Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 497
Filter
1.
Nano Lett ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185488

ABSTRACT

Anti-spike neutralizing antibodies (S NAbs) have been developed for prevention and treatment against COVID-19. The nanoscopic characterization of the dynamic interaction between spike proteins and S NAbs remains difficult. By using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), we elucidate the molecular property of an S NAb and its interaction with spike proteins. The S NAb appeared as monomers with a Y conformation at low density and formed hexameric oligomers at high density. The dynamic S NAb-spike protein interaction at RBD induces neither RBD opening nor S1 subunit shedding. Furthermore, the interaction was stable at endosomal pH. These findings indicated that the S NAb could have a negligible risk of antibody-dependent enhancement. Dynamic movement of spike proteins on small extracellular vesicles (S sEV) resembled that on SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity of variant S sEVs to S NAb could be evaluated using HS-AFM. Altogether, we demonstrate a nanoscopic assessment platform for evaluating the binding property of S NAbs.

2.
Virus Research ; : 199047, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2184352

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) plays a pivotal role in the viral entry as it enables the engagement of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for host cell entry. RBD is the major target for developing viral inhibitors and vaccines. Expression of recombinant RBD in E.coli is highly scalable with a low-cost procedure despite its high expression level compared to expression in mammalian and yeast cells. Using an alternative natural adjuvant system instead of alum adjuvant, increased immunogenicity of RBD antigen in serological assay including direct ELISA and surrogate Virus Neutralization Test (sVNT) was demonstrated with high levels of IgGs and neutralizing antibodies in mice sera immunized with RBD:AlSa (Alum and Sodium alginate) formulation. The sVNT is a simple and fast test that can be used instead of the conventional virus neutralization test requiring live virus and BSL3 laboratory to detect total neutralizing antibodies against RBD. Additionally, results showed a safety profile for sodium alginate which supported using it as an alternative natural adjuvant.

3.
Microbial Pathogenesis ; : 105994, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2181626

ABSTRACT

The development of clinically actionable pharmaceuticals against coronavirus disease (COVID-19);an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is very important for ending the pandemic. Coronavirus spike glycoprotein (GP)-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and its interaction with host receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is one of the most structurally understood but therapeutically untapped aspect of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Binding interface based on previous x-ray structure of RBD/ACE2 were virtually screened to identify fragments with high-binding score from 12,000 chemical building blocks. The hit compound was subjected to fingerprint-based similarity search to identify compounds within the FDA-approved drug library containing the same core scaffold. Identified compounds were then re-docked into of RBD/ACE2. The best ranked compound was validated for RBD/ACE2 inhibition using commercial kit. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to provide further insight into the mechanism of inhibition. From the original 12000 chemical building blocks, benzimidazole (BAZ) scaffold was identified. Fingerprint-based similarity search of the FDA-approved drug library for BAZ-containing compounds identified 12 drugs with the benzimidazole-like substructure. When these compounds were re—docked into GP/ACE2 interface, the consensus docking identified bazedoxifene as the hit. In vitro RBD/ACE2 inhibition kinetics showed micromolar IC50 value (1.237 μM) in the presence of bazedoxifene. Molecular dynamics simulation of RBD/ACE2 in the presence BAZ resulted in loss of contact and specific hydrogen-bond interaction required for RBD/ACE2 stability. Taken together, these findings identified benzimidazole scaffold as a building block for developing novel RBD/ACE2 complex inhibitor and provided mechanistic basis for the use of bazedoxifene as a repurposable drug for the treatment of COVID-19 acting at RBD/ACE2 interface.

4.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; : 102922, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2180106

ABSTRACT

Among the novel mutations distinguishing SARS-CoV-2 from similar coronaviruses is a K403R substitution in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein within its S1 region. This amino acid substitution occurs near the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding interface and gives rise to a canonical RGD adhesion motif that is often found in native extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin. Here, the ability of recombinant S1-RBD to bind to cell surface integrins and trigger downstream signaling pathways was assessed and compared to RGD-containing, integrin-binding fragments of fibronectin. We determined that S1-RBD supported adhesion of fibronectin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as primary human small airway epithelial cells, while RBD-coated microparticles attached to epithelial monolayers in a cation-dependent manner. Cell adhesion to S1-RBD was RGD-dependent, and inhibited by blocking antibodies against αv and β3, but not α5 or β1 integrins. Similarly, we observed direct binding of S1-RBD to recombinant human αvβ3 and αvβ6 integrins, but not α5β1 integrins, using surface plasmon resonance. S1-RBD adhesion initiated cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, and actin stress fiber organization to a similar extent as fibronectin. Moreover, S1-RBD stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the adhesion mediators FAK, Src, and paxillin, triggered Akt activation, and supported cell proliferation. Thus, the RGD sequence of S1-RBD can function as an αv-selective integrin agonist. This study provides evidence that cell surface αv-containing integrins can respond functionally to spike protein and raises the possibility that S1-mediated dysregulation of ECM dynamics may contribute to the pathogenesis and/or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Computers in Biology and Medicine ; 152, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2177832

