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1.
Zhongguo Dongmai Yinghua Zazhi ; 30(2):130-134, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245336

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the impact of coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic on emergency reper-fusion characteristics in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from non-epicenter. Methods This was a retrospective study involved STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), who admitted to chest pain center in our hospital during the pandemic ( from January 23 to March 29 in 2020) and the same period in 2019, excluding the patients with COVID-19. Clinical characteristics and reperfusion parameters were compared between the two groups. Results A total of 64 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI were enrolled in our study, including 13 patients during the pandemic and 51 patients during the same period in 2019. No differences occurred in admission signs, GRACE scores, arrival periods, transferred patterns,the period from door to troponin,and the period from first medical contact to dual antiplatelet between the two groups ( P>0. 05). As compared with 2019, STEMI patients undergoing PPCI had an apparent reduction. Meanwhile, significant delays appeared in reperfusion parameters, in-cluding the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (10 h vs. 3. 0 h, P<0. 001), the period from first medical contact to electrocardiogram (6 min vs. 3 min, P<0. 001), the period from door to troponin (15 min vs. 12 min, P = 0. 048), the period from door to device (76 min vs. 62 min, P = 0. 017), the period from telephone to catheter activated (15 min vs. 5 min, P<0. 001) and the period from catheter arrival to device (52 min vs. 41 min, P = 0. 033). Conclusion Even in non-epicenter, the COVID-19 outbreak still delayed mechanical reperfusion significantly. © 2022, Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Arteriosclerosis. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 236(5 Supplement 3):S14, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242035

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lactate is a common biomarker used in multiple surgical subspecialties. No one has previously measured coronary sinus lactate reduction as a result of drug administration. We therefore tested the hypothesis that IV geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a novel agent used to treat human peptic ulcer disease, would result in reduced coronary sinus lactate production. Method(s): New Zealand adult rabbits (N=5 each) received IV 50 mg/kg GGA 24 hours before intervention, which consisted of Langendorff perfusion, 30 min of global normothermic cardioplegic arrest, followed by reperfusion. Myocardial release of lactate was measured. HSP70 was quantified by western blot. Differences between GGA+ and GGA- groups pre- and post-ischemia were analyzed by unpaired t-tests. Result(s): In the GGA- group, lactate increased immediately at one minute and throughout the duration of reperfusion. However, in GGA+ hearts, lactate also increased at one min of reperfusion but then continued to decrease throughout the remainder of reperfusion. Lactate was significantly less at every time point of reperfusion in GGA+. Integrated lactate area was significantly less throughout reperfusion in GGA+. Conclusion(s): GGA induced caused a marked decrease in coronary sinus lactate release during reperfusion. Simultaneously intravenously GGA induced myocardial HSP70i and reduced myocardial damage. Further study of the effects and mechanisms involved is indicated. Application to other organs is useful as well. Heat shock proteins (HSPS) are also antithrombotic. Given the thrombotic nature of Covid, induction of HSPS may be beneficial in decreasing the cardiac thoracic and vascular complications of Covid and allowing faster resolution of this disease during to vascular complications.

