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1.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 139-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173509

ABSTRACT

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes acute atrophic enteritis in turkey poults, leading to significant economic loss in the turkey industry. Rapid detection, differentiation, and quantitation of TCoV are critical to the diagnosis and control of the disease. A specific one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using TCoV-specific primers and dual-labeled fluorescent probe for detection and quantitation of TCoV in feces and intestine tissues is described in this chapter. The fluorogenic probe labeled with a reporter dye (FAM, 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine) and a quencher dye (Absolute QuencherTM) was designed to bind to a 186 base-pair fragment flanked by the two PCR primers targeting the 3' end of spike gene (S2) of TCoV. The assay is highly specific and sensitive and can quantitate between 102 and 1010 copies/mL of viral genome. It is useful in monitoring the progression of TCoV-induced atrophic enteritis in the turkey flocks. Copyright © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

2.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 93-100, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173505

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently identified equine virus, involved mainly in enteric infections. Since the ECoV discovery in 1999, only two real-time RT-PCRs have been developed for viral identification. In this chapter we describe a one-step real-time RT-PCR that has been routinely used in our laboratory for ECoV detection from fecal and respiratory samples. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.

3.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 43: 101144, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086280

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) is known to affect the heart and is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. Most studies to date have focused on clinically sick subjects. Here, we report cardiac and proinflammatory biomarkers levels in ambulatory young adults with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection compared to those without infection 4-8 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) testing. Methods: 131 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic subjects were enrolled following testing for SARS-COV-2. Fifty subjects tested negative, and 81 subjects tested positive. Serum samples were collected for measurement of C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin-6, NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin 28-55 days after SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR testing. Results: Biomarker levels trended higher in SARS-COV-2-positive vs negative subjects, but differences in biomarker levels or proportion of subjects with elevated biomarkers were not statistically significant with respect to SARS-COV-2 status. Among individuals with ≥ 1 comorbidity, odds of elevated CRP were greater compared to individuals without any comorbidities (odds ratio [OR] = 2.90); this effect size was increased 1.4-fold among SARS-COV-2-positive subjects (OR = 4.03). Similarly, NT-pro-BNP was associated with CVD, with the strongest association in COVID-positive individuals (OR = 16.9). Conclusions: In a relatively young, healthy adult population, mild COVID-19 infection was associated with mild elevations in cardiac and proinflammatory biomarkers within 4-8 weeks of mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in individuals with preexisting comorbidities, but not among individuals without comorbidities. For the general population of young adults, we did not find evidence of elevation of cardiac or proinflammatory biomarkers 4-8 weeks after COVID-19 infection.Clinical Perspective: This is a characterization of cardiac and proinflammatory biomarkers in ambulatory subjects following asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection. Young, ambulatory individuals did not have cardiac and proinflammatory biomarker elevation 4-8 weeks after mild COVID-19 infection. However, COVID-19 infection was associated with biomarker elevations in select individuals with comorbidities.Clinical study number: H-47423.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(29): 10820-10822, 2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067270

ABSTRACT

Defining con-founders that affect the reliability of diagnostic tests for coronavirus disease 2019 is vital to breaking the chain of infection. The elderly population is a higher risk group for the emerging virus. However, gender seems to exert a critical role in modifying the infection risk among women owing to hormonal changes. The menopause transition is an exceptional period for older women where the protective and immunomodulatory effects of the estrogen hormone are lost. Accordingly, attention should be given to postmenopausal women since they will have an increased risk compared to their pre-menopausal peers.

