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1.
Current Pediatric Reviews ; 18(1):1, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1793197
2.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(3):6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791846

ABSTRACT

Renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis due to statins is quite rare. We present a case of a 57-year-old patient who developed acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis secondary to atorvastatin. Interestingly, this patient had a similar presentation 27 years ago requiring dialysis only once resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. He presented to the hospital generally feeling unwell and then developed generalized body ache. He had an extremely elevated creatinine kinase level of 116,000 and it went up to 145,000. His urine dip was negative for nitrites and was positive for blood and protein. He was commenced on intravenous fluids. He also had a computerized tomographic scan of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, which showed some fat stranding around both kidneys likely inflammatory in origin. His creatinine level continue to rise despite intravenous fluids and was acidotic on blood gases. He also tested positive for COVID-19 on day 7 of admission and eventually needed dialysis. His renal functions improved to baseline post dialysis and kidney functions returned to normal. His autoimmune screen was negative and his renal functions remained normal on a follow-up visit.

3.
Pediatriya ; - (2):168-171, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1772090

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection (UTI) and chronic pyelonephritis, in particular, are a serious medical and social problem. Late diagnosis and improper treatment of this pathology lead to serious consequences for the health of children. Frequent relapses, a wide variety of pathogens, lack of verbal contact with young children, and much more make the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs a complex and multifaceted task. Due to frequent relapses, diagnostic defects and incorrect treatment tactics can lead to decreased kidney function and chronic kidney disease. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the attention of doctors to chronic pathologies is reduced, which can undoubtedly lead to a deterioration in the quality of the diagnostic and treatment process. However, despite the importance of fighting the pandemic, the decline in the quality of medical care for other categories of patients is unacceptable. It is known that intercurrent diseases, including viral infections, often lead to exacerbations of chronic forms of UTI, and the role of COVID-19 in this is an important issue that requires careful study. In this regard, we decided to present a clinical case of an exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis and difficulties in treating a child with a neurogenic bladder against the background of COVID-19. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Инфекция мочевыводящих путей (ИМВП) и хронический пиелонефрит, в частности, представляют собой серьезную медико-социальную проблему. Поздняя диагностика и неправильное лечение данной патологии приводят к серьезным последствиям для здоровья детей. Частые рецидивы, множество разнообразных возбудителей, отсутствие вербального контакта с детьми раннего возраста и многое другое делают диагностику и лечение ИМВП сложной и многосторонней задачей. В связи с частыми рецидивами дефекты диагностики и неправильная тактика лечения могут приводить к снижению функции и хронической болезни почек. В условиях пандемии COVID-19 внимание врачей к хроническим патологиям бывает сниженным, что, несомненно, может привести к ухудшению качества лечебно-диагностического процесса. Однако, несмотря на важность борьбы с пандемией, снижение качества оказания медицинской помощи остальным категориям пациентов недопустимо. Известно, что интеркуррентные заболевания, в том числе вирусные инфекции, часто приводят к обострениям хронических форм ИМВП, и роль COVID-19 в этом представляет собой важный вопрос, требующий тщательного изучения. В связи с этим мы решили представить клиническое наблюдение обострения хронического пиелонефрита и трудностей лечения ребенка с нейрогенным мочевым пузырем на фоне COVID-19. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Pediatriya named after G. N. Speransky is the property of Pediatria, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Urol Case Rep ; 43: 102061, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757330

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a rare disease. It is typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Isolated renal mucormycosis is an extremely rare disease. We here report a case of isolated renal mucormycosis who had recently recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was a known case of diabetes mellitus and had already developed acute kidney injury when he reported to us. Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, the patient succumbed to the disease.