3.
Blood Purification ; 51(Supplement 3):21, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239415

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: Controlled DCD organ donation (cDCD) is a strategic target for the Italian transplantation network. Italian peculiarities in cDCD donation make published results questionable and raise concern over organ ischemic damage. Consequently, normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) has been strongly recommended in potential cDCD donors. In 2019 the randomized multicenter DONARE study was designed to describe ischemic-reperfusion and inflammatory biomarkers during NRP and to test the potential benefit of apheresis by an adsorbent filter (CytoSorb) included in the NRP circuit. The aim of this report is to describe the modulation of the clinical characteristics and of the NRP in the DONARE study enrolled cases. Method(s): The study protocol was defined by the DCD national working group and proposed to all the Italian DCD donation centers. The coordinating center (CNT) has monitored the evolving cDCD activity to preserve the study capacity of representing the Italian scenario. Samples have been blindly centralized to an independent laboratory for cytokines profiling. The outcomes of transplanted organs have been recorded in the national quality database. Result(s): From September 2020 to June 2022, 27 out of the 40 planned cases have been enrolled in six centers: 4 in 2020, 12 in 2021 and 11 within June 2022. Approval is still pending in other centers. Main causes of exclusion among potential cDCD donors were: age above 65 (in 2020), e-CPR prior- to-death, shortage in personnel and COVID-19 restrictions. The age limit for enrolment (<65yrs) was abolished by amendment due to the national trend: mean age of enrolled cases increased from 57+/-6 in 2020 to 67+/-6 years in 2022. Mean NRP duration decreased from 223,3+/-39,2 in 2020 to 168,9+/-42,6 minutes in 2022;serial samples (4/2 with/without Cytosorb, from T0 to T4) from different points of the NRP circuit have been completed throughout the procedure in all the cases. All the enrolled cases became utilized donors. No study-related adverse event has been reported. Conclusion(s): Coordination of multicenter studies in the rapidly evolving scenario of controlled DCD donation should take advantage of continuous monitoring of real-life procedures and auditing of adherence to operational recommendations. The interim evaluation confirms the feasibility and safety of the study.

4.
Organ Transplantation ; 13(3):325-332, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327451

ABSTRACT

Over the past 70 years, kidney transplantation has become not only the most mature but also the highest-success-rate surgery among all organ transplantation surgeries. However, the long-term survival of kidney transplant recipients is still challenged by such key factors as ischemia-reperfusion injury related to kidney transplantation, rejection, chronic renal allograft dysfunction, renal allograft fibrosis, immunosuppressive therapy, infections and others. Relevant fundamental and clinical studies have emerged endlessly. At the same time, the research related to kidney transplantation also becomes a new hot spot accordingly in the context of the normalization of novel coronavirus pneumonia. This article reviewed the cutting-edge hot spots in relation to the fundamental and clinical aspects of kidney transplantation together with relevant new techniques and new visions. The studies included in this article focused on the reports published by Chinese teams that are more applicable to the current situation of kidney transplantation in China, for the purpose of providing new thoughts and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney transplantation related issues in China.Copyright © 2022 Organ Transplantation. All rights reserved.

5.
Organ Transplantation ; 12(2):169-176, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327450

ABSTRACT

Renal transplantation is the optimal approach to improve the quality of life and restore normal life for patients with end-stage renal diseases. With the development of medical techniques and immunosuppressants, the short-term survival of renal graft has been significantly prolonged, whereas the long-term survival remains to be urgently solved. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), acute rejection, chronic renal allograft dysfunction, renal fibrosis and other factors are still the major problems affecting the survival of renal graft. Relevant researches have always been hot spots in the field of renal transplantation. Meantime, 2020 is an extraordinary year. The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic severely affects the development of all walks of life. Researches related to renal transplantation have also sprung up. In this article, the frontier hotspots of clinical and basic studies related to renal transplantation and the COVID-19 related researches in the field of renal transplantation in China were reviewed, aiming to provide novel therapeutic ideas and strategies.Copyright © 2021 Journal of Zhongshan University. All Rights Reserved.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314935

