proportion of people with confirmed COVID-19 who successfully received an automated telephone call or text message during December 27, 2020-April 24, 2021. The department also used CI/CT data to calculate the proportion of cases successfully interviewed and named contacts successfully notified, as well as the time to successful case interview and to successful contact notification. RESULTS: Of 67 882 people with COVID-19, 94.3% (n = 64 011) received an automated telephone call and 91.7% (n = 62 239) received a text message. Of the 65 470 COVID-19 cases pulled from CI/CT data, 24 450 (37.3%) interviews were completed, including 6212 (61.3%) of the 10 126 cases diagnosed in HCFs. The median time from testing to successful case interview was 3 days for Chicago Department of Public Health investigators and 4 days for HCF investigators. Overall, 34 083 contacts were named; 13 117 (38.5%) were successfully notified, including 9068 (36.6%) of the 24 761 contacts assigned to CBOs. The median time from contact elicitation to completed notification by CBOs was <24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Partnerships with HCFs and CBOs helped deliver timely CI/CT during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a potential benefit of engaging non-public health institutions in CI/CT for existing and emerging diseases.

12.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097847

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne disease risk is intrinsically linked to the distribution of tick vector species. To assess risk and anticipate disease emergence, an understanding of tick distribution, host associations, and seasonality is needed. This can be achieved, to some extent, using passive surveillance supported by engagement with the public, animal health, and public health experts. The Tick Surveillance Scheme (TSS) collects data and maps tick distribution across the United Kingdom (UK). Between 2017 and 2020, 3720 tick records were received and 39 tick species were detected. Most records were acquired in the UK, with a subset associated with recent overseas travel. The dominant UK acquired species was Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Linnaeus), the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Records peaked during May and June, highlighting a key risk period for tick bites. Other key UK species were detected, including Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Fabricius) and Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Canestrini & Fanzago) as well as several rarer species that may present novel tick-borne disease risk to humans and other animals. Updated tick distribution maps highlight areas in the UK where tick exposure has occurred. There is evidence of increasing human tick exposure over time, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, but seasonal patterns remain unchanged.

13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comparing disease severity between SARS-CoV-2 variants among populations with varied vaccination and infection histories can help characterize emerging variants and support healthcare system preparedness. METHODS: We compared COVID-19 hospitalization risk among New York City residents with positive laboratory-based SARS-CoV-2 tests when ≥98% of sequencing results were Delta (August-November 2021) or Omicron (BA.1 and sublineages, January 2022). A secondary analysis defined variant exposure using patient-level sequencing results during July 2021-January 2022, comprising 1-18% of weekly confirmed cases. RESULTS: Hospitalization risk was lower among patients testing positive when Omicron (16,025/488,053, 3.3%) than when Delta predominated (8268/158,799, 5.2%). In multivariable analysis adjusting for demographic characteristics and prior diagnosis and vaccination status, patients testing positive when Omicron predominated, compared with Delta, had 0.72 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82) times the hospitalization risk. In a secondary analysis of patients with sequencing results, hospitalization risk was similar among patients infected with Omicron (2042/29,866, 6.8%), compared with Delta (1780/25,272, 7.0%), and higher among the subset who received two mRNA vaccine doses (adjusted relative risk 1.64; 95% CI: 1.44, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization risk was lower among patients testing positive when Omicron predominated, compared with Delta. This finding persisted after adjusting for prior diagnosis and vaccination status, suggesting intrinsic virologic properties, not population-based immunity, explained the lower severity. Secondary analyses demonstrated collider bias from the sequencing sampling frame changing over time in ways associated with disease severity. Representative data collection is necessary to avoid bias when comparing disease severity between previously dominant and newly emerging variants.

14.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(2): e26043, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 poses different levels of threat to people of different ages, health communication regarding prevention measures such as social distancing and isolation may be strengthened by understanding the unique experiences of various age groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine how people of different ages (1) experienced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) their respective rates and reasons for compliance or noncompliance with social distancing and isolation health guidance. METHODS: We fielded a survey on social media early in the pandemic to examine the emotional impact of COVID-19 and individuals' rates and reasons for noncompliance with public health guidance, using computational and content analytic methods of linguistic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 17,287 participants were surveyed. The majority (n=13,183, 76.3%) were from the United States. Younger (18-31 years), middle-aged (32-44 years and 45-64 years), and older (≥65 years) individuals significantly varied in how they described the impact of COVID-19 on their lives, including their emotional experience, self-focused attention, and topical concerns. Younger individuals were more emotionally negative and self-focused, while middle-aged people were other-focused and concerned with family. The oldest and most at-risk group was most concerned with health-related terms but were lower in anxiety (use of fewer anxiety-related terms) and higher in the use of emotionally positive terms than the other less at-risk age groups. While all groups discussed topics such as acquiring essential supplies, they differentially experienced the impact of school closures and limited social interactions. We also found relatively high rates of noncompliance with COVID-19 prevention measures, such as social distancing and self-isolation, with younger people being more likely to be noncompliant than older people (P<.001). Among the 43.1% (n=7456) of respondents who did not fully comply with health orders, people differed substantially in the reasons they gave for noncompliance. The most common reason for noncompliance was not being able to afford to miss work (n=4273, 57.3%). While work obligations proved challenging for participants across ages, younger people struggled more to find adequate space to self-isolate and manage their mental and physical health; middle-aged people had more concerns regarding childcare; and older people perceived themselves as being able to take sufficient precautions. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of natural language can provide insight into rapidly developing public health challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic, uncovering individual differences in emotional experiences and health-related behaviors. In this case, our analyses revealed significant differences between different age groups in feelings about and responses to public health orders aimed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. To improve public compliance with health orders as the pandemic continues, health communication strategies could be made more effective by being tailored to these age-related differences.