5.
Osteoporosis International ; 32(SUPPL 1):S228-S229, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1748516

ABSTRACT

Objective: Describe characteristics of patients who self-inject denosumab and patterns of self-injection in France. Methods: PILOTE was a prospective observational study that evaluated persistence to denosumab over 24 months in France in postmenopausal women. Clinical information obtained through routine practice was recorded onto an eCRF, including the individual who injected subcutaneous denosumab (physician, nurse, patient, other). We conducted an ad hoc analysis of the patients in the study who self-injected denosumab. Results: In total, 478 patients were enrolled between June 2105 and February 2016. 27 patients self-injected denosumab at least once, with these patients distributed across multiple sites. Those who self-injected appeared slightly younger with longer duration of osteoporosis, and a higher proportion had a prior fracture and previous glucocorticoid and teriparatide treatment than the overall population (Table). Self-injected patients were also more likely to be living at home with family, have a University education, and be seen by a rheumatologist than a GP. Twelve patients self-injected from the beginning of the study, 15 self-injected after receiving injection from an HCP and 8 switched back to HCP injections after self-injection. Eleven of the 12 patients who self-injected from the beginning were persistent at 24 months. Six ADRs occurred in three self-injecting patients: one vertebral fracture, bone pain, muscle fatigue, myalgia, asthenia, pyelonephritis. Conclusion: Although numbers were small, self- administration of denosumab appeared feasible for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and may be a valuable option, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic when office visits are restricted. (Table Presented).

6.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21730, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732448

ABSTRACT

Since its initial reporting in December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a global health problem after its official declaration as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, with an estimated 346 million cases and over 5.9 million fatalities as of January 22, 2022. Studies on the prevalence of COVID-19 among severe cases have shown that comorbidities and risk factors such as obesity, increased aging, and chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases play a role in the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The interactions between such factors and their involvement with the progression of infection and mortality remain unclear. While it is known that SARS-CoV-2 damages the lungs, various morbidities such as acute kidney disease and thyroid dysregulation have recently emerged in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Conditions that alter thyroid hormones, which play a critical role in regulating metabolic pathways, have a role in the level of infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2. The capability of the SARS-CoV-2 to invade and affect any organ system is dependent on its access to the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) commonly expressed among various host cells. This binding puts any system at high risk of direct viral injury, inevitably creating an excessively high concentration of anti-inflammatory mediators and cytokines to predispose COVID-19 patients to a state of severe immunosuppression. This case report describes a 62-year-old female who tested positive for COVID-19, with a medical history of hypothyroidism, who presented with a unique combination of acute bacterial hemorrhagic pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. She experienced intermittent dysuria, urinary urgency, and hematuria over the past five days. She developed chills, diaphoresis, nausea, and vomiting after administering acetaminophen for her headache. Ageusia and anosmia accompanied her respiratory illnesses despite receiving the Pfizer double dose vaccine six months before her arrival. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed severe to moderate inflammation surrounding the enlarged kidney with a 1 mm ureteral stone. Blood and urine cultures showed the growth of Escherichia  coli gram-negative bacilli. Chest X-rays displayed a patchy appearance in the right infrahilar airspace, reflecting atelectasis in part for the diagnosis of COVID-19 with additional laboratory findings of profoundly elevated C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and d-dimer levels. Abdominal CT scans revealed a hemorrhagic ureteral obstruction and massive swelling of the renal parenchyma persistent to pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.

7.
Nephro-Urology Monthly ; 13(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1716050

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report a rare presentation of COVID-19 virus, as febrile seizure. The patient was a 13-month-old girl with febrile seizure. Fever of the patient had started three days ago. Also, the patient had chills for five minutes in addition to cyanosis and tachycardia. On the primary evaluation, active urine analysis showed pyelonephritis. After a complete evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as a positive COVID-19 case based on polymerase chain reaction using nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. © 2021, Author(s).

8.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(2):699, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1705398

