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1.
Vestnik Rossijskoj Voenno-Medicinskoj Akademii ; 24(3):593-604, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238187

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out at the end of 2019 in Wuhan (China). The disease has become a global pandemic and claimed more than 6 million lives after spreading rapidly around the world. Issues related to the complicated course of COVID-19 mechanisms continue to be the subject of active study. It is known that morbidity and mortality increase dramatically with increasing age and concomitant diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Although most infected people recover, even young and otherwise healthy patients can get sick with this disease. In this regard, an urgent task is to search for specific genetic factors that can explain the predisposition of people to infection and the development of a severe COVID-19 form. Human genetic determinants can provide the scientific basis for disease prediction and the development of personalized therapies to counteract the epidemic. In addition, cases of repeated infection with SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being registered, which occurs 1–6 months after initial infection on average and depends on the virus genome structure. Studies conducted on sequencing viral genomes have shown that some patients were re-infected with the same strain of coronavirus, while others were different. This, in turn, causes researchers concerns about the effectiveness of immunity after infection and vaccine reliability. The genetic characteristics of a person and a virus commonly determine the tendency for reinfection. It is difficult to determine the true COVID-19 reinfection prevalence, which is explained by the low detectability of asymptomatic reinfection and the fact that many patients with a mild course of the disease were not tested at an early stage of the pandemic. Therefore, the true prevalence of reinfection with COVID-19 does not reflect the current reality. There are many more cases of reinfection than are described in the literature. In this regard, the true contribution of a virus' genetic features to reinfection of COVID-19 can be determined only after population studies, and when developing immunization programs against a COVID-19, it is necessary to take into account the prevalence of reinfection in the population. The article can be used under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license © Authors, 2022.

2.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):149-150, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236397

ABSTRACT

Objectives: More than 200 patients have benefited from lung transplantation who failed to recover from COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress (ARDS) with conventional ventilatory support and/ or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO) in USA. We aim to share our experience and lessons learned at our institute through this case series. Method(s): After IRB approval, we performed a retrospective chart review and identified 37 patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 induced ARDS between May 2020 through January 2022. Out of these, 12 received a formal consultation from the transplant team. We studied patient characteristics, interventions during ECMO support, and evaluation outcomes. Result(s): Most of our patients had single organ failure i.e., lung, except for two who required dialysis after ECMO initiation. Six out of the 12 patients received bilateral lung transplant. One patient received the transplant before ECMO initiation. However, the patient required two runs of ECMO after the transplant due to postop complications from suspected COVID19 reinfection and deceased on postoperative day 101. All the patients after transplant had an expedited recovery except one who required prolonged hospitalization before starting physical therapy. The median length of hospital stay for the transplant group was 148 (89- 194) days and for the non-transplant group was 114 (58-178) days. The 30-day survival rate was 100% for the transplant group. At a median follow-up of 207 (0- 456) days after discharge, 5(83.3%) patients in the transplant group and 3(50%) patients in the nontransplant group were alive. In the non-transplant group, 4 patients received ECMO support for more than 75 days and at last follow-up 2 were alive and functioning well without needing new lungs. This asks for an objective prospective study to define the timeline of irreversibility of the lung injury. Conclusion(s): Lung transplantation is a viable salvage option in patients with COVI-19 induced irreversible lung injury. However, the irreversibility of the lung injury and the timing of lung transplant remains to be determined case-by-case. (Figure Presented).

