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1.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 78-89, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966437

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular involvement is a common complication of COVID-19 infection and is associated to increased risk of unfavorable outcome. Advanced imaging modalities (coronary CT angiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance) play a crucial role in the diagnosis, follow-up and risk stratification of patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia with suspected cardiovascular involvement. In the present manuscript we firstly review current knowledge on the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 can trigger endothelial and myocardial damage. Secondly, the implications of the cardiovascular damage on patient's prognosis are presented. Finally, we provide an overview of the main findings at advanced cardiac imaging characterizing COVID-19 in the acute setting, in the post-acute syndrome, and after vaccination, emphasizing the potentiality of CT and CMR, the indication and their clinical implications.

2.
Cardiology Letters ; 31(3):196-201, 2022.
Article in Slovak | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964274

ABSTRACT

Aims: Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have different in-hospital mortality rates depending on their comorbidities and the grade of the obstruction of the pulmonary artery. In this study, we observed whether Covid-19 infection had a worsening impact on prognosis in patients affected by PE. We also analysed the significance of known risk factors such as Troponin levels, NT-proBNP levels, D-dimer, arterial blood lactate, and CRP levels in patients with Covid-19 associated PE. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we observed patients hospitalised during the second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic in Trnava. Patients were divided into two groups, 1. patients with covid-19 associated PE (Covid+), and 2. patients with PE without Covid-19 infection as a control group (Covid-). We compared clinical findings, imaging findings, laboratory results and in-hospital mortality between these two groups. Results: In this prospective study, we analysed data from 74 patients. Median age of patients was 69.5 (IQR 58-77). We identified 26 (35%) Covid+ patients. Covid+ patients had a longer hospitali-sation [11 (IQR 8-17) days vs 8 (IQR 6.25-10) days, p = 0.004] and significantly higher in-hospital mortality than Covid-group (23% vs 2%, p=0.0065). The combined risk of in-hospital mortality and hemodynamic decompensation was similar in both groups (23% vs 8%, P=0.15). Nonfatal bleeding was reported overall in 4 patients (5.4%) without any significant difference between the two groups (8% vs 4%, p=0,6). From laboratory tests, only NT-proBNP levels had shown the difference between our groups. Despite lower levels of NT-proBNP in Covid + group [300.5 (182-2755.5) vs 1372 (540-5420.5) pg/ml, p = 0.03], mortality rate was higher in these patients. Conclusion: The Covid+ group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality, which pointed out the negative impact of Covid-19 infection on patients with PE. Tab. 3, Ref. 12, on-line full text (Free, PDF) www.cardiologyletters.sk. © 2022, SYMEKARD s.r.o.. All rights reserved.

4.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957455

ABSTRACT

Background. Fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) rapidly improves hemodynamic parameters and reverses right ventricular dysfunction caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The effectiveness of USAT for acute PE associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Methods and results. The study population of this cohort study consisted of 36 patients with an intermediate-high- or high-risk acute PE treated with a fixed low-dose USAT protocol (r-tPA 10-20 mg/15 h). Of these, 9 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and were age-sex-matched to 27 patients without COVID-19. The USAT protocol included, beyond the infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, anti-Xa-activity-adjusted unfractionated heparin therapy (target 0.3-0.7 U/mL). The study outcomes were the invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) before and at completion of USAT, and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), according to which more points indicate more severe hemodynamic impairment. Twenty-four (66.7%) patients were men; the mean age was 67 ± 14 years. Mean  ±  standard deviation mPAP decreased from 32.3 ± 8.3 to 22.4 ± 7.0 mmHg among COVID-19 patients and from 35.4 ± 9.7 to 24.6 ± 7.0 mmHg among unexposed, with no difference in the relative improvement between groups (p = 0.84). Within 12 h of USAT start, the median NEWS decreased from six (Q1-Q3: 4-8) to three (Q1-Q3: 2-4) points among COVID-19 patients and from four (Q1-Q3: 2-6) to two (Q1-Q3: 2-3) points among unexposed (p = 0.29). One COVID-19 patient died due to COVID-19-related complications 14 days after acute PE. No major bleeding events occurred. Conclusions. Among patients with COVID-19-associated acute PE, mPAP rapidly decreased during USAT with a concomitant progressive improvement of the NEWS. The magnitude of mPAP reduction was similar in patients with and without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Female , Heparin , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
5.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 10: 2050313X221113934, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956966