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study Postrenal causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) can generally be determined by imaging but differentiation of prerenal (PR) from intrinsic renal (IR) can be more difficult. A point of care test to quickly differentiate these two entities would be useful. Mass spectrometry (MS) can visualize small molecules in urine. We utilized a portable, single quadrupole mass spectrometer with a simple atmospheric pressure ionization interface to measure small molecules in urine. The interface allows for direct analysis of samples without the need for chromatography or other time-consuming sample preparation. The goal was to distinguish PR and IR AKI by urine analyte profiles. Methods Used Inpatients that developed AKI were eligible for enrolment. Patients with COVID-19 were excluded. Informed consent was obtained under a protocol approved by the UAMS IRB. Patients were categorized as either PR (n=9) or IR (n=7) AKI etiology using the diagnosis by the on-service nephrology attending. Etiologies for IR AKI included tumor lysis syndrome, contrast-induced nephropathy, myeloma light chain disease, pyelonephritis, and cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Two microliters of urine was dispensed onto a stainless steel probe without prior processing and analyzed by MS with an Advion Expression CMS Mass Spectrometer. Peaks within the 20 to 500 m/z range were recorded. MS spectra were processed and binned in 1 m/z increments for peak clustering using MATLAB. The frequency of binned peaks in the PR AKI group were compared to the IR group and marked as peaks of interest if the difference in number of peaks across the two categories was four or more. Missing peak values were replaced with the minimum value for that peak across all samples. Summary of Results Eleven peaks met our initial criteria for difference in frequency between intrinsic and prerenal cases. From the eleven, the mean intensity was different between the groups for only the sample at m/z 242 (p=0.03). In the PR group, mean and SD of the peak intensities were 1.7E+07 ±1.2E+07 compared to 7.0E+06 ±7.7E+06 Using a cut-off value of 1.55E+07, overall accuracy was 75%. The predictor correctly classified 6/9 in the PR group (67%) and 6/7 in the IR group (86%). Conclusions Point of care MS has the potential to rapidly differentiate PR from IR and potentially to further phenotype causes of AKI. Based on previous studies, the peaks we identified are likely small molecule metabolites. Larger sample size will be needed to better phenotype patients and will enable the use of machine learning algorithms to classify the kidney disease that is present. Further correlation of the different analytes in prerenal and intrarenal AKIs is needed, however this study shows the potential utility of mass spectrometry to rapidly phenotype AKI in the clinical setting.

9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661694

ABSTRACT

Social restrictions reduced the rates of respiratory infections in 2020, but studies on the rates of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during lockdown have had conflicting results. This study aimed to report UTI incidence during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic in Finland. We conducted a retrospective register-based cohort study. The whole Finnish pediatric population (children under the age of 15 years, N = 860,000) was included. The yearly and monthly incidences of UTIs per 100,000 children in 2020 were compared to that of three previous years (2017-2019) by incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 10,757 cystitis and 4873 pyelonephritis cases were included. The yearly incidence of cystitis was 12% lower (IRR 0.88, CI 0.83-0.94) among children aged 1-6 in 2020 and 11% (IRR 0.89, CI 0.83-0.95) lower among children aged 7-14 in 2020 compared with previous years. The yearly incidence of pyelonephritis was 16% lower (IRR 0.84, CI 0.76-0.94) among children aged 1-6. No significant decrease were observed among children aged < 1 and 7-14.Conclusion: The incidence of cystitis and pyelonephritis during a period of social restrictions was lower than during 2017-2019, especially in children aged 1-6 years. These results raise the possibility of reducing the occurrence of urinary tract infections in children by improving hygiene measures. What is known: • Social restrictions have reduced the rate of common respiratory infections globally. • Previous studies have presented a decreased or unchanged incidence of urinary tract infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. What is new: • During the pandemic, there was a decrease in the incidence of urinary tract infections in Finnish children and the most prominent decrease was in daycare-aged children. • Improved hygiene measures and social restrictions may have influenced the transmission of uropathogens.

10.
Pathogens ; 11(1)2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636835

ABSTRACT

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) represents a rare and severe pathology secondary to chronic urinary obstruction and recurrent infections. Commonly, this condition leads to loss of kidney function, and frequently, surgical approach is the only optional treatment. Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli are the most frequent pathogens associated with XGP. The actual changes in the pathogen's characteristics increased the risk of newly acquired infections once considered opportunistic. Stenotrophomonas malthophilia is one of those agents more related to immunocompromised patients, presenting an increased incidence and modified antibiotic resistance profile in the modern era. This case report presents a healthy female patient with an underlying renal stone pathology diagnosed with XGP related to S. maltophilia urinary infection. After a complete biological and imagistic evaluation, the case was treated as pyonephrosis. Empirical antibiotic administration and a surgical approach were considered. A total nephrectomy was performed, but the patient's condition did not improve. The patient's status improved when specific antibiotics were administered based on the bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of drained perinephric fluid. Levofloxacin and Vancomycin were considered the optimal combination in this case. The histopathological examination revealed XGP secondary to chronic renal stone. The present study describes the first case of XGP related to an aerobic Gram-negative pathogen such as S. maltophilia, once considered opportunistic, in an apparently healthy female adult.