3.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):162-163, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234706

ABSTRACT

Objectives: At the beginning of the pandemic, it was believed that severe SARS-CoV2 infection would induce lifelong immunity and that reinfections would be unlikely. However, several cases of reinfection were documented in previously infected patient and the waning humoral immunity has raised significant concerns. Accordingly, long-term and durable vaccineinduce antibody protection against infection have also become a challenge, as several breakthroughs of COVID-19 have been identified in individuals partially or fully vaccinated. This study describes the incidence, the characteristics of severe COVID-19 infections requiring ECMO occurred after vaccination and the presence of side effects related to the vaccine. Method(s): EuroECMO COVID is a prospective, multicenter, observational study, developed by the EuroELSO, based on data from patients aged >=16 years who received ECMO support for refractory COVID-19 during the pandemic in 204 centers. The analysis investigates the survival of vaccinated patient, the associations between management-related variables, the incidence of vaccination during the different pandemic phases, the type of vaccines and the possible side effects. Result(s): Immunosuppressed patients are susceptible to reinfection even after being naturally infected or receiving a full vaccination. Ineffective antibody production, due to relatively ineffective vaccines, inadequate number of doses or the time after vaccination are involved in the pathogenesis of postvaccination infections. This population was found to have a partial immunity due to an inadequate number of doses and an overlapped time from vaccination and SARS-CoV2 incubation with PCR results after being vaccinated. Several manifestations of SARS-CoV2 infection are similar to vaccine-induce side effects and mild symptoms can be presented both as an adverse reaction after vaccination and a result of infection. In this subgroup no side effects were attributable to the vaccine. Conclusion(s): Vaccination does not entirely prevent SARS-CoV2 but will lead to less morbidity and mortality, as demonstrated by less need of ICU and ECMO care. In addition, the partial immunity for inadequate doses of vaccine or through the evolution of new variants demonstrated the importance of further analysis to differentiate the possible causes of waning humoral immunity.

4.
Infection, Epidemiology and Microbiology ; 9(1):63-70, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232127

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: Reinfection among COVID-19 patients is still a challenging issue in the medical literature. Therefore, the current meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled incidence rate of reinfection among COVID-19 patients. Material(s) and Method(s): A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from July 1 to October 1, 2021. Original studies which estimated the incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection were included. CASP (Critical Appraisal skills program) was used to assess the quality of studies. Data were analyzed by STATA statistical software Version 15 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Finding(s): A total of 3803 articles were found, of which 16 articles remained after title, , and full text screening. The minimum and maximum incidence rates of reinfection were 0.001 and 0.73%, respectively. The pooled estimated incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.11% (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.20, p< .001, I2 = 100.0). The highest pooled estimated incidence rate of reinfection was observed in people <50 years old (0.14%) (95% CI: 0.001-0.34, p<.001, I2 = 100). Regarding the time elapsed after the first infection, the highest reinfection rate occurred four months after the first infection (0.12%) (95% CI: 0.001-0.27, p< .001, I2 = 100). Conclusion(s): The incidence rate of reinfection among COVID-19 patients is expected to be high. However, it seems that the influence of factors including the age of patients and the time elapsed after the first infection must be considered.Copyright A© 2023, TMU Press.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0085823, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240957

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) still tops the list of global health burdens even after COVID-19. However, it will sooner transcend the current pandemic due to the prevailing risk of reactivation of latent TB in immunocompromised individuals. The indiscriminate misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of deadly drug-resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This study aims to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM) in generating long-lasting immunity against TB. BPM treatment significantly boosted the activation status of the innate immune arm-macrophages by augmenting p38 signaling. Macrophages further primed and activated the adaptive immune cells CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung and spleen of the infected mice model. Furthermore, BPM treatment significantly amplified the polarization of T lymphocytes toward inflammatory subsets, such as Th1 and Th17. The treatment also helped generate a long-lived central memory T-cell subset. The generation of central memory T lymphocyte subset upon BPM treatment in the murine model led to a significant curtailing in the recurrence of TB due to reactivation and reinfection. These results suggest the potentiality of BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator to improve host defense against M.tb by enriching long-term protective memory cells. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) tops the list of infectious killers around the globe. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of M.tb has been a major hindrance toward realizing the "END TB" goal. Drug resistance has amplified the global burden toward the quest for novel drug molecules targeting M.tb. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a lucrative alternative to tackle emerging drug resistance and disease relapse by strengthening the host's immunity. Through our present study, we have tried to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM). BPM treatment significantly augmented long-lasting immunity against TB by boosting the innate and adaptive immune arms. The generation of long-lived central memory T lymphocyte subset significantly improved the disease outcome and provided sterilizing immunity in the murine model of TB. The present investigation's encouraging results have helped us depict BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator for treating TB.