ABSTRACT

The widespread of SARS-CoV-2 presents a significant threat to human society, as well as public health and economic development. Extensive efforts have been undertaken to battle against the pandemic, whereas effective approaches such as vaccination would be weakened by the continuous mutations, leading to considerable attention being attracted to the mutation prediction. However, most previous studies lack attention to phylo-genetics. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective model TEMPO for predicting the mutation of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Specifically, we design a phylogenetic tree-based sampling method to generate sequence evolution data. Then, a transformer-based model is presented for the site mutation prediction after learning the high-level representation of these sequence data. We conduct experiments to verify the effectiveness of TEMPO, leveraging a large-scale SARS-CoV-2 dataset. Experimental results show that TEMPO is effective for mutation prediction of SARS-CoV-2 evolution and outperforms several state-of-the-art baseline methods. We further perform mutation prediction experiments of other infectious viruses, to explore the feasibility and robustness of TEMPO, and experimental results verify its superiority. The codes and datasets are freely available at https://github. com/ZJUDataIntelligence/TEMPO.

6.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2176743

ABSTRACT

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) was used to determine the degree of inhibition of binding between human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein by neutralizing antibodies in a biosafety level 2 facility. Here, to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the commercial sVNT, we developed a new biotin based sVNT using biotinylated RBD and HRP conjugated streptavidin instead of HRP conjugated RBD for direct detection in an ELISA assay that strongly correlated to the FDA approved cPass sVNT commercial kit (R2 = 0.8521) and pseudo virus neutralization test (R2 = 0.9006) (pVNT). The biotin based sVNT was evaluated in 535 postvaccination serum samples corresponding to second and third boosts of AZD1222 and BNT162b2 vaccines of the wild type strain. We confirmed that the neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants in second vaccination sera decreased after a median of 141.5 days. Furthermore, vaccination sera from BNT162b2-BNT162b2 vaccines maintained neutralizing antibodies for longer than those of AZD1222 only vaccination. In addition, both vaccines maintained high neutralizing antibodies in third vaccination sera against Omicron BA.2 after a median of 27 days, but neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased after a median of 141.5 days. Along with the cPass sVNT commercial kit, biotin based sVNTs may also be suitable for specifically detecting neutralizing antibodies against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants;however, to initially monitor the neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated sera using high throughput screening, conventional PRNT could be replaced by sVNT to circumvent the inconvenience of a long test time.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 915034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198841

ABSTRACT

The rapid development, approval, and production of vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than 1 year after the first reports of a new infectious disease was a real game changer, providing 80%-90% efficacy in preventing severe etiopathologies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These vaccines induce an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein located on the surface of the virus particle. Antibodies (Abs) recognizing the S-protein can inhibit binding of the virus via the S-protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor expressed on different human cells, especially when these Abs bind to the interaction site, the so-called receptor-binding domain (RBD). We have expressed the RBDs of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and five variants of concern (VOCs) to test the immune response in people before vaccination with mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 and after up to three vaccinations using in-house ELISA and inhibition assays. The methods of both assays are provided. Both vaccines initiated similarly high IgG titers after two vaccinations against the wild-type and even two VOC-RBDs (alpha and delta) and strongly inhibited the corresponding RBD-ACE-2 binding. The IgG titers and inhibition of ACE-2 binding were lower for beta and gamma RBDs and much lower for omicron RBD. The third vaccination after 6 months strongly increased both the IgG titers and the neutralizing effect against all variants, especially for omicron, leading to 63% ± 13% neutralization potential. Importantly, neutralization linearly increased with the IgG titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger
8.
Talanta ; 255:124200, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165885