11.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617063

ABSTRACT

Background: Whilst the Irish Health Service Executive (HSE) currently recommends COVID-19 screening for all adult hospital admissions, current guidelines state that the screening of asymptomatic paediatric admissions is not necessarily required. However, clinically determining who requires testing can be difficult and subject to inter-carer variability. We sought to audit our acute admissions and swab results to determine rates of testing, characteristics of those being tested, and rates of positivity in a busy Irish tertiary paediatric unit. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 122 patients admitted acutely to our unit over the course of July 2021 to determine whether or not they had undergone COVID-19 screening using a nasopharyngeal PCR test and the clinical indication for testing. The clinical presentation of these admissions was analysed to try to determine positive predictive factors for COVID-19 screening and better streamline surveillance criteria. Results: A total of 122 admissions were analysed, with 74 (60.7%) having had a COVID-19 PCR test performed at the point of admission. Of these, 1 patient was found to be COVID-19 positive, giving an overall positivity rate of 0.8% amongst admissions analysed and 1.4% for admissions screened. The patient who returned a positive result was febrile at presentation but did not have any respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were documented for 45 of the 122 admissions (36.9%), and 42 of these underwent COVID-19 screening (93.3%). All swabs were negative. A total of 59 out of 122 were febrile at presentation, 55 (93.2%) of whom underwent screening. As above, 1 case tested positive. Of the afebrile patients, 19 out of 64 underwent COVID-19 screening. COVID-19 screening was performed in 12 patients who did not have a fever or respiratory symptoms at the time of presentation. In terms of non-respiratory presentations, screening was performed in 12 out of 14 (85.7%) presenting with gastritis/gastroenteritis, and 9 out of 12 (75%) presenting with a history and examination consistent with a UTI/pyelonephritis. Of 18 patients who were admitted with primarily psychiatric presentations, none had either a fever or respiratory symptoms at presentation, and none underwent COVID-19 screening. Conclusion: Our results reflect the existing data that COVID-19 appears to be less pathogenic in paediatric populations than in adult ones. Our low positivity rate compared to a high swab rate has repercussions in terms of bed allocation and isolation status. There is variation in terms of clinical criteria being viewed as sufficient to justify screening. Further study is required to determine consensus guidelines for COVID-19 surveillance in acute paediatric hospital admissions.