5.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):OC21-OC24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067195

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is supplemented by clinical severity indices. These indices are the National Early Warning Score (NEWS, which aids in risk stratification), CT severity score (radiological severity score), and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct value, which provides a semi-quantitative measure of viral load). Aim(s): To assess the correlation between NEWS at admission, RT-PCR Ct value and CT severity score in mild and moderate COVID-19 patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi, from January to June 2021. The study included 50 subjects (25 with mild COVID-19 and 25 with moderate COVID-19). NEWS was calculated at admission and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Ct value was estimated using real-time RT-PCR. CT severity score was calculated based on High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest findings. The correlation among the parameters was determined using Pearson correlation formula. Result(s): The mean age of subjects in the mild and moderate COVID-19 groups were 49.52 years and 51.84 years, respectively. The mean RT-PCR Ct value of E gene was 24.48 and Rdrp gene was 24.56 in the mild COVID-19 group;while in the moderate group it was 23.72 for both E gene and Rdrp genes. The correlation between NEWS and Ct value of E gene (r-value=-0.06, p-value=0.68), Ct value of Rdrp gene (r-value=-0.03, p-value=0.79) and the correlation between CT severity score and Ct value of E gene (r-value=-0.05, p-value=0.73), Ct value of Rdrp gene (r-value=-0.06, p-value=0.68) was negative and insignificant. The mean CT severity score in mild COVID-19 group was 3.92, and in moderate COVID-19 group was 9.88. A significant positive correlation was found between the CT severity score and NEWS at admission. Conclusion(s): The clinical severity of COVID-19 as estimated by NEWS corroborates with CT severity score while the relationship between RT-PCR Ct value and clinicoradiological severity needs to be ascertained by further research. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

6.
Haseki Tip Bulteni ; 60(4):318-324, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066931

ABSTRACT

Aim: We think that the nasopharyngeal swab sample should be taken bilaterally to improve the sensitivity of the real-time-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test since there may be pathologies that cause nasal obstruction, such as nasal septum deviation (NSD). In this context, we investigated the effect of the nasopharyngeal swab sampling method and the presence of nasal obstruction on the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Method(s): This prospective clinical study was conducted from March 2021 to January 2022. Forty-four hospitalized patients with NSD were included in the study group, and 44 hospitalized patients without NSD were included in the control group. The results of the RT-PCR test studied with a unilateral nasopharyngeal swab sample taken during hospitalization and the RT-PCR test studied with a bilateral nasopharyngeal swab sample taken on the 2nd day of hospitalization and the visual analog scale (VAS) scores showing the patients' pain during the first sampling were determined. Result(s): In the first test, 23 (52.3%) patients in the study group and 32 (72.7%) patients in the control group were evaluated as SARS-CoV-2 positive. The first test sensitivity was significantly higher in the control group (p=0.048). The VAS score was significantly higher in the study group (p=0.00008). In the second test, 35 (79.5%) patients in the study group and 37 (84.1%) patients in the control group were evaluated as SARS-CoV-2 positive. The sensitivity increases in the study group and in the population were statistically significant (p=0.007 and p=0.004, respectively). The consistency of the first and second test results increased in patients without NSD and in patients with low VAS scores [odds ratio (OR)=3.779;p=0.001, OR=2.572;p=0.005, respectively]. Conclusion(s): Nasopharyngeal swab sampling may be affected by nasal congestion and the sampling method. To avoid this, it may be more appropriate to take a nasopharyngeal swab sample through the bilateral nasal cavity. Copyright © 2022 by The Medical Bulletin of Istanbul Haseki Training and Research Hospital The Medical Bulletin of Haseki published by Galenos Yayinevi.

7.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):3315-F0124, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058161