6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 42(8): 973-979, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240262

ABSTRACT

To determine the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for suspected reinfection with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This was a retrospective cohort study using population-based notification records of residents in Kyoto City (1.4 M) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection between 1 March 2020 and 15 April 2022. Reinfection was defined by two or more positive COVID-19 test results ≧ 90 days apart. Demographic characteristics, the route and timing of infection and history of vaccination were analysed to identify risk factors for reinfection. Among the cohort of 107,475 patients, reinfection was identified in 0.66% (n = 709). The age group with the highest reinfection rate was 18-39 years (1.06%), followed by 40-59 years (0.58%). Compared to the medical and nursing professionals, individuals who worked in the construction and manufacturing industry (odds ratio [OR]: 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66-4.92) and hospitality industry (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.28-.31) were more likely to be reinfected. Symptomatic cases at initial infection, receiving more than 2 doses of vaccination and risk factors for severe infection at initial infection were protective factors against reinfection. Of the reinfected individuals, the reinfection route was unknown in 65%. Reinfection with COVID-19 is uncommon, with suspected reinfections more likely in adults, those with high exposure and unvaccinated individuals; the reinfection route was unknown in the majority of cases. This study confirmed the need to continue with self-protection efforts and to implement vaccination programs in high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
7.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237338

ABSTRACT

Emerging data suggest an increasing prevalence of persistent symptoms in individuals affected by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The objective of this study was to determine the relative frequency of altered taste and smell in COVID reinfection (multiple COVID positive tests) and long COVID (one COVID positive test). We sent an electronic survey to patients in the Indiana University Health COVID registry with positive COVID test results, querying if they were experiencing symptoms consistent with long COVID including altered chemosensory perceptions. Among the 225 respondents, a greater long COVID burden and COVID reinfection was observed in women. Joint pain was reported as the most common symptom experienced by 18% of individuals in the long COVID cohort. In the COVID reinfection cohort >20% of individuals reported headache, joint pain, and cough. Taste perception worse than pre-COVID was reported by 29% and 42% of individuals in the long COVID and COVID reinfection cohorts, respectively. Smell perception worse than pre-COVID was reported by 37% and 46% of individuals in long COVID and COVID reinfection cohorts, respectively. Further, Chi-square test suggested significant association between pre-COVID severity of taste/smell perception and headache in both cohorts. Our findings highlight the prevalence of persistent chemosensory dysfunction for two years and longer in long COVID and COVID reinfection.

8.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236042

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, studies on the variants and sublineages stand out, mainly in the cases of reinfection in a short period. In this study, we describe a case of infection by BA.1.1 sublineage in an individual from Southern Brazil. The same patient acquired reinfection with sublineage BA.2 within 16 days after the first detection. The viral extraction and RT-qPCR were performed on the samples LMM72045 (collected in May 2022) and LMM72044 (collected in June 2022). After the confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted the sequencing and viral genome analysis. This case of reinfection affected a 52-year-old male patient, without comorbidities, with three doses of vaccines against COVID-19, showing symptoms on May 19. These symptoms lasted for approximately six days. The patient returned to work activities on May 30. However, on June 4, the patient felt a new round of clinical signs that lasted for approximately seven days. Analysis of the viral genomes recovered from patients' clinical samples revealed that the two COVID-19 episodes were related to two divergent VOC Omicron sublineages, namely, BA.1.1 for the first round of symptoms and BA.2 for the second infection. Based on our findings, we can say that the present case of reinfection is the shortest described so far.