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability in coronavirus disease 2019 infection is already a known fact. But in this article, we have discussed a unique case where the patient had suffered from relapsing thrombus formation. This report describes the case of a patient who presented with chronic coronavirus disease 2019-induced recurrent thrombi refractory to multiple antithrombotic regimens because of multiple recurrent inflammatory flares without any evidence of chronic persistent viral infection. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory medications. Still, he had repeated episodes of right ventricular thrombus. Coronavirus disease 2019 can provoke a severe relapsing hypercoagulable state without evidence of persisting viral infection. Rebound inflammatory flares rather than viral recurrence may play a trigger.

6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944642
7.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941534

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical intervention. Although PE was previously thought to occur infrequently in the pediatric population, recent studies have found a higher-than-expected prevalence of PE in the pediatric population of up to 15.5%. The imaging modality of choice for detecting PE in the pediatric population is multi-detector CT angiography, although MRI is assuming a growing and more important role as a potential alternative modality. Given the recent advances in both computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and MRI techniques, a growing population of pediatric patients with complex comorbidities (such as children with a history of surgeries for congenital heart disease repair), and the recent waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which are associated with increased risk of PE, there is new and increased need for an up-to-date review of practical CT and MRI protocols for PE evaluation in children. This article provides guidance for up-to-date CT and MR imaging techniques, reviews key recent studies on the imaging of pediatric PE, and discusses relevant pediatric PE imaging pearls and pitfalls, in hopes of providing readers with up-to-date and accurate practice for imaging evaluation of PE in children.

8.
REVIEWS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE ; 23(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939696

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolic (VTE) events have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after hospital discharge. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most frequent type of post-discharge VTE complication. Levels of procoagulants (fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor), and D-dimer are higher during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with more severe inflammatory and procoagulant response experience higher VTE rates during hospitalization, while the risk after hospital discharge have not been well characterized. The incidence of VTE events following hospitalization is heterogeneous, ranging from low (3.1 per 1000 discharges), to 1.8%, which appears higher than for other medical condition. This discrepancy was partially explained by the differences in VTE screening and follow-up strategies, and by the period when the information about the VTE was collected. These data were based mainly on observational and retrospective studies;however, evolving data are to come after the completion of the prospective trials. The current guidelines do not recommend routine post-hospital VTE prophylaxis for COVID-19 patients but recommend it for all hospitalized adults. A careful risk-benefit assessment of VTE probability should be performed, to determine whether an individual patient may merit post-discharge thromboprophylaxis. A score such IMPROVE DD can help identify the patient who will potentially benefit but is also important to consider the bleeding risk and the feasibility. The optimal duration and the type of extended thromboprophylaxis is still under debate (from a minimum of 14 days to a maximum of 42 days), and future studies will help to validate these protocols in different populations. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), warfarin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are recommended, but low doses of DOACs rather than LMVII or warfarin were predominantly used in most patients. Finally, the COVID-19 patients should be educated to recognize and advised to seek urgent medical care should VTE events occur after hospital discharge.