12.
Blood ; 138:916, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), hallmark of sickle-cell disease (SCD), is the first cause of patients' emergency room (ER) admissions and hospitalizations. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during VOC and prolong hospitalization and is one of the main causes of death in SCD patients. The PRESEV score, established by team members and colleagues, assesses the risk of developing ACS (Bartolucci et al., 2016). In addition, the score has been validated by an international multicenter study, involving 13 centers, distributed in five different countries (PRESEV 2 - ASH 2020). Throughout the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, VOC management for SCD patients was a major concern. Our sickle cell referral center set up a hotline to monitor patients suffering from VOC daily, and organized the deployment of home-care services when required. The success of this system during the first wave of the pandemic led to the establishment of DREPADOM, a home-care and hospitalization protocol for VOC management in patients who are at a low risk of developing ACS, as standard care. DESCRIPTION OF SETTING Patients eligible for DREPADOM are patients that arrive at the ER for a VOC with a low PRESEV score, meaning low risk of developing ACS;or patients that are discharged early following hospitalization for VOC. After physical examination and calculation of the PRESEV score, DREPADOM home hospitalization is systematically offered to patients arriving to the ER with a PRESEV score ≤ 5. If the patient agrees, the DREPADOM nurse coordinator then acts as a link between the pharmacist, the oxygen supplier, the homecare provider, and the DREPADOM medical platform to activate the home hospitalization protocol. This entails the delivery of oxygen supply at the patient's house, dispatch of a medical prescription of opioids and parenteral treatments, twice/thrice-daily visits from homecare nurses, and an on-call SCD expert. DREPADOM relies on a system of daily telephone calls with three levels of expertise and warning and a decision-making algorithm. This is supervised by SCD experts, who arbitrate according to the evolution of the situation (stopping the follow-up, continuing the follow-up as an outpatient, hospitalization) (Fig.1). Furthermore, nurses enter patient vitals in real-time during their daily visits on a dedicated online platform (Link4Life) that contains an integrated automatic alert system. Additionally, a daily phone update between the DREPADOM coordination and the homecare provider's coordination concerning status and evolution of the patient's global condition takes place. RESULTS Over a 6-month period, 39 patients were included in the DREPADOM home hospitalization protocol, 3 of which were included multiple times for a total of 42 inclusions. Mean age was 40 years old [±9], sex ratio was 14/25 (male/female), ER vs early discharge ratio was 21/22, and mean homecare follow-up was 3 days (±1) for both, patients arriving from the ER and early discharge patients. Throughout the third wave of the pandemic, when hospital saturation was a major concern, patients with PRESEV scores 5 ≤ 11 were also offered DREPADOM. Three patients were hospitalized (7%): one for an ACS, who was included during the 3 rd wave of the pandemic with a PRESEV score of 8;one for pyelonephritis unrelated to the VOC;and one for difficulties with venous access. No death was reported. PERSPECTIVES Preliminary satisfaction surveys show a great enthusiasm for DREPADOM, partly due to the high standard of care received, but also due to the shorter length of hospitalization. In fact, median hospital stay for VOC is 4 [3-7] days (Bartolucci, 2016) whereas median homecare follow-up was 3 [1-6] days. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Bartolucci: Hemanext: Consultancy;Jazz Pharma: Other: Lecture fees;AGIOS: Consultancy;F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy;Emmaus: Consultancy;GBT: Consultancy;INNOVHEM: Other: Co-founder;Bluebird: Consultancy, Research Funding;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's B ard of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Lecture fees, Steering committee, Research Funding;Addmedica: Consultancy, Other: Lecture fees, Research Funding;Fabre Foundation: Research Funding.

13.
J Mycol Med ; 32(2): 101236, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586953

ABSTRACT

Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus), an ascomycetous environmental yeast, occasionally isolated from dairy products, represents an uncommon but emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we present a case of C. kefyr pyelonephritis in a 41-year-old, previously immunocompetent, patient who was hospitalized in an COVID-19 ICU. Pyelonephritis was associated with caliectasis and obstruction due to possible fungus ball formation. Predisposing factors included ICU stay, use of broad spectrum antibiotics and steroids, central venous catheterization, mechanical ventilation and urologic manipulation. Susceptibility testing revealed high MIC values to amphotericin B. Infection was effectively controlled by prolonged administration of fluconazole without further surgical intervention. COVID-19 complicated with invasive candidiasis is an increasingly observed clinical situation that warrants high suspicion index and careful evaluation of laboratory data.

14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 69-85, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the acute pyelonephritis that can result from urinary tract infections (UTIs), which commonly ascend from the bladder to the kidney, is a growing concern because it poses a risk of renal scarring and irreversible loss of kidney function. To date, the cellular mechanisms underlying acute pyelonephritis-driven renal scarring remain unknown. METHODS: We used a preclinical model of uropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced acute pyelonephritis to determine the contribution of neutrophils and monocytes to resolution of the condition and the subsequent development of kidney fibrosis. We used cell-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate neutrophils, monocytes, or both. Bacterial ascent and the cell dynamics of phagocytic cells were assessed by biophotonic imaging and flow cytometry, respectively. We used quantitative RT-PCR and histopathologic analyses to evaluate inflammation and renal scarring. RESULTS: We found that neutrophils are critical to control bacterial ascent, which is in line with previous studies suggesting a protective role for neutrophils during a UTI, whereas monocyte-derived macrophages orchestrate a strong, but ineffective, inflammatory response against uropathogenic, E. coli-induced, acute pyelonephritis. Experimental neutropenia during acute pyelonephritis resulted in a compensatory increase in the number of monocytes and heightened macrophage-dependent inflammation in the kidney. Exacerbated macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses promoted renal scarring and compromised renal function, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and potassium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a previously unappreciated outcome for neutrophil-macrophage imbalance in promoting host susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis and the development of permanent renal damage. This suggests targeting dysregulated macrophage responses might be a therapeutic tool to prevent renal scarring during acute pyelonephritis.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Macrophages/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Pyelonephritis/metabolism , Animals , Escherichia coli , Female , Fibrosis/microbiology , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Inflammation , Kidney/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Pyelonephritis/microbiology , Pyelonephritis/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology
16.
Urol Case Rep ; 40: 101908, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474562