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Long-COVID is assumed to have an autoimmune component. As a seropositivity of functional active autoantibodies against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR-AAb) and an impaired retinal microcirculation, measured by OCT-angiography (OCT-A), was observed after COVID-19 infection, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the impact of GPCR-AAbs on retinal microcirculation in patients with LongCOVID. Methods : Seventy-six patients with Long-COVID (COVID-19 infection was confirmed by real time rt-PCR) were recruited. A seropositivity for GPCR-AAbs (Nociceptin-AAb, ß2-AAb, AT1-AAb, α1-AAb, MAS-AAb, M2-AAb, ETA-AAb) was analyzed by a specific rat cardiomyocyte bioassay in vitro. Macular (superficial vascular plexus (SVP), intermediate capillary plexus (ICP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP)) and peripapillary vessel density (VD) were measured by OCT-A (Spectralis II, Heidelberg, Germany). VD analysis was done by the Erlangen-Angio tool, including an APSifyed and Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) based analysis. Data were analyzed by mixed model (SAS version 9.4). Gender and age were set as covariates. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and was done in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was achieved. Results : All patients with Long-COVID showed a seropositivity for GPCR-AAbs (100%). Female patients with Long-COVID showed lower macular and peripapillary VD compared to men. A significant effect of a seropositivity of AT1-AAb on age-corrected least squares means (LS-means) overall VD of DCP ([CI: 0,25;6.07], p=0.03). A seropositivity of α1-AAb showed a significant effect on age-corrected LS-mean overall VD of SVP ([CI: 0.07;2.69], p=0.04), of DCP ([CI: 0.36;3.25], p=0.01), and of PH ([CI: 1.17;5.59], p=0.01), respectively. A seropositivity of MAS-AAb yielded a significant effect on age-corrected LS-mean overall VD of DH (CI: 1.48;6.07, p=0.001). A seropositivity of ß2-AAb has a significant effect on agecorrected LS-mean overall VD of MH (CI: 0,02;1,94, p=0.04). For those effects, the covariate age was significant in the type III tests (p<0.05), thus analysis was done considering this age-effect. Conclusions : As autoimmune mechanisms were reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Long-COVID, we postulate that functional active GPCR-AAb may have an impact on retinal microcirculation, being a propable correlate to systemic disease.

8.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043499

ABSTRACT

Although the FDA has given emergency use authorization (EUA) for some antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, no direct antiviral drugs have been identified for the treatment of critically ill patients, the most important treatment is suppression of the hyperinflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of corticosteroids in hospitalized severe or critical patients positive for COVID-19. This is a retrospective single-center descriptive study. Patients classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections with acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital were enrolled from January 11th to March 30th, 2020. Ninety patients were classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections. The patients were treated with methylprednisolone with a low-to-moderate dosage and short duration. The days from the symptom onset to methylprednisolone were about 8 days. Eighteen patients were treated with invasive ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) care. All the patients in the severe group and ten in the critical group recovered and were discharged. Three critical cases with invasive ventilation died. Although cases were much more severe in the corticosteroid-treated group, the mortality was not significantly increased. Early use of low-to-moderate dosage and short duration of corticosteroid may be the more accurate immune-modulatory treatment and brings more benefits to severe patients with COVID-19.

9.
Transplantation ; 106(8):143-144, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040900

ABSTRACT

Background: With the highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, the number of liver transplants for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has decreased worldwide. However, similar to the phenomenon occurring in COVID-19 infection, the residual virus reservoirs in target organ is warranted to be explored due to the potential replication and disease recurrence. Hence, we aim to investigate the significance of hepatic HCV RNA identification as well as the discrepancy between HCV RNA and HCV core antigen (HCV Ag) in native liver of chronic hepatitis C recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Methods: Between Feb 2016 to Aug 2019, we prospectively enrolled 80 serum anti-HCV positive recipients who underwent LDLT. HCV RNA extracted from the native liver tissues was subjected to one-step reverse transcribed qPCR, using the TopScript One Step qRT PCR Probe Kit with HCV qPCR probe assay and human GAPDH qPCR probe assay on ViiA 7 Real Time PCR System. Hepatic HCV Ag was identified from the native liver tissues by employing the qualitative enzyme immunoassay technique. All experimental steps were based on the protocol provided by Human HCV Ag ELISA Kit (Cat. No. MBS167758). Results: Among 80 recipients, 85% (68/80) positive HCV-RNA was significantly higher in the native liver tissues than in the serum before (29/80, 36.3%;p = 0.000) and after LDLT (3/80, 4.4%;p = 0.000). In contrast, hepatic HCV Ag was 100% negative identified in all 80 explanted native liver. Conclusions: Significant positive HCV-RNA identification in the native liver suggested that pre-LDLT serum HCV RNA should be underestimated in the real status of HCV activity. HCV Ag assay may have lack of sensitivity and negative predictive value in liver tissues. In contrast to serum HCV RNA and HCV Ag, a great discrepancy might be described between hepatic HCV RNA and HCV Ag in the liver tissue. (Figure Presented).