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an effective strategy to fight COVID-19. However, the effectiveness of the vaccine varies among different populations in varying immune effects. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) level is an important indicator to evaluate the protective effect of immune response after vaccination. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a rapid, safe and sensitivity detection method, which has great potential in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 NAb. In this study, a fluorescent beads-based lateral flow immunoassay (FBs-LFIA) and a latex beads-based LFIA (LBs-LFIA) using double antigen sandwich (DAS) strategy were established to detect NAbs in the serum of vaccinated people. The limit of detection (LoD) of the FBs-LFIA was 1.13 ng mL− 1 and the LBs-LFIA was 7.11 ng mL− 1. The two LFIAs were no cross-reactive with sera infected by other pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the two LFIAs showed a good performance in testing clinical samples. The sensitivity of FBs-LFIA and LBs-LFIA were 97.44% (95%CI: 93.15%–99.18%) and 98.29% (95%CI: 95.84%–99.37%), and the specificity were 98.28% (95%CI: 95.37%–99.45%) and 97.70% (95%CI: 94.82%–99.06%) compared with the conventional virus neutralization test (cVNT), respectively. Notably, the LBs-LFIA was also suitable for whole blood sample, requiring only 3 μL of whole blood, which provided the possibility to detect NAbs at home. To sum up, the two LFIAs based on double antigen sandwich established by us can rapidly, safely, sensitively and accurately detect SARS-CoV-2 NAb in human serum.

9.
Computational Biology and Chemistry ; 102:107810, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165190

ABSTRACT

Intermolecular interaction between key residue N501 of the epitope on SARS-CoV-2 RBD and screening antibody B38 was studied using the QM/MM and QM approach. The QM/MM optimized geometry shows that angle X-H---Y is 165° for O-H---O between mAb light chain S30 and RBD N501. High level MP2 calculations indicated the interaction between RBD N501 and S30 of B38 Fab light chain provide a relatively strong attractive force of − 3.32 kcal/mol, whereas the hydrogen bond between RBD Q498 and S30 was quantified as 0.10 kcal/mol. The decrease in ESP partial charge on hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group on S30 drops from 0.38 a.u. to 0.31 a.u., exhibiting the sharing of 0.07 a.u. from the lone pair electron oxygen of N501 due to hydrogen bond formation. The NBO occupancy of hydrogen atom also decreases from 25.79 % to 22.93 % in the hydroxyl H-O NBO bond of S30. However, the minor change of NBO hybridization of hydroxyl oxygen of S30 from sp3.00 to sp3.05 implies the rigidity of hydrogen bond tetrahedral geometry in the relative dynamic protein complex. The O-H---O angle is 165° which is close but not exactly linear. The structural requirement for sp3 hybridization of oxygen for hydroxyl group on S30 and dimension of protein likely prevent O-H---O from adopting linear geometry. The hydrogen bond strengths were also calculated using a variety of DFT methods, and the result of − 3.33 kcal/mol from the M06L method is the closest to that of the MP2 calculation. Results of this work may aid in the COVID-19 vaccine and drug screening.

10.
Analytical Biochemistry ; 663:115034, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2164920

ABSTRACT

Because the spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the immunodominant antigen, the S protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) are both targets currently to be genetically engineered for designing the broad-spectrum vaccine. In theory, the expressed protein exists as a set of variants that are roughly the same but slightly different, which depends on the protein expression system. The variants can be phenotypically manifested as charge heterogeneity. Here, we attempted to depict the charge heterogeneity of the trimeric SARS-CoV-2 RBD by using capillary isoelectric focusing with whole-column imaging detection (cIEF-WCID). In its nature form, the electropherogram fingerprints of the trimeric RBD were presented under optimized experimental conditions. The peaks of matrix buffers can be fully distinguishable from peaks of trimeric RBD. The isoelectric point (pI) was determined to be within a range of 6.67–9.54 covering the theoretical pI of 9.02. The fingerprints of three batches of trimeric RBDs are completely the same, with the intra-batch and batch-to-batch relative standard deviations (RSDs) of both pI values and area percentage of each peak no more than 1.0%, indicating that the production process is stable and this method can be used to surveillance the batch-to-batch consistency. The fingerprint remained unchanged after incubating at 37 °C for 7 d and oxidizing by 0.015% H2O2. In addition, the fingerprint was destroyed when adjusting the pH value to higher than 10.0 but still stable when the pH was lower than 4.0. In summary, the cIEF-WCID fingerprint can be used for the identification, batch-to-batch consistency evaluation, and stability study of the trimeric SARS-CoV-2 RBD, as part of a quality control strategy during the potential vaccine production.