ABSTRACT

We previously showed that SerpinA3K is present in urine from rats and humans with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the specific role of SerpinA3K during renal pathophysiology is unknown. To begin to understand the role of SerpinA3K on AKI, SerpinA3K-deficient (KOSA3) mice were studied 24 h after inducing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and compared to wild type (WT) mice. Four groups were studied: WT+S, WT+IR, KOSA3+S, and KOSA3+IR. As expected, I/R increased serum creatinine and BUN, with a GFR reduction in both genotypes; however, renal dysfunction was ameliorated in the KOSA3+IR group. Interestingly, the increase in UH2O2 induced by I/R was not equally seen in the KOSA3+IR group, an effect that was associated with the preservation of antioxidant enzymes' mRNA levels. Additionally, FOXO3 expression was initially greater in the KOSA3 than in the WT group. Moreover, the increase in BAX protein level and the decrease in Hif1a and Vegfa induced by I/R were not observed in the KOSA3+IR group, suggesting that these animals have better cellular responses to hypoxic injury. Our findings suggest that SerpinA3K is involved in the renal oxidant response, HIF1α/VEGF pathway, and cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Reperfusion Injury , Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Kidney/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
7.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 2023 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Saliva is one of the most promising body fluids in the research of new biomarker for various diseases diagnosis. However, serial sampling in this condition is very dangerous and pose iatrogenic anemia with blood loss. This study was done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of point-of-care salivary tests and identify the validity of salivary markers. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: (1) control (2) IR-3 h (3) IR-6 h (4) IR-24 h. Both renal pedicles were occluded for 55 min and then were declamped to allow reperfusion for 3, 6 and 24 h in IR groups. After reperfusion, all rats received pilocarpine 1 mg/kg to collect saliva. Plasma samples were also collected. Renal parameters including Cr, uric acid, and urea, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, nitrite/nitrate ratio, corticosterone levels and oxidant/antioxidant ratio were measured in both plasma and salivary samples. RESULTS: There were significant increased level of renal function parameters, MDA levels, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, nitrite/nitrate ratio and corticosterone in both saliva and plasma. The comparison of above parameters in both saliva and plasma showed significant correlation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that concentrations of indices specifically renal functional parameters increase in saliva in the IR-induced kidney injury in male rats and result indicate the potential of saliva as a tool to monitoring AKI. Measurement of salivary parameters may can become reliable diagnostic tests for patients with AKI.

8.
European Respiratory Journal ; 60(Supplement 66):1510, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2300432

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had influenced the patient's behavior and impacted the homeostasis to a pro-thrombotic niveau. Aim(s): The study aimed to follow the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock complicated initially acute myocardial infarction (CS-AMI). Method(s): We used data entered into a large national all-comers registry of coronary intervention over five years. From 1/2016 to 12/2020, 50,745 AMI patients were included, and 2,822 (5.6%) initially had CS. Result(s): The incidence of CS-AMI was significantly higher in the COVID period (2020) than the mean incidence in 2016-2019 (5.5% vs 6%, p=0.032). The difference was caused by significant increase of CS in acute STEMI (7.6% vs. 8.7%, p=0.011);it was 7.1% in 2016, 7.8% (2017), 7.6% (2018), 7.8% (2019), and 8.7% (2020). The CS complicated 2.3% (2016), 2.7% (2017), 2.7% (2018), 2.8% (2019), and 2.8% (2020) of NSTEMI. The observed rise in CS-STEMI incidence each month during the pandemic compared to the average incidence in non-pandemic years correlated with the substantial increase in the number of COVID infected/ hospitalized (Table 1). In these months, no changes in time delay to reperfusion layout were observed in CS-STEMI patients (Table 2). Except of less frequent history of previous PCI (13.9% and 8.2%, p<0.001), we found no significant differences in the followed CS-STEMI patient characteristics in 2016-2019 and 2020;men 72.7% and 75.4% (p=0.1), mean age (SD) 66.3 (12.3)yrs and 66.3 (12.2) yrs, Diabetes 20.9% and 19.1% (p=0.2), CKD 5.4% and 5.7% (p=0.4), previous CABG 4.5 and 4.2% (p=0.5), left main disease (14.3% and 16%, p=0.5), one vessel disease 24.9% and 32.1% (p=0.9), pre-PCI TIMI flow 0 64.4% and 66.2% (p=0.6), post-PCI TIMI flow 3 76.7% and 76.9%. The COVID pandemic didn't influence the proportions of pre-hospital resuscitated CS-AMI patients (57.5% and 58.7%, p=0.6) and those on mechanical ventilation (67.8% and 68.3%, p=0.8). The 30-day mortality trend of CS-AMI was 53.7% in 2016, 51.6% (2017), 49.7% (2018), 49.3% (2019), and 47.9% (2020). And in CS-STEMI it was 50.8%, 47.1%, 46.4%, 44.1%, and 45.3% (P2019 vs. 2020 =0.8), respectively. Conclusion(s): Data from a large national all-comer registry showed an increase in the proportion of patients admitted to hospitals with STEMI complicated by CS in the year of the COVID pandemic. The CS rise correlated with the increase in the COVID infected population. Factors other than the patient's cardiovascular risk profile or prolongation of a time delay to reperfusion influenced this trend. We suggest that the availability of health care and patient adherence may have affected the risks control. We did not observe any effect of the pandemic on CS-AMI mortality. (Figure Presented).