9.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1938118

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Patients with PE are traditionally admitted on parenteral agents, despite increasing literature that sPESI negative patients can be safely discharged from the ED. Our quality improvement initiative is focused on outpatient treatment for ED-diagnosed pulmonary emboli (OTPE) and our objective is to assess LOS, readmissions and to describe findings of our follow-up phone calls. Methods: This is an actively enrolling prospective study from 7/2020 at a single site with >500 PE cases per year with a PE Response Team (PERT). All ED PE patients are screened for OTPE. Exclusion criteria include sPESI ≥ 1, ESC high or intermediate, bleeding ≤ 30 days, hemoglobin < 8, platelet < 50,000, pregnancy, prior VTE, concomitant COVID-19, recent major surgery and social factors. Patients identified are discussed with PERT and ED physicians. If agreed upon, patients are discharged on DOAC with follow-up within one week. Patients receive calls on days 3, 7, and 30 from the OTPE team to assess AE relating to the DOAC or PE. LOS metrics are reported as mean with standard deviations, and readmissions are reported as percentages. Results: Ninety-eight low-risk patients were identified, of which 50 were OTPE-eligible with mean age 44.5 ± 16.9 years of age and 58% female. When comparing OTPE to low-risk admissions, there are no differences in age (p=0.35) and sex (p=0.72). For OTPE, the follow-up calls on day 3, 7, and 30 revealed no patient reported recurrent VTE, major bleeding or death. There was a similar ED provider to disposition LOS (p=0.74). Low-risk admissions had a higher rate of readmission than OTPE (p=0.19). Conclusion: Our OTPE process does not increase ED provider to disposition LOS, readmissions, or adverse outcomes. Future work will examine financial implications of OTPE and barriers to adoption of the process. As this is actively enrolling quality improvement initiative, we will continue to track postimplementation to optimize our process.

10.
Kardiol Pol ; 80(6): 723-732, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934996

ABSTRACT

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare complication of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Both pharmacological and invasive treatments for CTEPH are available in Poland, and awareness of the disease among physicians is growing. It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the incidence of CTEPH and facilitate disease detection during more advanced stages of the illness. Thus, the Polish Cardiac Society's Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation, in cooperation with independent experts in this field, launched the updated statement on the algorithm to guide a CTEPH diagnosis in patients with previous APE. CTEPH should be suspected in individuals after APE with dyspnea, despite at least 3 months of effective anticoagulation, particularly when specific risk factors are present. Echocardiography is the main screening tool for CTEPH. A diagnostic workup of patients with significant clinical suspicion of CTEPH and right ventricular overload evident on echocardiography should be performed in reference centers. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a safe and highly sensitive screening test for CTEPH. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography with precise detection of thromboembolic residues in the pulmonary circulation is important for the planning of a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Right heart catheterization definitively confirms the presence of pulmonary hypertension and direct pulmonary angiography allows for the identification of lesions suitable for thromboendarterectomy or balloon pulmonary angioplasty. In this document, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for patients with suspected CTEPH. With an individualized and sequential diagnostic strategy, each patient can be provided with suitable and tailored therapy provided by a dedicated CTEPH Heart Team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Expert Testimony , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Pandemics , Poland , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy
11.
Emerg Radiol ; 29(4): 625-629, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930437