9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advent of COVID-19 and its impacts have prompted fear and stigma among people all across the world. Because of stigma, there was often a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which resulted in a poor prognosis. As a result, a reliable scale is required to measure the level of fear and stigma of COVID-19 reinfection. AIM: To develop and validate a scale for determining the level of fear and stigma of COVID-19 reinfection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 200 nursing-college students who had previously tested positive for COVID-19 was conducted. The scale's reliability was evaluated by external and internal consistency methods. Construct, convergent, and discriminant validity were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: The scale's mean score was 24.85 ± 11.35, and no floor or ceiling effects were detected. The scale items' reliability, measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient if an item was deleted, ranged from 0.76 to 0.95, with a total score value of 0.86. The range of convergent validity coefficients was between 0.37 and 0.64. Pearson's correlation coefficients for test-retest validity ranged from 0.71 to 0.93, with a total score of 0.82. The coefficient of split-half correlation was 0.87, while the coefficient of reliability was 0.93. According to the factor analysis, two components had latent roots larger than 1. The rotated component matrix of the two factors revealed that all items had R values over 0.30, indicating that none of them should be excluded. In addition, CFA results revealed that χ2 = 3524, df = 1283, χ2/df ratio = 2.74, p < 0.001, GFI = 0.86, CFI = 0.92, AGFI = 0.88, and RMSEA = 0.05. The scale's convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: The 14-item, two-dimensional Fear and Stigma of COVID-19 Reinfection Scale (FSoCOVID-19 RS) was demonstrated to have reliable psychometric properties.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1167087, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231746

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent comorbidities in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a higher rate of severe course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, data about post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) in patients with DM are limited. Methods: This multicenter, propensity score-matched study compared long-term follow-up data about cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other symptoms in 8,719 patients with DM to those without DM. The 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) according to age and sex resulted in 1,548 matched pairs. Results: Diabetics and nondiabetics had a mean age of 72.6 ± 12.7 years old. At follow-up, cardiovascular symptoms such as dyspnea and increased resting heart rate occurred less in patients with DM (13.2% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.01) than those without DM (2.8% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.05), respectively. The incidence of newly diagnosed arterial hypertension was slightly lower in DM patients as compared to non-DM patients (0.5% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.18). Abnormal spirometry was observed more in patients with DM than those without DM (18.8% vs. 13; p = 0.24). Paranoia was diagnosed more frequently in patients with DM than in non-DM patients at follow-up time (4% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.009). The incidence of newly diagnosed renal insufficiency was higher in patients suffering from DM as compared to patients without DM (4.8% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.09). The rate of readmission was comparable in patients with and without DM (19.7% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.61). The reinfection rate with COVID-19 was comparable in both groups (2.9% in diabetics vs. 2.3% in nondiabetics; p = 0.55). Long-term mortality was higher in DM patients than in non-DM patients (33.9% vs. 29.1%; p = 0.005). Conclusions: The mortality rate was higher in patients with DM type II as compared to those without DM. Readmission and reinfection rates with COVID-19 were comparable in both groups. The incidence of cardiovascular symptoms was higher in patients without DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1262-1268, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection outcomes among individuals with previous infection (natural immunity) and previous infection plus vaccination (hybrid immunity) are limited. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among patients with hybrid immunity (cases) and natural immunity (controls) from March 2020 to February 2022. Reinfection was defined as positive PCR> 90 days after initial laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes included time to reinfection, symptom severity, COVID-19-related hospitalization, critical COVID-19 illness (need for intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death), length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 773 (42%) vaccinated and 1073 (58%) unvaccinated patients with reinfection were included. Most patients (62.7%) were asymptomatic. Median time to reinfection was longer with hybrid immunity (391 [311-440] vs 294 [229-406] days, p < 0.001). Cases were less likely to be symptomatic (34.1% vs 39.6%, p = 0.001) or develop critical COVID-19 (2.3% vs 4.3%, p = 0.023). However, there was no significant difference in rates of COVID-19-related hospitalization (2.6% vs 3.8%, p = 0.142) or LOS (5 [2-9] vs 5 [3-10] days, p = 0.446). Boosted patients had longer time to reinfection (439 [IQR 372-467] vs 324 [IQR 256-414] days, p < 0.001) and were less likely to be symptomatic (26.8% vs 38%, p = 0.002) compared to unboosted patients. Rates of hospitalization, progression to critical illness and LOS were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and hybrid immunity provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and hospitalization. However, hybrid immunity conferred stronger protection against symptomatic disease and progression to critical illness and was associated with longer time to reinfection. The stronger protection conferred by hybrid immunity against severe outcomes due to COVID-19 should be emphasized with the public to further the vaccination effort, especially in high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adaptive Immunity
12.
Atheroscler Plus ; 53: 1-5, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231279