9.
Current Opinion in Physiology ; 32 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2300201
10.
European Respiratory Journal ; 60(Supplement 66):2282, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2295881

ABSTRACT

Background: The SWEDEHEART quality index of hospitals' adherence to the evidence-based (EB) guidelines for myocardial infarction (MI) patients has been continuously used for several decades in Sweden. The grading protocol is based on the consensus among hospitals. The hospitals are awarded points (0, 0.5, 1) for each of the 11 indicators depending on the proportion of patients who received EB treatment and achieved treatment goals. The 11 indicators at present are reperfusion treatment in STEMI (yes/no), time to-reperfusion treatment in STEMI, time to revascularisation in NSTEMI, P2Y12 antagonists at discharge, ACE-inhibitor/ARB at discharge, the proportion of patients at follow-up, smoking cessation at oneyear, participation in a physical exercise program, target LDL-cholesterol and target blood pressure at one year. Purpose(s): To evaluate whether the SWEDEHEART quality index predicts mortality in patients with MI. Method(s): We used data for all MI patients reported to the SWEDEHEART registry from 72 hospitals in Sweden between 2015-2021. We calculated the difference in quality index between 2021 and 2015. The hospitals were divided into quintiles based on the difference in the score. Logistic regression with log-time offset was used to adjust for confounders (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, STEMI/NSTEMI, cardiac arrest before admission, occupation status, history of heart failure, prior MI, prior PCI, prior CABG, cardiogenic shock). Result(s): We identified 98,635 patients with MI, 32,608 (33.1%) were women and 34,198 (34.7%) had STEMI. The average age was 70.8+/-12.2 years. The median follow-up time was 2.7 years (IQR 1.06-4.63). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 5.5% at 30-days and 22.3% after longterm follow-up. Most hospitals (72.1%) improved their quality index on average by 3.4% per year (P<0.001). The increase in the quality index continued during COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) with average increase of 8.6%, 95% CI, 0.97-1.02;P<0.001. The median change in SWEDEHEART quality index score among the quintiles were -1.5 (Q1), 0,5 (Q2), 2,5 (Q3), 3 (Q4), and 4 (Q5). We found no difference in mortality between the quintiles at 30-days (OR 0.99;95% CI 0.97-1.02;p=1.02) and longterm (OR 1.01;95% CI 0,99-1.02;p=0.850). Conclusion(s): The SWEDEHEART quality index provides valuable descriptive information about hospitals' adherence to the guidelines. However, the index, in its current form, does not predict mortality in patients with MI.