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This retrospective review examines the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) during computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) exams performed in the emergency room setting of a tertiary care center over dominant periods of the ancestral, Delta, and Omicron variants of COVID-19. MATERIALS/METHODS: Demographic information, patient comorbidities and risk factors, vaccination status, and COVID-19 infection status were collected from patient's charts. Incidence of PE in COVID positive patients was compared between variant waves. Subgroup analysis of vaccination effect was performed. RESULTS: CTPA was ordered in 18.3% of COVID-19 positive patients during the ancestral variant period, 18.3% during the Delta period and 17.3% during the Omicron wave. PE was seen in 15.0% of the ancestral COVID-19 variant cohort, 10.6% in the Delta COVID cohort and 9.23% of the Omicron cohort, reflecting a 41% and 60% increased risk of PE with ancestral variants compared to Delta and Omicron periods respectively. The study however was underpowered and the difference in rate of PE did not reach statistically significance (p = 0.43 and p = 0.22). Unvaccinated patients had an 2.75-fold increased risk of COVID-associated PE during the Delta and Omicron periods (p = .02) compared to vaccinated or recovered patients. CONCLUSION: Vaccination reduces the risk of COVID-19 associated PE. Patients infected with the Delta and Omicron COVID-19 variants may have a lower incidence of pulmonary embolism, though a larger or multi-institution study is needed to prove definitively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Vaccines , Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common form of thromboembolism which has a variable and non-specific presentation that can often be fatal. The Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) which includes hemodynamic parameters of perfusion has been shown to correlate with 30-day mortality in patients with acute PE. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to compare how lactate and sPESI perform in predicting clinical outcomes at our institution with the hopes of developing institutional guidelines for management of patients admitted with an acute PE. Methods: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a new diagnosis of PE between the years 2016-2021. Patients were identified using ICD-9 CM codes. Exclusion criteria included current or prior positive testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). We performed univariant, multivariant, and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis to assess correlations between all cause mortality, lactate elevation, and sPESI. Our covariants included age, sex, Body Mass Index, prior or current history emphysema/COPD, smoking, CKD, diabetes, cancer, atrial fibrillation, and CHF. All analysis was carried out using software R version 3.6.3. Results: Of the 161 patients who were included in the study, the mean age was 60 years (SD 17 years) and 38% (61/161) were females. 31 patients (19.3%) were deceased. Mean BMI of study participants was 29.9 kg/m2. Comorbidities included 9.9% (16/161) with emphysema/COPD, 44% (71/161) with active or prior history of smoking, 6% (10/161) with CKD, 12% (20/161) with diabetes, 15% (24/161) with diagnosis of cancer, 15% (24/161) with atrial fibrillation, 15% (24/161) with history of CHF. We found that in univariant analysis, both sPESI (p=3.4∗10∧-6, AUC = 0.74) and lactate (p=1.1∗10∧-7, AUC = 0.71) correlate with mortality. When included in the same multivariant model, both lactate (p=1.3∗10∧-5) and sPESI (p=3.2∗10∧-4) retained their statistical significance with mortality. Conclusion: As in previous studies, our analysis confirms these results (lactate p=1.1∗10∧-7;AUC = 0.71, sPESI p=3.4∗10∧-6, AUC = 0.74). However, we also demonstrate that both lactate and sPESI retain statistical significance when both are included in the same multivariant model (p-value for lactate = 1.3∗10∧-5, p-value for sPESI = 3.2∗10∧-4). Thus, both lactate and sPESI each demonstrate independent statistical significance, contributing to prediction of mortality. This finding makes a compelling case for inclusion of lactate in risk stratification models used by Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERT) across institutions for triaging the management of acute pulmonary embolism in the hospital.

13.
Pulm Circ ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925991

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary thromboembolic events (TE) have been linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their incidence and long-term sequelae remain unclear. We performed a systematic literature review to investigate the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE), microthrombi, thrombosis in situ (thromboinflammatory disease) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) during and after COVID-19. PubMed and the World Health Organization Global Research Database were searched on 7 May 2021. Hospital cohort and database studies reporting data for ≥ 1,000 patients and autopsy studies reporting data for ≥ 20 patients were included. Results were summarized descriptively. We screened 1,438 records and included 41 references (32 hospital/database studies and nine autopsy studies). The hospital/database studies reported the incidence of PE but not CTEPH, microthrombi or thromboinflammatory disease. PE incidence varied widely (0-1.1% of outpatients, 0.9-8.2% of hospitalized patients and 1.8-18.9% of patients in intensive care). One study reported PE events occurring within 45 days after hospital discharge (incidence in discharged patients: 0.2%). Segmental arteries were generally the most common location for PE. In autopsy studies, PE, thromboinflammatory disease and microthrombi were reported in 6-23%, 43-100% and 45-84% of deceased patients, respectively. Overall, the included studies mostly focussed on PE during the acute phase of COVID-19. The results demonstrate the challenges of identifying and characterizing vascular abnormalities using current protocols (e.g. visual computed tomography reads). Further research is needed to detect subtle pulmonary vascular abnormalities, distinguish thromboinflammatory disease from PE, optimize treatment, and assess the incidence of long-term sequelae after COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25103, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924639