ABSTRACT

In this short narrative review, we aim at defining the pathophysiological role endothelial dysfunction in the observed COVID-19-associated rise in risk of cardiovascular disease. Variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have caused several epidemic waves of COVID-19, and the emergence and rapid spread of new variants and subvariants are likely. Based on a large cohort study, the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is about 0.66 per 10 000 person-weeks. Both the first infection and reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 increase cardiac event risk, particularly in vulnerable patients with cardiovascular risk factors and the accompanying systemic endothelial dysfunction. By worsening pre-existing endothelial dysfunction, both the first infection and reinfection with ensuing COVID-19 may turn the endothelium procoagulative and prothrombotic, and ultimately lead to local thrombus formation. When occurring in an epicardial coronary artery, the risk of an acute coronary syndrome increases, and when occurring in intramyocardial microvessels, scattered myocardial injuries will ensue, both predisposing the COVID-19 patients to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In conclusion, considering weakened protection against the cardiovascular risk-enhancing reinfections with emerging new subvariants of SARS-CoV-2, treatment of COVID-19 patients with statins during the illness and thereafter is recommended, partly because the statins tend to reduce endothelial dysfunction.

13.
Infect Dis Model ; 8(2): 574-602, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327941

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and Tuberculosis (TB) are among the major global public health problems and diseases with major socioeconomic impacts. The dynamics of these diseases are spread throughout the world with clinical similarities which makes them difficult to be mitigated. In this study, we formulate and analyze a mathematical model containing several epidemiological characteristics of the co-dynamics of COVID-19 and TB. Sufficient conditions are derived for the stability of both COVID-19 and TB sub-models equilibria. Under certain conditions, the TB sub-model could undergo the phenomenon of backward bifurcation whenever its associated reproduction number is less than one. The equilibria of the full TB-COVID-19 model are locally asymptotically stable, but not globally, due to the possible occurrence of backward bifurcation. The incorporation of exogenous reinfection into our model causes effects by allowing the occurrence of backward bifurcation for the basic reproduction number R0 < 1 and the exogenous reinfection rate greater than a threshold (η > Î·∗). The analytical results show that reducing R0 < 1 may not be sufficient to eliminate the disease from the community. The optimal control strategies were proposed to minimize the disease burden and related costs. The existence of optimal controls and their characterization are established using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. Moreover, different numerical simulations of the control induced model are carried out to observe the effects of the control strategies. It reveals the usefulness of the optimization strategies in reducing COVID-19 infection and the co-infection of both diseases in the community.

14.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S13-S14, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322661