10.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(4):2580-2585, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030775

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Covid – 19 caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a global pandemic on March 11, 2020 by World Health Organization. Complexity of Covid – 19 diseases is centered on its unpredictable clinical course that can rapidly develop, causing severe and fatal complications. The current study was aimed to investigate association between levels of biomarkers with Covid– 19 disease severity to identify patients at risk of fatal complications. Materials and Method’s: A Retrospective cross-sectional Hospital based study was undertaken by Department of Medicine at K.J. Somaiya Medical College, Mumbai, India. Adult patients of more than 18 year of age who were admitted with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of Covid – 19 during the period of June and July 2020 were included in the study. Gold-standard diagnosis of Covid – 19 is achieved through molecular identification of SARS-CoV-2 using nucleic acid amplification tests such as the reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) or viral gene sequencing. A total of 500 patients were included, irrespective of age, gender, ethnicity or duration of symptoms of underlying illness. The study was approved by research and ethics regulatory committee of the institution. Data was collected by reviewing the records and of the selected patients. Data was summarized by using descriptive statistics. P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 500 patients were included in the study. The age of these patients ranged from 18 to 61 years with a mean of 37.8 (18.2) years. There was a male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 2.6. Out of 500 patients that we have included in our study, 10 patients had isolated raised D –Dimer. It showed a weak association with severe lung involvement. During the study period, a total of 87 death were observed among the patients included in the study, hence a death rate of 17.4% was observed by the researchers. Conclusion: Severity of lung involvement, Assessment of levels of various biomarkers helps in immediate categorization of patients into risk groups.

11.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 711-712, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012173

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has elevated the development of novel diagnostic solutions, including rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), to a global priority to meet the high demand for accurate, timely viral detection and diagnosis. However, ubiquitously implemented NAATs, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), consume hours of testing. We report a field-forward instrument capable of ultra-fast real-time PCR for amplification-based nucleic acid detection in a custom-designed microfluidic chip. Prudent selection and unconventional positioning of thermal cyclers relative to the microfluidic chip and a fluorescent detector permit ultra-fast simultaneous amplification and detection, with 40 cycles complete in under 10 minutes. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

12.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1664-1665, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008838

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a disease caused by the new pathogen SARS-CoV2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) typically presenting with pneumonia but also other systemic manifestation has been reported worldwide [1]. Different reports have described the appearance of infammatory arthritis (IA) after resolution of acute infection from COVID-19 [2]. Objectives: To observe the frequency of Infammatory Arthritis in an Albanian cohort of post-COVID-19 patients. Methods: Post-Covid-19 patients, having two consecutive negative PCR (realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), discharged from the Pul-monology Department (January-July 2021) were invited to enter in a 6 (six) month multidisciplinary observational study. Data regarding post-COVID-19 infammatory arthritis are presented in this study. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to express data. Results: From 154 post-COVID-19 patients (F/M = 62/92) enrolled, 14 (9.09%) patients didn't follow regularly the dedicated ambulatory thus were excluded from this study. Considering the remaining 140 patients (F/M = 58/82), only 21 (15%) patients were diagnosed with IA where the most common were, respectively: Reactive Arthritis (ReA) 11 (52.3%) patients;Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) 4 (19.09%) patients;Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) 3 (14.2%) patients;Gout Arthritis (GA) 3 (14.2%) patients. All rheumatic conditions were more frequent in male than in female post-COVID-19 patients. Data summarized in Table 1. All patients that developed a post COVID-19 IA, had fever during the period of SARS-CoV2 infection. Arthralgia was a typical symptom that have been reported by patients that have developed RA and AS. All RA post-Covid-19 patients reported having had even symptoms like cough, dispnea and fatigue. None of the AS patients neither GA reported symptoms of dysguesia or anosmia. Only 9% of ReA patients reported having had abdominal pain during acute infection with SARS-Cov2. Data summarized in Figure 1. Conclusion: IA is another manifestation that follows acute infection from COVID-19. In this regard increased awareness and further investigations are needed in order to better understand weather SARS-Cov2 infection can accelerate the development of a rheumatic autoimmune disease.