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal occurrence with a broad spectrum of risk factors. A 75-year-old male presented to the emergency room with five days of shortness of breath, back pain, and hemoptysis. A CT angiogram demonstrated bilateral pulmonary emboli with a larger thrombus on the right, as well as signs of right heart strain. The patient was started on IV heparin and ultimately underwent a successful embolectomy. Evaluation to determine the underlying etiology of this patient's first-time PE was performed to further stratify his risk of recurrence and the length of anticoagulation required. The provoking factor for his PE was initially unclear as he lacked any risk factors such as recent surgeries, periods of immobility, or previous diagnosis of malignancy. The patient was noted to be on an erectile dysfunction supplement called "Eroxin," and he had been taking it for the past six months. Eroxin contains an ingredient called fenugreek, which is believed to enhance testosterone levels by inhibiting aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase activity. Fenugreek has previously been associated with the formation of PEs, and likely contributed to the PE in this patient. This is likely due to testosterone-induced polycythemia and increased platelet aggregation. This case highlights the concern around supplements as their ingredients are poorly regulated and occasionally found to be tainted with unlisted ingredients. This also highlights the importance of gathering a complete supplement history from patients as their use can lead to serious illness. Lastly, it encourages considering testosterone use as a potential thrombogenic risk factor.

15.
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; 30(2):132-135, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1918623

ABSTRACT

An eighty-year-old lady a with history of treated tuberculosis decades ago and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) proven COVID-19 pneumonia about four months ago was referred to our department for ventilation/perfusion scan due to deteriorating dyspnea to rule out P.E. Planar perfusion scan showed bilateral accentuated apical perfusion gradient and multiple segmental and non-segmental perfusion defects in both lungs, which were mismatched with relatively normal planar ventilation images. Perfusion SPECT images also showed multiple segmental, sub-segmental and semi-segmental perfusion defects, which proved to be concordant with consolidations, bilateral pleural effusion, right lung pneumothorax, and atelectasis which were consultant with CT findings. The ventilation SPECT/CT images also demonstrated uniform tracer activity throughout both lungs, with almost complete improvement in consolidations, lung pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and atelectasis. Our case highlights the importance of SPECT/CT imaging in avoiding false-positive interpretation of pulmonary embolism as well as the possibility for rapid resolution of the lung parenchymal abnormalities. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine is the property of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 6(7): ytac227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922227

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a highly prothrombotic state. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are observed with increased incidence in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus. Case summary: A 57-year-old male patient with a recent COVID-19 infection complained of leg swelling shortly after his COVID ward discharge. A few days later he was hospitalized with acute massive PE and DVT of his left leg was diagnosed. In another facility, as the first line of treatment, the PE was managed with catheter-directed therapy (CDT) using thrombus defragmentation via 5F (French) Pigtail catheter and supraselective application of 40 mg alteplase. Following the procedure, in addition, 50 mg alteplase was also applied as a 1 hour systemic infusion. Despite the haemodynamic stabilization of the patient, he remained persistently symptomatic and tachycardic. Three days later-in our institution, a second computed tomography pulmoangiography revealed massive thrombotic masses mainly in the left pulmonary artery. Successful percutaneous thrombus aspiration was conducted. The procedure was uneventful with an immediate drop of systolic pulmonary artery pressure from 68 to 47 mmHg and relief of the patient's symptoms. Discussion: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians have to remain vigilant of its potential thrombotic complications, the most commonly observed being DVT and PE. We demonstrated the efficacy of percutaneous thrombus aspiration in a patient with acute COVID-19-associated PE, after initial CDT with thrombus defragmentation and high-dose tissue plasminogen activator was implemented with a suboptimal result.