ABSTRACT

Objectives: BIOBADAGUAY is the Paraguayan/Uruguayan registry of adverse events in patients with inflammatory rheumatic conditions under biologic therapy (BT). Three years have elapsed from the first case of coronavirus and data about South American patients with COVID are still scarce. In this study we analyzed the frequency and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases from Paraguay. Method(s): A cross sectional study of Paraguayan patients with rheumatic diseases from BIOBADAGUAY and controls without BT. Clinical, epidemiological, and COVID-19 data were analyzed. Only cases confirmed by SARSCoV-2 positive PCR test were included. Descriptive analysis were performed for this study. Result(s): 832 patients were included (696 under BT and 136 controls). 116 (13.9%) had COVID-19. 22 had a second infection and 9 a third reinfection. Table 1 shows characteristic of COVID-19 patients. The most frequent diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis (n = 93, 80.2%) followed by ankylosing spondylitis (n = 6, 5.2%), undifferentiated spondylarthritis (n = 5, 4.3%), psoriatic arthritis (n = 4, 3.4%), juvenile onset arthritis (n = 2, 1.7%), vasculitis (n = 2, 1.7%). Only 1 case (0.8%) were registered for Still's disease, enteropathic spondylarthritis, systemic sclerosis and seronegative polyarthritis, respectively. When comorbidities were analyzed, 46 (39.6%) patients had at least one (Table 1). Of the total treatments received: 65 (56.0%) had methotrexate, 53 (45.7%) leflunomide, 3 (2.5%) sulfasalazine, 15 (12.9%) hydroxychloroquine, 25 (21.5%) glucocorticoid, 52 (44.8%) anti-TNF and 20 (17.2%) non-anti-TNF. COVID-19 severity outcomes were: 101(87%) non severe, 31 (26.7%) severe and 1 fatal(0.8%). 189 (90.9%) patients received vaccination and the mean number of doses were 2.5 doses. 55 (26.4%) had COVID prior to vaccination Conclusion(s): In this study we examined the frequency of COVID-19 in Paraguayan patients with rheumatic diseases. In this cohort of rheumatologic patients, COVID 19 severity was similar to the one in the general population.

15.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2017-S2018, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322430

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Posterior mediastinal mass is most likely due to neurogenic tumor, meningocele or thoracic spine lesions. Caudate lobe of the liver herniation presenting as posterior mediastinal mass is a rare occurrence. Diaphragmatic herniation (DH) of the caudate lobe presents in various way including dyspnea, dyspepsia or incidental finding on imaging. We present a case of diaphragmatic hernia of the caudate lobe of the liver presenting as a posterior mediastinal mass found during evaluation of dyspnea. Case Description/Methods: A 75-year-old female presented to her physician with worsening shortness of breath from her baseline of 3 days duration. She had a history of sarcoidosis, COVID pneumonia over 1 year ago, COPD, diastolic heart failure, and hypertension. She was initially evaluated for COVID re-infection, which was negative and a CT of the chest with contrast to check for sarcoidosis flare revealed posterior mediastinal mass measuring 4.5 x 6.5 x 6.4 cm. Further work up with CT chest and abdomen with contrast revealed that the posterior mediastinal mass had similar attenuation as the liver and appears continuous with the caudate lobe of the liver. This was confirmed by NM scan of liver. Review of her records from an outside organization revealed similar finding on imaging a few years ago. Patient denied any history of trauma and laboratory work up revealed normal liver functions. After pulmonologist evaluation she was started on 2 L home oxygen following six-minute walk test, and also CPAP following a positive sleep study. Pulmonary function tests were performed and inhalers were continued. Given the chronicity of her symptoms and co-morbidities with stable caudate lobe herniation, conservative management was advised with surgery warranted if symptoms persist despite treatment (Figure 1). Discussion(s): DH is typically found on the left side with stomach or intestine while the right side is usually guarded by the liver. Isolated herniation of part of the liver into the thoracic cavity is rarely reported and is mostly acute from traumatic or spontaneous rupture requiring immediate repair. Our patient was initially evaluated for the posterior mediastinal mass for concerns of tumor, followed by the finding of what was thought to be acute herniation of the caudate lobe of liver into the thoracic cavity. Review of records showed this to be a stable lesion, we suspect that the patient had congenital diaphragmatic defect. Chronic and stable liver herniation into thoracic cavity can be managed conservatively if uncomplicated.