11.
Acta Cardiologica ; 78(Supplement 1):35-36, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2285150

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: Previous reports from the first COVID wave have documented a 15-40% reduction in admissions of AMI most likely as the result of the stringent public containment measures taken to mitigate the spread of the virus Purpose: To assess the impact of COVID-19 related public containment measures during recurrent COVID-19 waves on hospital admission rate for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method(s): Clinical characteristics, reperfusion therapy modalities, COVID-19 status and in hospital mortality of consecutive AMI patients who were admitted in a regional AMI network were recorded during 1 year starting in March 2020 and were compared with the year before. The COVID-19 study period encompassed two waves: the first in March-May 2020 and the second in October-December 2020. Result(s): A total of 1349 AMI patients were hospitalized of which 725 during the pre-COVID period and 624 during the COVID period (incidence rate ratio of 1.16, p=0,006). The impact was predominantly present in the first wave (32% reduction: n=204 vs 152) and evanished during the second wave (3% increase (152 vs 156) (see Figure 1). A similar pattern was observed for ACS with cardiac arrest with a 92% reduction (n=36 vs 3) during the first wave and no change during the second wave (18 vs 18). After correction for temperature and air quality, COVID-19 epidemic remained associated with a decrease of AMI hospitalization (p=0.046) Reperfusion strategy for AMI patients, were comparable between both study periods. The in hospital mortality between the two periods was comparable (2.6 % versus 1.9 %), but COVID-19 positive ACS patients (n=7) had a high mortality rate (14%). Conclusion(s): COVID-19 related public containment measures resulted during the first wave in a 32% reduction of AMI hospitalization, but this impact was not visible anymore during the second wave.

12.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2251515

ABSTRACT

Background: The safety and efficacy of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) surgery after COVID-19 infection is unknown. Objective(s): Assess the outcomes of PTE in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who had COVID-19 infection. Method(s): Retrospective, chart review of PTE cases at UCSD from March 2020 through December 2021. Result(s): 315 patients underwent PTE surgery during the analysis period;23 cases (7.3%) had previous COVID-19 infection. All were asymptomatic from COVID-19 infection at time of surgery. Mean age was 46 (range 16-75;mean 55 for non-COVID group), 13 women, 10 men, mean BMI 34.8 +/- 8.1 (mean 30.7 +/- 7.5 non-COVID). 12 patients (52.2%) were on PH targeted therapy (50.5% non-COVID). Preoperative PVR was 479.2 +/- 288.4 dynes s cm (536.6 +/- 353.7 dynes s cm non-COVID);postoperative PVR was 192.7 +/- 77.1 dynes s cm (216.6 +/- 105.6 dynes s cm non-COVID). Average circulatory arrest time was 40.3 +/- 17.9 minutes (45.3 +/- 19.7 minutes non-COVID, p=0.2), with majority of cases having Level 2 UCSD surgical classification. Average ventilator time was 1.9 days (2.2 days non-COVID, p=0.7), ICU stay 4.4 days (4.4 days non-COVID, p=1.0), length of hospitalization 10.9 days (11.6 days non-COVID, p=0.4). There was 1 case (4.3%) of airway hemorrhage, 3 cases (13.0%) of reperfusion lung injury, and 2 cases (8.7%) of post-operative respiratory infection. 10 patients (43.5%) were discharged on supplemental oxygen (60.0% for non-COVID). There were no in-hospital deaths. Compared with cases operated without COVID-19 infection over the same time period, no major differences were observed. Conclusion(s): History of COVID-19 infection did not affect outcomes of PTE surgery.

13.
Medicine (United Kingdom) ; 51(3):147-158, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2250963

ABSTRACT

Individuals with kidney failure face a future requiring long-term treatment with either dialysis or renal transplantation. Renal transplantation is the preferred form of renal replacement therapy, and is associated with a better quality of life, and usually increased longevity. Unfortunately, owing to excessive co-morbidities, only 30% of patients who develop end-stage renal failure are fit enough for transplantation. Over 90% of kidney transplants still function after 1 year, and most function for >15 years. Improvements in transplant outcomes are attributable to advances in histocompatibility testing, organ procurement, organ preservation, surgical techniques and perioperative care. Long-term outcomes have shown only minor improvements over the last two decades, although this should be considered in the context of deteriorating organ quality as older deceased donors with increasing co-morbidity are used more often to satisfy the need for donor organs. An overall increase in deceased donor numbers has boosted transplant activity in the UK, and it is hoped this will continue with the adoption of the 'opt-out' consent system. Living donor activity remains stable, but the use of non-directed altruistic donation and the living donor exchange scheme have reduced the need for higher immunological risk incompatible transplantation. The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced transplant rates globally, although national transplant systems are now recovering.Copyright © 2022

