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1.
Allergo J Int ; 31(5): 123-136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959211

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis in connection with the administration of vaccines occurs only very rarely. Triggers of immunoglobulin IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated anaphylaxis-in addition to the active ingredient itself-may be excipients contained in the vaccine due to their special properties. Some of the excipients in medicinal products are the same compounds used as additives in food. Furthermore, residues from the manufacturing process (e.g., chicken egg white, casein, antibiotics, formaldehyde) or contaminants (e.g., from the primary packaging material) may be potential triggers of anaphylaxis in vaccines. This review article provides an overview of ingredients in vaccines that pose an allergenic risk potential. The components of COVID-19 vaccines approved and marketed in Germany are discussed with regard to their potential for triggering anaphylaxis and possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(30): 9577-9583, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960214

ABSTRACT

The development of efficient, economic, reliable, and accurate monitoring of hypochlorite (ClO-) in food matrices is in great demand for food safety assessment, particularly during its massive use against the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we prepared an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-incorporated curcumin-based hybrid ratiometric fluorescence nanoprobe (Curcumin/TPE@HyNPs) through amphiphilic phospholipid polymer-powered nanoprecipitation, which exhibited a fast, highly sensitive, and selective response to the residual ClO- in real food matrices. Because of the inner filter effect (IFE) from curcumin toward TPE inside the nanoprobe, the bright fluorescence of TPE aggregation at ∼437 nm was effectively quenched, along with an enhanced fluorescence of curcumin at ∼478 nm. Once there was a ClO- residue in food matrices, ClO- triggered the oxidation of o-methoxyphenol inside curcumin and led to the almost complete absorption collapse, thereby terminating curcumin fluorescence at ∼478 nm and the IFE process. Accordingly, the fluorescence of TPE at ∼437 nm was recovered. In this case, a ratiometric fluorescent response of Curcumin/TPE@HyNPs toward the residual ClO- in food matrices (e.g., milk) was proposed with a low detection limit of 0.353 µM and a rapid response time of 140.0 s. Notably, the phospholipid polymer as the protection layer effectively reduced/evaded the nonspecific binding of signal reporters inside the nanoprobe, facilitating it to directly monitor the residual ClO- in real food matrices. This work provided a novel approach to utilize the unconventional AIE luminophors for constructing the efficient and reliable early warning mechanisms toward various food contaminants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid/chemistry , Phospholipids , Polymers
3.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939024

ABSTRACT

Viruses from the Coronaviridae family have been reported to infect a large range of hosts, including humans. The latest human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, turned into a pandemic and subtypes with different transmissibility have appeared since then. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein interacts with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor, and thus, in silico models, based on the structural features of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein-ACE2 receptor complex, as well as ACE2 amino acid patterns, may be used to predict the within- and between-species transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 subtypes. Here, it is shown that at the beginning of the pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 S protein was, as expected for a virus that just jumped the species barrier, ill-adapted to the human ACE2 receptor, and that the replacement of one SARS-CoV-2 variant by another is partially due to a better fitting of the S protein-human ACE2 complex. Moreover, it is shown that mutations that are predicted to lead to a better fit have increased in the population due to positive selection. It is also shown that the number of ACE2-interfacing residues is positively correlated with the transmissibility rate of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Finally, it is shown that the number of species that are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2, and that could be a reservoir for this virus, is likely higher than previously thought.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Agraarteadus ; 33(1):162-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934720