13.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:15-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006898

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: In Senegal, SARS-CoV-2 incidence evolved with three successive epidemic waves. The first wave started on March 2020 with low virus variability whilst the second outbreak started in December was dominated by the Alpha variant. With the third taking place in June 2021, we investigated the involvement of other variants. Methods: During three waves of the pandemic, 163,788 nasopharyngeal swabs have been analysed at the Institut de Recherche en Santé, de Surveillance Epidémiologique et de Formations (IRESSEF). From those, 10,189 positive samples were screened with Seegene Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR new variant. From the screened samples, 972 positives were sequenced and 10% of the negatives for detection of new variants. The ARTIC Network methodology with Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) has been used for sequencing. Results: Our data have overall shown that the Senegalese strains are very similar to each other or closely related to other. During the first wave, the most common clade found was 19A (70.27%) and majority of the samples were of the B.1 (54.05) lineage. We noted more diversity during the second wave where clade 20B (40.82%) was more frequent, followed by clade 20A (28.91%), 20I (10.54%). At the level of lineages, we identified variants of interest as B.1.1.7 (10.54%), B.1.525 (6.12%), and B.1.617.2 (0.68%). In the third wave, we observed at the clade level with mainly 21D (47.69%) and 21A (20%). Impact: SARS-CoV-2 diversity may affect the virus's properties, such as it spreads, disease severity, performance of vaccines, tools, or other public health and social measures. Therefore, such tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlight the role some African institutes like IRESSEF surveillance capabilities through real-time sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genomes in the local context. Conclusion: In Senegal, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has disrupted the organization of the health system. IRESSEF contributed to put in place strategies to respond effectively to the expectations of medical authorities by providing them with data on the strains circulating in Senegal at each moment of the epidemic.

14.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006882

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: In Senegal, several labs are involved in COVID-19 diagnosis but only a few have the capacity of genomic sequencing, especially in the public sector. The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of a public health laboratory in COVID-19 diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of SARS-COV-2 in Senegal. Methods: From nasopharyngeal swabs collected from COVID- 19 patients, viral RNA was extracted and an RT-PCR was carried out to detect SARS-COV-2 genes using different kits targeting ORF1ab and N genes using Dan-An Gene Co (LTD of Sun-Yat-Sen University) and Sansure Bio Tech Inc or RdRp and N gene with Abbot Real-Time RT-PCR kit. Genomic characterization of SARS-COV-2 strains were carried out on a subset of positive samples collected from the 3 waves by sequenced using MinIon Oxford Nanopore technology. Results: From July 2020 to Sept 2021, 7988 COVID-19 suspected patients or travelers were tested at Laboratoire de Bacteriologie- Virologie (LBV) of Aristide Le Dantec hospital, an University Teaching Hospital. Among them, 964 patients were positive to SARS-COV-2 giving a positivity rate of 12%. Thereafter, 115 (11.9%) were sequenced including 32, 40, and 43 from the first, second, and third waves, respectively. The most detected variants of the first wave were B.1.1.420 (23%). For the second wave, B.1.1.420 (27.5%) and B.1.1.7 (35%) were the most detected. For the third wave, 42 sequences were Delta variant (B.1.617), and one from 19A clade. Impact: The results of this study highlight the need to enlarge the sequencing capacity to laboratories from the public sector in Senegal, especially university teaching hospitals as they may contribute efficiently to COVID -19 response. Conclusion: Despite the low number of positive samples, the LBV through this experience has proven its capacity to contribute to the national response of the COVID-19 pandemic and in genomic characterization of SARSCOV- 2 in the country. It was also a very good opportunity for a technology transfer from IRESSEF and MCR-Gambia.