11.
Biotechnology Reports ; 37:e00779, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158538

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes devastating impact on the human population and has become a major public health concern. The frequent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern urges the development of safe and efficacious vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants. We developed a candidate vaccine Baiya SARS-CoV-2 Vax 1, based on SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) by fusing with the Fc region of human IgG. The RBD-Fc fusion was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana. Previously, we reported that this plant-produced vaccine is effective in inducing immune response in both mice and non-human primates. Here, the efficacy of our vaccine candidate was tested in Syrian hamster challenge model. Hamsters immunized with two intramuscular doses of Baiya SARS-CoV-2 Vax 1 induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and protected from SARS-CoV-2 challenge with reduced viral load in the lungs. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of plant-produced subunit vaccine Baiya SARS-CoV-2 Vax 1 to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters.

12.
Chemical Biology Letters ; 9(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156814

ABSTRACT

The origin of COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was traced to Wuhan, China. Thereafter, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolved into various variants owing to genome-wide mutations, causing emergence of multiple variants, including Variant of Interest and Variant of Concern. Here, we discuss genomic architecture of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its multiple variantsalpha, beta, gamma, and delta, along with their biological properties, such as transmissibility, reduction in antibody-mediated neutralization, virulence, disease severity, vaccine effectiveness, and the prevalence across the India vis-a-vis world. Our data on VOC, pooled from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data up to 31 October 2021, shows around 89% prevalence of delta VOC across various Indian States. Whereas alpha, beta, and gamma variants show 10.44%, 0.57%, and 0.11% prevalence, respectively. Compared with global scale, the reported Indian prevalence of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta are 0.40%, 0.63%, 0.04%, and 1.7%, respectively. Furthermore, prevalent vaccines of various natures show significantly reduced effectiveness against these VOCs, necessitating urgent need for development of effective prophylactic vaccines and potential therapy to contain the pandemic.

13.
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology ; 24(1):1-8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2155870

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several different variants and strains of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified. Each of these variants has several mutations in different constituents of the orig-inal virus, such as the spike (S) glycoprotein, receptor-binding domain, N-terminal domain, and furin cleavage site region. These mutations mainly influence the virulence, infectivity, and trans-mission of the virus. Also, they can help the virus escape the natural- or vaccine-induced immu-nity in the host body. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention categorized these variants into three major classes: variants of interest, variants of concern (VOC), and variants of high consequence. In this review, four VOCs, i.e., B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.427/B.1.429, have been presented, and their potential complications, pathogenicity, transmissibility, and capability of escaping natural- or vaccine-induced immunity are discussed. Moreover, the novel B.1.617 variant and its known characteristics are also demonstrated. In conclusion, this review can help clinicians and scientists better understand the most critical properties of the mentioned concern-ing variants of SARS-CoV-2 and guide them to conduct future studies on new preventive and therapeutic approaches in fighting COVID-19

15.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149376

ABSTRACT

Several SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest (VOI) have emerged since this virus was first identified as the etiologic agent responsible for COVID-19. Some of these variants have demonstrated differences in both virulence and transmissibility, as well as in evasion of immune responses in hosts vaccinated against the original strain of SARS-CoV-2. There remains a lack of definitive evidence that identifies the genetic elements that are responsible for the differences in transmissibility among these variants. One factor affecting transmissibility is the initial binding of the surface spike protein (SP) of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (hACE2), the widely accepted receptor for SP. This step in the viral replication process is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SP that is located on the surface of the virus. This current study was conducted with the aim of assessing potential differences in binding affinity between recombinant hACE2 and the RBDs of emergent SARS-CoV-2 WHO VOIs. Mutations that affect the binding affinity of SP play a dominant initial role in the infectivity of the virus.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 802292, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154754

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody testing is often used for serosurveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence-based antibody tests are quite sensitive and specific for such serological testing. Rapid antibody tests against different antigens are developed and effectively used for this purpose. However, their diagnostic efficiency, especially in real-life hospital setting, needs to be evaluated. Thus, the present study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in New Delhi, India, to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a rapid antibody kit against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were recruited and categorized as early, intermediate, and late cases based on the days passed after their first RT-PCR-positive test report, with 20 subjects in each category. Twenty samples from pre-COVID era and 20 RT-PCR-negative collected during the study period were taken as controls. immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the RBD of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus were detected by rapid antibody test and compared with the total antibody against the nucleocapsid (N) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by electrochemiluminescence-based immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: The detection of IgM against the RBD of the spike protein by rapid kit was less sensitive and less specific for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, diagnostic efficacy of IgG by rapid kit was highly sensitive and specific when compared with the total antibody against N antigen measured by ECLIA. Conclusion: It can be concluded that detection of IgM against the RBD of S protein by rapid kit is less effective, but IgG detection can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for SARS-CoV-2 infection in real-life hospital setting.