14.
Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2250962

ABSTRACT

Individuals with kidney failure face a future requiring long-term treatment with either dialysis or renal transplantation. Renal transplantation is the preferred form of renal replacement therapy, and is associated with a better quality of life, and usually increased longevity. Unfortunately, owing to excessive co-morbidities, only 30% of patients who develop end-stage renal failure are fit enough for transplantation. Over 90% of kidney transplants still function after 1 year, and most function for >15 years. Improvements in transplant outcomes are attributable to advances in histocompatibility testing, organ procurement, organ preservation, surgical techniques and perioperative care. Long-term outcomes have shown only minor improvements over the last two decades, although this should be considered in the context of deteriorating organ quality as older deceased donors with increasing co-morbidity are used more often to satisfy the need for donor organs. An overall increase in deceased donor numbers has boosted transplant activity in the UK, and it is hoped this will continue with the adoption of the 'opt-out' consent system. Living donor activity remains stable, but the use of non-directed altruistic donation and the living donor exchange scheme have reduced the need for higher immunological risk incompatible transplantation. The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced transplant rates globally, although national transplant systems are now recovering.Copyright © 2022

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 58: 101907, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283421

ABSTRACT

Background: Inhaled molecular hydrogen gas (H2) has been shown to improve outcomes in animal models of cardiac arrest (CA). H2 inhalation is safe and feasible in patients after CA. We investigated whether inhaled H2 would improve outcomes after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA). Methods: HYBRID II is a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed at 15 hospitals in Japan, between February 1, 2017, and September 30, 2021. Patients aged 20-80 years with coma following cardiogenic OHCA were randomly assigned (1:1) using blinded gas cylinders to receive supplementary oxygen with 2% H2 or oxygen (control) for 18 h. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a 90-day Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) of 1 or 2 assessed in a full-analysis set. Secondary outcomes included the 90-day score on a modified Rankin scale (mRS) and survival. HYBRID II was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (registration number: UMIN000019820) and re-registered with the Japan Registry for Clinical Trials (registration number: jRCTs031180352). Findings: The trial was terminated prematurely because of the restrictions imposed on enrolment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Between February 1, 2017, and September 30, 2021, 429 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 73 were randomly assigned to H2 (n = 39) or control (n = 34) groups. The primary outcome, i.e., a CPC of 1 or 2 at 90 days, was achieved in 22 (56%) and 13 (39%) patients in the H2 and control groups (relative risk compared with the control group, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.46-1.13; P = 0.15), respectively. Regarding the secondary outcomes, median mRS was 1 (IQR: 0-5) and 5 (1-6) in the H2 and control groups, respectively (P = 0.01). An mRS score of 0 was achieved in 18 (46%) and 7 (21%) patients in the H2 and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03). The 90-day survival rate was 85% (33/39) and 61% (20/33) in the H2 and control groups, respectively (P = 0.02). Interpretation: The increase in participants with good neurological outcomes following post-OHCA H2 inhalation in a selected population of patients was not statistically significant. However, the secondary outcomes suggest that H2 inhalation may increase 90-day survival without neurological deficits. Funding: Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation. Translation: For the Japanese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