16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S44-S45, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322377

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative organisms of tuberculosis (TB), has afflicted man for millennia. TB was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. Before the 2020 Covid pandemic, it was responsible for 10 million new cases annually and was the leading infectious disease killer worldwide. MTBC strain typing represents an important complementary tool to guide TB control measures. TB programmes can use genotyping results in combination with epidemiological information to determine if recent transmission has likely occurred, and hence identify outbreaks that require targeted public health action. MTBC genotyping also can differentiate between relapse or re-infection, detect false-positive cases, and identify and monitor the circulating TB strains in the population over time. Restriction Fragment Length Phenotyping (RFLP), introduced in the 1990s, was labour intensive, required large amounts of DNA and was not easily comparable between laboratories. These disadvantages are overcome by the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping methods. More recently, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of MTBC has been shown to provide high resolution identification of recent transmission chains and their direction, as well as drug resistance prediction. Its increasing reliability and affordability has enabled this technology to transition from the research arena to clinical care and public health functions. Its application in high TB burden countries will hopefully revitalize global TB control efforts which have set back by the Covid pandemic.Copyright © 2023

17.
Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering ; 6(1):219-239, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322042

ABSTRACT

The overall purpose of this paper is to define a new metric on the spreadability of a disease. Herein, we define a variant of the well-known graph-theoretic burning number (BN) metric that we coin the contagion number (CN). We aver that the CN is a better metric to model disease spread than the BN as the CN concentrates on first time infections. This is important because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that COVID-19 reinfections are rare. This paper delineates a novel methodology to solve for the CN of any tree, in polynomial time, which addresses how fast a disease could spread (i.e., a worst-cast analysis). We then employ Monte Carlo simulation to determine the average contagion number (ACN) (i.e., a most-likely analysis) of how fast a disease would spread. The latter is analyzed on scale-free graphs, which are specifically designed to model human social networks (sociograms). We test our method on some randomly generated scale-free graphs and our findings indicate the CN to be a robust, tractable (the BN is NP-hard even for a tree), and effective disease spread metric for decision makers. The contributions herein advance disease spread understanding and reveal the importance of the underlying network structure. Understanding disease spreadability informs public policy and the associated managerial allocation decisions. © 2023 by the authors.

18.
Revista Peruana de Ginecologia y Obstetricia ; 69(1), 2023.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325390

ABSTRACT

It seems that things are calming down with SARS-Cov-2, as there are no longer daily reports and notes of findings of new variants and subvariants of the virus, as well as clinical changes in symptomatology, hospitalizations, severity, and deaths due to COVID-19. We do not know how we should guard against viral infection during the impending endemic phase of the disease, knowing the complex health problems of prolonged COVID if we contract the virus. In this article we describe the latest known coronavirus mutations, how they affect certain organs and systems, the advantage of a better response to infection in people with healthy lifestyle, the rebound of symptomatology, reinfections at the time of the vaccine, prolonged COVID, excess mortality of physicians who attended the first waves without vaccine, and some news and knowledge about COVID in the pregnant woman and her fetus and newborn;the future of the newborn born to a mother with COVID remains unknown. In the COVID endemic, should we continue to protect ourselves? How?Copyright © Peruvian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. All Rights Reserved.

19.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):136, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320713