15.
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2096133

ABSTRACT

Introduction SARS-CoV-2 poses challenges for the safe deliverance of a camp experience with a medically complex camper population. Multiple studies have looked at the effect of nonpharmaceutical interventions for preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in traditional summer camp settings, but none in the medical summer camp setting. Our objective was to describe and evaluate the nonpharmaceutical interventions on SARS-CoV-2 transmission rate in a medical summer camp setting. Methods This was a single institution cross sectional study conducted between June 2021 and August 2021 in a rural summer camp setting in upstate New York. Nonpharmaceutical interventions consisted of prearrival guidance on low-risk activities, obtaining negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR within 72 h prior to arrival, adult SARS-CoV-2 vaccine mandate, universal masking mandate, small cohorts, daily symptom screening, and rapid testing on site. Primary cases were defined as an individual with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test of any type while at camp or 2 wk after departure from camp without any known exposure at camp;secondary cases were defined as cases from potential exposures within camp. Results Two hundred and ninety-three campers were included. Nine individuals were tested due to potentially infectious symptoms while at camp. Thirty-four campers were tested due to arriving from a county with an a priori intermediate SARS-CoV-2 community spread. Zero on- site rapid tests were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions We describe the implementation of multilayered nonpharmaceutical interventions at a medical summer camp during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

16.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095664

ABSTRACT

Background At what rate does the RNA of SARS CoV-2 shed from cadavers? Although, there have been numerous studies which have demonstrated the persistence of the virus on dead bodies, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the variation of viral RNA content in cadavers. This has led to a knowledge gap regarding the safe handling/management of COVID-19 decedents, posing a barrier in forensic investigations. Methods: In this study, we report the presence of RNA of SARS CoV-2 by real time RT-PCR, in nasopharyngeal swabs collected after death from two groups of bodies – one who died due to COVID-19 and the other who died due to other diagnoses. A prospective study on 199 corpses, who had tested positive for COVID-19 ante-mortem, was conducted at a tertiary care center. RNA testing was conducted at different time intervals (T1-T5). Results: 112(56.3%) died primarily due to COVID-19 and 87(43.7%) died due to other diagnoses. 144(72.4%) were male and 55(27.6%) were female. A total of 115 (57.8%) tested positive for COVID-19 after death at different time points. The mean age was 50.7±18.9 years and the length of hospitalization ranged from 1-50 days with a mean of 9.2±7.6 days. Realtime RT-PCR positivity of SARS CoV-2 RNA decreases with time. Conclusion: We observed that real time RT-PCR positivity, indicating viral RNA detection, decreases with time. Therefore, it is advisable to follow appropriate COVID-19 precautions to carry out scientific studies, medico-legal investigations and mortuary services on suspected/confirmed COVID-19 corpses.

17.
Health Policy Plan ; 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097349

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the literature on public health interventions and health outcomes in the context of epidemic and pandemic response has grown immensely. However, relatively few of these studies have situated their findings within the institutional, political, organizational, and governmental (IPOG) context in which interventions and outcomes exist. This conceptual mapping scoping study synthesized the published literature on the impact of IPOG factors on epidemic and pandemic response and critically examined definitions and uses of the terms IPOG in this literature. This research involved a comprehensive search of four databases across the social, health, and biomedical sciences as well as multi-level eligibility screening conducted by two independent reviewers. Data on the temporal, geographic, and topical range of studies were extracted, then descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize these data. Hybrid inductive and deductive qualitative analysis of the full-text articles was conducted to critically analyze the definitions and uses of these terms in the literature. The searches retrieved 4,918 distinct articles; 65 met the inclusion criteria and were thus reviewed. These articles were published from 2004 to 2022, were mostly written about COVID-19 (61.5%), and most frequently engaged with the concept of governance (36.9%) in relation to epidemic and pandemic response. Emergent themes related to the variable use of the investigated terms, the significant increase in relevant literature published amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a lack of consistent definitions used across all four terms: institutions, politics, organizations, and governance. This study revealed opportunities for health systems researchers to further engage in interdisciplinary work with fields such as law and political science, to become more forthright in defining factors which shape responses to epidemics and pandemics, and to develop greater consistency in using these IPOG terms in order to lessen confusion among a rapidly growing body of literature.

18.
OMICS ; 26(11): 594-607, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097271

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, emanated from the Wuhan Province in China and rapidly spread across the globe causing extensive morbidity and mortality rate, and affecting the global economy and livelihoods. Contrary to early predictions of "body bags" across Africa, the African COVID-19 pandemic was marked by apparent low case numbers and an overall mortality rate when compared with the other geographical regions. Factors used to describe this unexpected pattern included a younger population, a swifter and more effective national health policy, limited testing capacities, and the possibility of inadequate reporting of the cases, among others. However, despite genomics contributing to interindividual variations in many diseases across the world, there are inadequate genomic and multiomics data on COVID-19 in Africa that prevent richer transdisciplinary discussions on the contribution of genomics to the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. To invite future debates on comparative studies of COVID-19 genomics and the pandemic spread around the world regions, this expert review evaluates the reported frequency distribution of genetic variants in candidate genes that are likely to affect COVID-19 infection dynamics/disease outcomes. We propose here that genomic variation should be considered among the many factors determining the COVID-19 infection and its outcomes in African populations and across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Health Policy , Genomics
19.
Nature ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096653
20.
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