15.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1709-1714, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006668

ABSTRACT

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, affecting wild and domestic cats. Feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV) variants of FCoV cause fatal peritonitis affecting approximately 5% of FCoV infected animals. The present study aimed to detect and isolate the feline infectious peritonitis virus for the first time in Iraq. In this study, 50 samples (fecal swab and peritoneal fluid) were collected from suspected pet cats from different areas of Baghdad, Iraq. The very suitable age was under two years old. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) was used to detect Feline infectious peritonitis in infected collected samples by the amplification of spike protein (S). The result of real-time RT-PCR revealed that out of 50 samples from suspected cats, 10 samples were positive for FIPV. Moreover, 10 positive samples by real-time RT-PCR were used for the isolation of the virus in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. Subsequently, the isolated virus was detected by real-time RT-PCR and then by conventional RT-PCR, followed by electrophoresis.

16.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada ; 44(5):625, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004260

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The exposure risks to front-line health care workers (HCWs) who are in close proximity for prolonged periods of time, caring for COVID-19 patients undergoing surgery or obstetrical delivery, is unclear. Understanding of sample types that may harbour virus is important for evaluating risk. The objectives are as follows: to determine if SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA from patients with COVID-19 undergoing surgery or obstetrical delivery is present in: 1) the peritoneal cavity of males and females 2) the female reproductive tract, 3) the environment of the surgery or delivery suite (surgical instruments, equipment used, air or floors) and 4) inside the masks of the attending health care workers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted at 2 Toronto hospitals, 32 patients with COVID-19 underwent urgent surgery or obstetrical delivery and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in patient, environmental and air samples was identified by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Air samples were collected using both active and passive sampling techniques. The primary outcome was the proportion of HCW masks positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 20/332 (6%) patient and environmental samples collected: 4/24 (16.7%) patient, 5/60 (8.3%) floor, 1/5 (1.9%) air, 10/23 (43.5%) surgical instruments/equipment, 0/24 cautery filters and 0/143 (95% CI 0–0.026) inner surface of mask samples. Conclusions: While there is evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the surgical and obstetrical operative environment, the finding of no detectable virus inside the masks worn by the medical teams would suggest a low risk of infection for our health care workers using appropriate personal protective equipment. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA;PPE;exposure risk;health care workers;real time RT-PCR;environmental and air sampling;operating room exposure;delivery room exposure

17.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(8):316-323, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2, causing an enormous strain on the already burdened healthcare systems. The clinical course of COVID-19 is variable;those with a poor prognosis tend to develop severe viral pneumonia requiring ventilator support and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Aim & Objectives: The aim of this study is to correlate the Cycle Threshold (Ct) score of RT-PCR reaction with different biomarkers like White cell count (WCC), Neutrophils%, Lymphocytes%, Monocytes%, Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio(NLR), Lymphocyte – Monocyte ratio (LMR), Platelet count, Prothrombin time(PT), Interleukin 6(IL-6), C-Reactive protein (CRP), Blood sugar level(BSL) .Thus enabling if a low Ct score can help early identification of patients at a high risk to progress to a severe disease. Method: A prospective analytical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, included 114 severe COVID-19 positive patients, admitted in ICU. The medical history, comorbidities, clinical findings, and laboratory data of each patient were obtained with data analyzed to identify and correlate significant laboratory parameters leading to the severe outcome. Results: Total 114 patients were studied. The mean age of the study population was 59 years with a male predominance. Significant positive correlation of Ct values was seen with Total WBC counts (p=0.004), Neutrophil % (p=0.001), NLR (p<0.001), IL-6 (p=0.010), Procalcitonin (p=0.015) and D-dimer (p=0.041). Significant negative correlation of Ct value with Lymphocyte % (p=0.001) and monocyte % (p<0.001). And no significant correlation was seen with Age, Gender, LMR, CRP, Platelet counts, Prothrombin time and Blood Sugar levels. Conclusion: It is known that biomarkers help in identifying the disease severity and mortality and help in proper diagnosis and patient treatment. Ct scores can be used as a surrogate marker of disease severity, although further studies are required to validate the same.