17.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917567

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability is a recognized feature in SARS-CoV-2 infection. There exists a need for a dedicated risk assessment model (RAM) that can risk-stratify hospitalized COVID-19 patients for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and guide anticoagulation. We aimed to build a simple clinical model to predict VTE in COVID-19 patients. This large-cohort, retrospective study included adult patients admitted to four hospitals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Model training was performed on 3531 patients hospitalized between March and December 2020 and validated on 2508 patients hospitalized between January and September 2021. Diagnosis of VTE was defined as acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The novel RAM was based on commonly available parameters at hospital admission. LASSO regression and logistic regression were performed, risk scores were assigned to the significant variables, and cutoffs were derived. Seven variables with assigned scores were delineated as: DVT History = 2; High D-Dimer (>500-2000 ng/mL) = 2; Very High D-Dimer (>2000 ng/mL) = 5; PE History = 2; Low Albumin (<3.5 g/dL) = 1; Systolic Blood Pressure <120 mmHg = 1, Tachycardia (heart rate >100 bpm) = 1. The model had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 53%. This simple, robust clinical tool can help individualize thromboprophylaxis for COVID-19 patients based on their VTE risk category.

18.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 9(5): 003366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918132

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic complications involving both the arterial and the venous systems. However, concurrent arterial and venous thrombosis is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old male patient with severe COVID-19 who developed bilateral renal artery thrombosis and pulmonary embolism during the disease course. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature. LEARNING POINTS: SARS-CoV-2-related coagulopathy is associated with both arterial and venous thrombotic events, which increase morbidity and mortality.Concurrent arterial and venous thrombotic events attributed to SARS-CoV-2 are extremely rare.A high index of clinical suspicion is required, while further research is needed to determine the optimal type, dose and duration of anticoagulation in such cases.

19.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26211, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912131

ABSTRACT

A pulmonary embolism (PE) that is located in the main pulmonary artery is known as a saddle pulmonary embolism. Individuals at high risk who become unstable often require surgical intervention or more aggressive management with thrombolytic therapy. COVID-19 is a known risk factor for a hypercoagulable state and therefore increases the risk of PE and its associated complications. Individuals hospitalized with the COVID-19 virus and who have evidence of right ventricular dysfunction with PE are found to have a significantly higher risk of mortality. We present a case of an individual with several high-risk factors for PE as well as COVID-19 infection and evidence of cardiac strain, making the decision for treatment less clear. He was, however, treated successfully with heparin and enoxaparin alone. Furthermore, our case hadresolving symptoms of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of high clinical suspicion for PE in those diagnosed with COVID-19.

20.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(9): 3179-3184, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907703

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 disease is often complicated by respiratory failure, developing through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, with pulmonary embolism (PE) and microvascular thrombosis as key and frequent components. Newer imaging modalities such as dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can represent a turning point in the diagnosis and follow-up of suspected PE during COVID-19. Case presentation: A 78-year-old female presented to our internal medicine 3 weeks after initial hospitalization for COVID-19 disease, for recrudescent respiratory failure needing oxygen therapy. A computed tomography (CT) lungs scan showed a typical SARSCoV-2 pneumonia. Over the following 15 days, respiratory function gradually improved. Unexpectedly, after 21 days from symptom onset, the patient started complaining of breath shortening with remarkable desaturation requiring high-flow oxygen ventilation. CT pulmonary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography were negative for signs of PE. Thereby, Dual-energy CT angiography of the lungs (DECT) was performed and detected diffuse peripheral microembolism. After 2 weeks, a second DECT was performed, showing a good response to the anticoagulation regimen, with reduced extent of microembolism and some of the remaining emboli partially recanalized. Discussion: DECT is an emerging diagnostic technique providing both functional and anatomical information. DECT has been reported to produce a much sharper delineation of perfusion defects than pulmonary scintigraphy, using a significantly lower equivalent dose of mSv. We highlight that DECT is particularly useful in SARS-Cov-2 infection, in order to determine the predominant underlying pathophysiology, particularly when respiratory failure prolongs despite improved lung parenchymal radiological findings.

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