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old diabetic woman was referred to the emergency department with fever, left flank pain, pneumaturia, and impaired vision of the left eye from 4 days ago. Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, low blood pressure, metabolic acidosis, and azotemia were the first findings. The diagnosis was a coincidence of emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous endophthalmitis due to computerized tomography of the patient. Immediate fluid and electrolytes resuscitation, intravenous antibiotic administration, and nephrectomy save the patient. Urine, blood, and vitreous cultures revealed mixed germ infection.

17.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269953

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
18.
J Med Cases ; 12(5): 173-176, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227218

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with no family history of sudden cardiac death. The patient presented with high fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis. Screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was positive. An electrocardiogram (ECG) performed during a fever episode revealed a Brugada pattern. Fever can be a trigger for induction of the electrocardiographic Brugada pattern but it is still unknown if the cardiac involvement by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can interfere with myocardial ion channels.

19.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202893

ABSTRACT

In severe cases of COVID-19, late complications such as coagulopathy and organ injury are increasingly described. In milder cases of the disease, the exact time frame and causal path of late-onset complications have not yet been determined. Although direct and indirect renal injury by SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed, hemorrhagic renal infection or coagulative problems in the urinary tract have not yet been described. This case report describes a 35-year-old female without relevant medical history who, five days after having recovered from infection with SARS-CoV-2, had an unusual course of acute pyelonephritis of the right kidney and persistent fever under targeted antibiotic treatment. A hemorrhagic ureteral obstruction and severe swollen renal parenchyma preceded the onset of fever and was related to the developing pyelonephritis. Sudden thrombotic venous occlusion in the right eye appeared during admission. Symmetrical paresthesia in the limbs in combination with severe lower back pain and gastro-intestinal complaints also occurred and remained unexplained despite thorough investigation. We present the unusual combination of culture-confirmed bacterial hemorrhagic pyelonephritis with a blood clot in the proximal right ureter, complicated by retinal vein thrombosis, in a patient who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2-infection five days before presentation. The case is suspect of a COVID-19-related etiology.

20.
Urol Int ; 105(3-4): 199-205, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting urology health-care worldwide. Reduced emergency room visits resulting in adverse outcomes have most recently been reported in pediatrics and cardiology. We aimed to compare patients with emergency room visits for pyelonephritis in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 era) and within the first wave of pandemic in 2020 (COVID-19 era) with regard to the number of visits and severe adverse disease outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre study comparing characteristics and outcomes of patients with pyelonephritis, excluding patients with hydronephrosis due to stone disease, in 10 urology departments in Germany during a 1-month time frame in March and April in each 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The number of emergency room visits for pyelonephritis in the COVID-19 era was lower (44 patients, 37.0%) than in the pre-COVID-19 era (76 patients, 63.0%), reduction rate: 42.1% (p = 0.003). Severe adverse disease outcome was more frequent in the COVID-19 era (9/44 patients, 20.5%) than in the pre-COVID-19 era (5/76 patients, 6.6%, p = 0.046). In detail, 7 versus 3 patients needed monitoring (15.9 vs. 3.9%), 2 versus no patients needed intensive-care treatment (4.5 vs. 0%), 2 versus no patients needed drain placement (4.5 vs. 0%), 2 versus no patients had a nephrectomy (4.5 vs. 0%), and 2 versus 1 patient died (4.5 vs. 1.3%). CONCLUSION: This report of collateral damage during CO-VID-19 showed that emergency room visits were decreased, and severe adverse disease outcomes were increased for patients with pyelonephritis in the COVID-19 era. Health authorities should set up information campaign programs actively encouraging patients to utilize emergency room services in case of severe symptoms specifically during the actual second wave of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pyelonephritis/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pyelonephritis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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