18.
Hepatology International ; 16:S145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995896

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic on 11 March, 2020 by WHO. Turkey is a middle endemic country regarding chronic hepatitis B. Because of that, co-infection of chronic hepatitis B and COVID-19 is common as well. Although COVID-19 is caused by infection in the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary manifestations have also been observed. In this article, we aimed to study the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HBV coinfection in patients. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of COVID-19 was conducted using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was made according to the APASL 2016 Hepatitis B guideline. Results: A total of 28 patients with chronic hepatitis B were included in this study. 21 of these patients were male. All individuals' nasopharyngeal swab specimens tested positive by SARS-Cov-2 PCR. The current HBV DNA levels of 13 patients is negative. 6 patients needed oxygen treatment and 3 of them had followed in the intensive care unit. The HBV DNA levels of these patients were negative, however patients had comorbidities of prostate cancer, hepatocellular cancer and diabetes mellitus, respectively. Among these 3 patients, 2 of them have died due to COVID 19. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection does not significantly affect the outcome of COVID-19. Although there were a small number of patients in our study, it can be said that comorbid conditions other than hepatitis B are associated with more severe outcomes.

19.
Hepatology International ; 16:S490, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995884

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Deficiency of zinc has been supposed to contribute to loss of smell and taste in COVID-19 patients. Our study aimed to assess the serum zinc levels among patients with COVID-19 of various severities, with and without olfaction dysfunction, and to evaluate the effect of zinc therapy in recovery of smell dysfunction among such patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 134 patients;real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) proved SARS-CoV-2. Serum zinc levels were measured for all infected patients. One hundred and five patients were detected to have anosmia and/or hyposmia and were categorized randomly into 2 groups;the first group included 49 patients who received zinc therapy and the second group included 56 patients who did not received zinc. All patients were followed up for the recovery duration of olfactory and gustatory symptoms and duration of complete recovery of COVID-19. Results: Olfactory dysfunction was reported in 105 patients (78.4%). Serum zinc levels were not significantly different between the patient subgroups regarding disease severity or the presence or absence of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction (p -0.05). The median duration of recovery of gustatory and/or olfactory function was significantly shorter among patients who received zinc therapy than those who did not received zinc (p<0.001), while the median duration of complete recovery from COVID-19 was not significantly different among the two groups (p - 0.05). Conclusion: Although the zinc status of COVID-19 patients did not exhibit a significant role in development of anosmia and/or hyposmia or disease severity, zinc therapy may have a significant role in shortening the duration of smell recovery in those patients without affecting the total recovery duration from COVID-19.

20.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988360

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a number of psychiatric problems in patients;however, mental healthcare in these patients does not appear to be adequate. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the extent of psychological care provided to COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital and the most common reasons for psychiatric counseling. Methods: This study examined the electronic medical records of all COVID-19-positive patients admitted to Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran, within April 1 and September 30, 2020 (approximately 2200 cases). Results: Psychiatric consultation was requested for 5.45% of admitted patients with COVID-19 diagnosis based on a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. More than half of those who received psychiatric counseling had a previous psychiatric disorder. The most common reason for requesting psychiatric counseling in patients with a previous psychiatric disorder was the patient’s evaluation and management;the most common reason in patients without a psychiatric disorder was agitation and lack of cooperation. The most common diagnosis in patients with a positive history of psychiatric disorder was bipolar disorders (33.9%), followed by opioid use disorder (29%). Adjustment disorder (54%) and delirium (26%) were the most common diagnoses in patients without a history of psychiatric disease. Conclusions: The current study showed that psychiatric counseling in COVID-19 patients was limited to a small number, including those with a positive history of psychiatric illnesses and prominent psychiatric symptoms.

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