ABSTRACT

During the years of 2015-2016 in Greece, an increase of imports of poultry meat has been occurred on a level of 10.2%, whereas in the years of 2018-2019 the increase has only reached the level of 1.9%. On the contrary, a reduction on a level of 14.2% on poultry meat imports, in Greece, between the years of 2019-2020 have shown the possible implications of the COVID-19 pandemic to poultry meat consumption and possibly to chicken meat consumption. Moreover, the Food related lifestyle (FRL) can be defined as a system of consumers' cognitive categories and relationships that connect a set of food-related behaviours, with a set of personal values of each consumer. Hence, this paper aims to segment Greek consumers according to their food-related lifestyles values and is tried to identify the aspects that may determine consumers' behaviour towards chicken meat preference, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Four consumer segments appeared: "Sociable and safety seekers", "Light concerned and cooks", "Unconcerned and price seekers", "Innovative and moderate concerned". Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques have been used. Consumers' profiles that demonst-rated different food-related attitudes towards the pandemic were analysed with the use of variables: gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income and chicken meat quality cues. Significant differences were found between the four segments in terms of gender, age and income. Moreover, "Light concerned and cooks" and "Innovative and moderate concerned" consumers revealed to consider the place of purchasing as a dominant extrinsic quality cue of chicken meat. Furthermore, these consumers appeared to trust butcher in terms of the safety of chicken meat that they purchased, whereas only the consumers of the segment of "Light concerned and cooks" showed a willingness to pay a higher amount for chicken meat that is produced by animal welfare standards.

5.
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality ; 73(2):48-57, 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1933504

ABSTRACT

Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many areas of public life had to respond. That also included the university teaching. The veterinary universities / faculties of Germany, Austria and Switzerland have a common catalogue of teaching objectives, which was created and established by the working group: "Teaching in the food hygiene subjects of the German-speaking countries". This allowed the authors to guarantee uniform and efficient teaching. After the first SARS-CoV-2 wave in spring 2020, a summary of the first semester within the pandemic is summarized within this work from the lecturers' point of view. It showed that e-learning elements in the form of videos, pictures, case reports etc. have great potential to embrace teaching. Due to the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it became necessary to switch to complete distance learning. The available resources (Blackboard, Webex etc.) can be used specifically to convey the necessary learning objectives. At the same time, however, the strong limitations of this type of teaching were recognized. The physical presence at the educational establishment is and remains indispensable to prepare students for their future work as a veterinarian in the field of food safety and food hygiene.

6.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929165

ABSTRACT

On 27 June 2022, Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) launched an inaugural annual review of food standards across the UK. The report comes after the UK food system has faced two years of major upheaval following the UK's departure from the EU, the significant effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and more recently the disruption caused by the war in Ukraine. Despite these significant pressures, the report concludes that food standards in the UK have largely been maintained, while warning of significant challenges ahead. Two main concerns have been highlighted in the report. First, the fall in the level of local authority inspections of food businesses, which are being hampered by resourcing pressures faced by local authorities, despite some progress in getting inspections back on track. Secondly, the delay in establishing full UK import controls for high-risk food and feed from the EU, continues to reduce the ability to prevent the entry of unsafe food into the UK market. The review was presented to all four UK parliaments or assemblies and is intended to be the first annual report looking at how food standards change over time, so that consumers and parliamentarians remain sighted on the changes and challenges to the food system and the evidence being shared with government decision makers.

7.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(5):397-403, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924837

ABSTRACT

Since July 2020, nucleic acids of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were frequently detected in cold chain food imported to China, making imported food being a potential risk to the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, imported cold-chain food and their packaging may become the carriers of SARS-CoV-2 in long-distance cross-border transportation. In each aspect of stakeholders including governmental supervision, manufacturers and consumers, China should strengthen the risk management of imported cold-chain food to ensure the safety, especially pay attention to the health protection of industry workers in close contact with cold -chain food.