17.
Chembiochem ; 23(18): e202200303, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958520

ABSTRACT

Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens with high affinity and specificity, but the prediction of binding sites on the antigen (epitope) corresponding to a specific antibody remains a challenging problem. To address this problem, we developed AbAdapt, a pipeline that integrates antibody and antigen structural modeling with rigid docking in order to derive antibody-antigen specific features for epitope prediction. In this study, we systematically assessed the impact of integrating the state-of-the-art protein modeling method AlphaFold with the AbAdapt pipeline. By incorporating more accurate antibody models, we observed improvement in docking, paratope prediction, and prediction of antibody-specific epitopes. We further applied AbAdapt-AF in an anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody complex benchmark and found AbAdapt-AF outperformed three alternative docking methods. Also, AbAdapt-AF demonstrated higher epitope prediction accuracy than other tested epitope prediction tools in the anti-RBD antibody complex benchmark. We anticipate that AbAdapt-AF will facilitate prediction of antigen-antibody interactions in a wide range of applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antigens , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , Epitopes/chemistry
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163668

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Israel in February 2020 and spread from then. In December 2020, the FDA approved an emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, and on 20 December, an immunization campaign began among adults in Israel. We characterized seropositivity for IgG anti-spike antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 between January 2020 and July 2021, before and after the introduction of the vaccine in Israel among adults. We tested 9520 serum samples, collected between January 2020 and July 2021. Between January and August 2020, seropositivity rates were lower than 5.0%; this rate increased from September 2020 (6.3%) to April 2021 (84.9%) and reached 79.1% in July 2021. Between January and December 2020, low socio-economic rank was an independent, significant correlate for seropositivity. Between January and July 2021, the 40.00-64.99-year-old age group, Jews and others, and residents of the Northern district were significantly more likely to be seropositive. Our findings indicate a slow, non-significant increase in the seropositivity rate to SARS-CoV-2 between January and December 2020. Following the introduction of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in Israel, a significant increase in seropositivity was observed from January until April 2021, with stable rates thereafter, up to July 2021.

19.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(12): e748, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is ongoing as a global epidemic and there is still a need to develop much safer and more effective new vaccines that can also be easily adapted to important variants of the pathogen. In the present study in this direction, we developed a new COVID-19 vaccine, composed of two critical antigenic fragments of the S1 and S2 region of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as well as the whole nucleocapsid protein (N), which was formulated with either alum or alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant combinations. METHODS: From within the spike protein S1 region, a fragmented protein P1 (MW:33 kDa) which includes the receptor-binding domain (RBD), another fragment protein P2 (MW:17.6) which contains important antigenic epitopes within the spike protein S2 region, and N protein (MW:46 kDa) were obtained after recombinant expression of the corresponding gene regions in Escherichia coli BL21. For use in immunization studies, three proteins were adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide gel and with the combination of aluminum hydroxide gel plus MPLA. RESULTS: Each of the three protein antigens produced strong reactions in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot analysis studies performed with convalescent COVID-19 patient sera. In mice, these combined protein vaccine candidates elicited high titer anti-P1, anti-P2, and anti-N IgG and IgG2a responses. These also induced highly neutralizing antibodies and elicited significant cell-mediated immunity as demonstrated by enhanced antigen-specific levels of interferon-γ (INF-γ) in the splenocytes of immunized mice. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that formulations of the three proteins with Alum or Alum + MPLA are effective in terms of humoral and cellular responses. However, since the Alum + MPLA formulation appears to be superior in Th1 response, this vaccine candidate may be recommended mainly for the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. We also believe that the alum-only formulation will provide great benefits for adults, young adolescents, and children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Mice , Animals , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , COVID-19/prevention & control , Aluminum Hydroxide , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
20.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127498

ABSTRACT

There are many scientific reports on the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S protein (and its RBD) with the human ACE2 receptor protein. However, there are no reliable data on how this interaction differs from the interaction of the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-1 with ACE2, in terms of binding strength and changes in reaction enthalpy and entropy. Our studies have revealed these differences as well as the impact of zinc ions on this interaction. Intriguingly, the binding affinity of both RBDs (of SARS-CoV-1 and of SARS-CoV-2) to the ACE2 receptor protein is almost identical; however, there are some differences in the entropic and enthalpic contributions to these interactions.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL