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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917627

ABSTRACT

Livestock farming is affected by the occurrence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks can be prevented by effective cleaning and disinfection along with proper farm management. In the present study, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine rotavirus A (RVA) were inactivated using food additive-grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) solution, quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and their mixture through suspension tests as the primary screening, and afterward via carrier tests using dropping or dipping techniques as the secondary screenings. Viruses in the aqueous phase can be easily inactivated in the suspension tests, but once attached to the materials, they can become resistant to disinfectants, and require longer times to be inactivated. This highlights the importance of thorough cleaning with detergent before disinfection, and keeping elevated contact durations of proper disinfectants to reduce viral contamination and decrease infectious diseases incidence in farms. It was also reaffirmed that the suspension and carrier tests are necessary to evaluate disinfectants and thus determine their actual use. Particularly, the mixture of QAC and FdCa(OH)2 was found to exhibit synergistic and broad-spectrum effects compared to their use alone, and is now recommended for use on livestock farms.

2.
94th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2021 ; : 1650-1664, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1801309

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a summary of case studies from water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) in the United States that have experienced wastewater process inhibitions as a result of COVID-19 countermeasures. Anecdotal feedback from staff operating impacted WRRFs and preliminary influent toxicity screening data point to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) in the influent as the possible cause for the inhibition events. As such, a high-level overview of QACs, and a synopsis of their fate and potential impacts in WRRFs, are summarized in this paper. Empirical evidence from full-scale facilities is presented, demonstrating that high concentrations of disinfectants used during the pandemic caused nitrification inhibition. This paper also highlights the potential of disinfectants to inhibit enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), a treatment phenomenon not yet reported on in literature to our knowledge. Finally, the authors provide recommendations for best management operational practices to mitigate inhibitory impacts at WRRFs in the future. Copyright © 2021 Water Environment Federation

3.
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics ; 49(1):34-47, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1677792

ABSTRACT

Disinfectants can effectively inhibit or kill microorganisms on the surface of objects and transmission media, which are widely used in food, hygiene, health, pandemic prevention and other fields. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the global use of disinfectants increased sharply, which played an important role in effectively preventing and controlling the spread of the virus and preventing the spread of the pandemic. However, improper use of disinfectants will reduce its effectiveness and even induce microbial resistance, which may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission. The disinfectant resistance gene of microorganism will also aggravate its pollution and transmission risk through vertical reproduction or horizontal transfer between the same or different species, which seriously threatens public health safety. At present, the wide emergence of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) has attracted global attention to public health, but the understanding of disinfectant resistance is very limited. This paper reviews the research on microbial resistance to disinfectants in recent years, focusing on the mechanism of microbial resistance by forming biofilm, reducing cell membrane permeability, over expressing efflux pump, producing specific enzymes to eliminate or attenuate disinfectants, and changing action targets. The formation of strong biofilm can effectively prevent disinfectants from approaching microorganisms, reduce microbial sensitivity and improve resistance;the reduction of cell membrane permeability depends on the changes of membrane protein, phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide, which can reduce the entry of disinfectants into microbial cells;the overexpression of efflux pump system is conducive to microorganisms to discharge harmful substances in cells;the action of specific enzymes can degrade the effective components of disinfectants or improve microbial immunity;the change of target can reduce the combination of disinfectant and action site, so as to reduce the disinfection effect. In addition, aiming at the acquisition and transmission of microbial disinfectant resistance, the chromosome and plasmid mediated resistance genes as well as the relationship between microbial disinfectant resistance and antibiotic resistance in the environment were discussed. Disinfectant resistance genes can be transferred and transmitted by transformation, transduction or conjugation through mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and phages, which puts forward new requirements for scientific disinfection.

4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 440: 115913, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises significance for a potential influenza therapeutic compound, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which has been extensively used in personal care products as a positively-charged quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent. CPC is currently in clinical trials to assess its effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) morbidity. Two published studies have provided mouse and human data indicating that CPC may alleviate influenza infection, and here we show that CPC (0.1 µM, 1 h) reduces zebrafish mortality and viral load following influenza infection. However, CPC mechanisms of action upon viral-host cell interaction are currently unknown. We have utilized super-resolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy to probe the mode of CPC action. Reduction in density of influenza viral protein hemagglutinin (HA) clusters is known to reduce influenza infectivity: here, we show that CPC (at non-cytotoxic doses, 5-10 µM) reduces HA density and number of HA molecules per cluster within the plasma membrane of NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts. HA is known to colocalize with the negatively-charged mammalian lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2); here, we show that nanoscale co-localization of HA with the PIP2-binding Pleckstrin homology (PH) reporter in the plasma membrane is diminished by CPC. CPC also dramatically displaces the PIP2-binding protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) from the plasma membrane of rat RBL-2H3 mast cells; this disruption of PIP2 is correlated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Together, these findings offer a PIP2-focused mechanism underlying CPC disruption of influenza and suggest potential pharmacological use of this drug as an influenza therapeutic to reduce global deaths from viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cell Communication , Cetylpyridinium/chemistry , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Dinucleoside Phosphates , Humans , Immunity , Mammals , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositols , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(1): 48-52, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029451

ABSTRACT

Decontamination of pathogens on surfaces of substances is very important for controlling infectious diseases. In the present experiments, we tested various disinfectants in aqueous phase as well as on plastic surface carrying a viral inoculum, through dropping and wiping decontamination techniques, comparatively, so as to evaluate virucidal efficacies of those disinfectants toward an avian coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus: IBV). We regard this evaluation system applicable to SARS-CoV-2. The disinfectants evaluated were 0.17% food additive glade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) solution, sodium hypochlorite at 500 or 1,000 ppm of total chlorine (NaClO-500 or NaClO-1,000, respectively), NaClO at 500 ppm of total chlorine in 0.17% FdCa(OH)2 (Mix-500) and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) diluted 500-fold in water (QAC-500). In the suspension test, all solutions inactivated IBV inoculum that contained 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) under detectable level within 30 sec. In the carrier test, all solutions, except NaClO-500, could inactivate IBV with 0.5% FBS on a carrier to undetectable level in the wiping-sheets and wiped-carriers. We thus conclude that suspension and carrier tests should be introduced to evaluate disinfectants for the field usage, and that this evaluation system is important and workable for resultful selection of the tested disinfectants against avian coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, particularly on plastic fomite.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Calcium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tapering , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage
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