ABSTRACT

Background: T cells play an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 immunity, including in defense against severe COVID-19. However, most studies analyzing SARSCoV- 2-specific T cells have been limited to analysis of blood. Furthermore, the role of T cells in SARS-CoV-2 immunity in pregnant women, which are at disproportionately higher risk of severe COVID-19, is poorly understood. Method(s): Here, we quantitated and deeply phenotyped SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from convalescent women (n=12) that had mild (non-hospitalized) COVID-19 during pregnancy. Endometrial, maternal blood, and fetal cord blood specimens were procured at term, which ranged from 3 days to 5 months post-infection. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were deeply analyzed by CyTOF using a tailored phenotyping panel designed to assess the effector functions, differentiation states, and homing properties of the cells. Result(s): SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were more abundant in the endometrium than in maternal or fetal cord blood. In a particularly striking example, in one donor sampled 5 months after infection, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells comprised 4.8% of total endometrial CD8+ T cells, while it only reached 1.4% in blood. Endometrial SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were more frequently of the memory phenotype relative to their counterparts in maternal and fetal cord blood, which harbored higher frequencies of naive T cells. Relative to their counterparts in blood, endometrial SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells exhibited unique phenotypic features, including preferential expression of the T resident memory marker CD69, inflammatory tissue-homing receptor CXCR4, and the activation marker 4-1BB. Endometrial T cells were highly polyfunctional, and could secrete IFNg, TNFa, MIP1b, IL2, and/or IL4 in response to spike peptide stimulation. By contrast, their counterparts in blood preferentially produced the cytolytic effectors perforin and granzyme B. Conclusion(s): Polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells primed by prior exposure to the virus are abundant and persist in endometrial tissue for months after infection. These cells exhibit unique phenotypic features including preferential expression of select chemokine receptors and activation molecules. Compared to their blood counterparts, the effector functions of these cells are more cytokine-driven and less cytolytic. The long-term persistence of these cells in the endometrium may help protect future pregnancies from SARS-CoV-2 re-infection.

20.
VirusDisease ; 34(1):164, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318821

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 affected millions of lives globally and led to devastating impact on public health. India had also witnessed the dreadful effect of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Within a short span of time, various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were developed using different platforms across the world. India has also developed one such indigenous whole-virion inactivated SARSCoV-2 vaccine named as BBV152 (Covaxin). The Covaxin has been found to be immunogenic and second most widely used vaccine in India. Recent studies have also shown significant increase in the humoral and neutralizing antibody response post the administration of booster dose against Omicron variant. Apparently, there is limited data on the long-term persistence of the immune response against the Covaxin in Indian context. Method(s): We evaluated an effectiveness of the Covaxin and comparing its specific immune responses in two categories through prospective cohorts recruited at the vaccination centre, Pune during June 2021 to March 2022. We defined the study population in two groups who were COVID-19 naive individuals (group-1) and COVID-19 recovered individuals (group-2) prior to the immunization with Covaxin. The two cohorts and the study participants were decided considering the baseline antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 positivity rate, sample power and loss to follow up. The study population was assessed during three follow-ups at second dose, one and six months post second dose to determine the immune response and effectiveness using S1-RBD IgG ELISA and neutralizing antibody response (NAbs) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Result(s): We enrolled participants between age group of 18-80 year (median 32 years). In group-1 and group-2, we recruited 118 and 128 participants respectively. The cohort retention was found to be> 85%,>70% and>40% in 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow up respectively. Loss to the 3rd follow up was coincided with third wave with omicron variant. A rise in geometrical mean titre (GMT) of S1-RBD IgG were observed amongst the participants of both the groups at one-month post immunization (Group 1: S1-RBD: 154.4 to 446.3, Group 2 S1- RBD: 918 to 1127). However, the GMTs at six months post vaccination found to be slightly raised in Group 1 compared to one-month follow-up. Considering the hybrid immunity in group 2 participants, the GMTs of NAbs were higher than group 1 participants at each follow-up against B.1, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. Both the groups had shown significant reduction in the levels of NAbs against Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 compared to B.1. The lowest GMTs of NAbs was observed against BA.1 variant. The IgG and NAbs persisted till six months in 90% participants in both categories except BA.1 variant. Breakthrough cases were reported at one-month (n = 1) and six-months (n = 2) post vaccination respectively from group 1. While reinfection cases (n = 3) were detected at six months post vaccination from group 2 due to Omicron BA.1 variant. Conclusion(s): A two-dose regimen of the Covaxin vaccine enhanced humoral immune response in adults with/without past COVID-19 infection and protected more than 90% adults against SARSCoV-2 infection. Additionally, IgG and NAb responses persisted for six months postvaccination.

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