17.
Heart Fail Clin ; 19(2): 241-249, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256184

ABSTRACT

The aggressive inflammatory response to COVID-19 can result in airway damage, respiratory failure, cardiac injury, and multiorgan failure, which lead to death in susceptible patients. Cardiac injury and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) secondary to COVID-19 disease can lead to hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. When serious collateral damage from tissue necrosis or bleeding occurs, mechanical complications of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock can ensue. While prompt reperfusion therapies have decreased the incidence of these serious complications, patients who present late following the initial infarct are at increased for mechanical complications, cardiogenic shock, and death. The health outcomes for patients with mechanical complications are dismal if not recognized and treated promptly. Even if they survive serious pump failure, their CICU stay is often prolonged, and their index hospitalization and follow-up visits may consume significant resources and impact the health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Shock, Cardiogenic , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(2): 106819, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Angio-invasive Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) producing strokes is a less explored entity. Our hospital, a stroke-ready one, had an opportunity to manage mucormycosis when it was identified as the nodal center for mucormycosis management. We are sharing our experiences and mistakes in managing the cerebrovascular manifestations of ROCM. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from 1st May 2021 to 30th September 2021, where consecutive patients aged more than 18 years with microbiologically confirmed cases of ROCM were included. Clinical details (timing of stroke onset after ROCM symptoms, GCS, NIHSS), imaging findings (ASPECTS, the territory of stroke, the pattern of infarct, hemorrhagic transformation, cavernous sinus thrombosis), angiogram findings, management details (IV thrombolysis), and outcomes (mRS at discharge and duration of hospital stay) were documented. We also compared the demographics, clinical features (NIHSS), radiological findings, treatment details, duration of hospital stay, and functional outcome at the discharge of the ROCM stroke patients with stroke patients without ROCM. RESULTS: Stroke developed in 42% of patients with ROCM, predominantly anterior circulation border zone ischemic infarcts. Strokes occurred after a median of five days from the onset of ROCM symptoms. The most common vessel involved was the ophthalmic artery, followed by the cavernous ICA. We could not thrombolyse ROCM stroke patients. ROCM patients who developed stroke compared with patients without stroke had a more infiltrative fungal infection and higher inflammatory markers. Mucormycosis associated stroke patients had higher in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes. T CONCLUSION: Due to delayed recognition of stroke symptoms, none received reperfusion strategies, leading to poor functional outcomes. For early stroke detection, ROCM cases need frequent monitoring and education of patients and their relatives about the ALS acronym (loss of ambulation, limb weakness, and loss of speech).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Pandemics , Stroke , Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Learning Curve , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
19.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an effective treatment for large vessel occlusion (LVO) with a high successful recanalization (SR) rate. However, MT fails in a proportion of patients, leading to poor clinical outcomes. We analyzed the factors associated with the failure of MT. METHODS: A total of 648 consecutive patients with MT were enrolled. MT failure was defined as 0,1, or 2a of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade. Failed MTs were divided into 3 categories, reaching failure, passage failure, and recanalization failure (RF). Various factors in RF and SR groups were analyzed with 1: 1 propensity score matching. RESULTS: Failed MT was observed in 97 patients (14.3%). Among them, 69 patients (10.2% of the entire cohort, 71.1% of the failed MT group) were included in the RF group. Propensity matching analysis with 69 patients in each group showed that the RF group had a higher rate of residual intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) than the SR group (30.4% vs. 14.5% P = 0.003). The rates of 4 or more passages and no change of method were significantly higher in the RF group than in the SR group (34.8% vs. 13.0%; P = 0.001 and 28.9% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The failure rate for all of the MT was approximately 15%, and RF accounted for more than 70% of the failed MT. RF was associated with residual ICAS. In cases with RF, even in repeated attempts for recanalization, an alteration of the thrombectomy method should be considered.

20.
Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2211165

ABSTRACT

Individuals with kidney failure face a future requiring long-term treatment with either dialysis or renal transplantation. Renal transplantation is the preferred form of renal replacement therapy, and is associated with a better quality of life, and usually increased longevity. Unfortunately, owing to excessive co-morbidities, only 30% of patients who develop end-stage renal failure are fit enough for transplantation. Over 90% of kidney transplants still function after 1 year, and most function for >15 years. Improvements in transplant outcomes are attributable to advances in histocompatibility testing, organ procurement, organ preservation, surgical techniques and perioperative care. Long-term outcomes have shown only minor improvements over the last two decades, although this should be considered in the context of deteriorating organ quality as older deceased donors with increasing co-morbidity are used more often to satisfy the need for donor organs. An overall increase in deceased donor numbers has boosted transplant activity in the UK, and it is hoped this will continue with the adoption of the ‘opt-out' consent system. Living donor activity remains stable, but the use of non-directed altruistic donation and the living donor exchange scheme have reduced the need for higher immunological risk incompatible transplantation. The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced transplant rates globally, although national transplant systems are now recovering.

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