8.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

9.
Agroscope Transfer 2021. (406):11 pp. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912706

ABSTRACT

On behalf of the Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), Agroscope monitors the production and distribution of food for livestock and pets. The main purpose of its activity is to prevent harmful substances and undesirable products from being fed to animals and reaching consumers' plates through foodstuffs of animal origin. Controls also help to protect owners of animals against fraud and to preserve animal health and the environment. Official Food Control enforcement activities for animals have also been disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic and inspections had to be completely suspended. However, it was possible to resume them after a short period, although in a limited way, by applying the necessary hygiene and precautionary measures. In order to protect the inspectors and employees of the companies inspected, controls have been suspended for fifteen days in March, and then were resumed until the end of the year, but by being announced and by favouring the taking of samples. In this way it was possible to minimize contact with people and counter the spread of the virus by respecting the prescribed protection measures. The integration carried out at the end of 2019 of all the data relating to inspections, companies and products in a new laboratory information management system (LIMS) proved to be successful, although many optimizations and improvements had to be made. Due to increased data security and integration into a interdisciplinary system, production companies of animal feed thus benefited from more shipments, inspection report improved and there were more user-friendly presentation of test results in the product control report. Inspection reports were all able to be sent quickly and those of the checks of products were able to be sent following the analyses and necessary repetitions, thus guaranteeing a return of information in a timely manner. As in previous years, we also observed an increase of more than the average of new registrations/approvals companies in the animal feed sector. While 2019 can be considered a calm year in terms of feed safety, Salmonella was detected in eight animal feeds in 2020, representing 4 separate cases. In one sample, an overrun of the maximum value of coccidiostats according to appendix 10 of OLALA was detected. In 4 other samples, the authorizations issued for the addition of coccidiostats according to animal species had expired. GMOs were detected in two food samples for production animals, one of which was authorized but was not been declared. The second case concerns the contamination of undesirable seeds without germination power in linseed. In addition, GMOs exceeding the tolerance threshold have been detected in three bird feed mixtures and in another ambrosia seed mixture. These products were withdrawn from the market immediately. A total of 1,217 feed samples for livestock and for pets were analysed. 814 were compliant or had minor reporting errors. With a compliance rate of 66.9%, there was a slight improvement compared to the previous year (approx. 65%). With regard to nonconformities, it can be seen that minor non-conformities have decreased compared to last year (5.8%, previous year 12.4%). On the other hand, major non-conformities increased, from 2.6% in 2019 to 4.7% in 2020. Average non-compliances remained at the same level as the previous year, at around 23%.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 620: 8-14, 2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906791

ABSTRACT

The high mutability of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a growing concern among scientific communities and health professionals since it brings the effectiveness of repurposed drugs and vaccines for COVID-19 into question. Although the mutational investigation of the Spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been confirmed by many different researchers, there is no thorough investigation carried out at the interacting region to reveal the mutational status and its associated severity. All the energetically favorable mutations and their detailed analytical features that could impact the infection severity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus need to be identified. Therefore, we have thoroughly investigated the most important site of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the interface region (Residue 417-505) of the virus Spike that interacts with the human ACE2 receptor. Further, we have utilized molecular dynamic simulation to observe the relative stability of the Spike protein with partner ACE2, as a consequence of these mutations. In our study, we have identified 52 energetically favorable Spike mutations at the interface while binding to ACE2, of which only 36 significantly enhance the stabilization of the Spike-ACE2 complex. The stability order and molecular interactions of these mutations were also identified. The highest stabilizing mutation V503D confirmed in our study is also known for neutralization resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
11.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

12.
Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics ; 59(5):536-551, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894022

ABSTRACT

Identifying the key proteins among different types of human disease-causing coronaviruses is essential for the molecular mechanism and thereby designing potential drug molecules. Eight selected proteins of seven types of disease-causing coronaviruses, viz.SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2), SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), MERS-CoV (middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus), Human coronavirus OC43, Human coronavirus HKU1, Human coronavirus 229E and Human coronavirus NL63, were chosen for the comparison. Further, an attempt has been made to explore the most important host-pathogen interactions with a special focus on spike (RBD) protein region as this region deemed to be functionally most important. Epitope region was also identified which helps in the design of epitope-based vaccines. The structural comparison carried out among the seven types of human coronaviruses has revealed the molecular level details on the similarity among this series. This study has facilitated the identification of the important residues in the studied proteins which control the key functions such as viral replication and transmission. Thus, exploring the protein space in the family of coronaviruses, provide valuable insights into the molecular basis associated with the role of proteins and viral infections, which is expected to trigger the identification of the drug targets for coronaviruses infections, in a rational way.

13.
Journal of Nutrition and Food Security ; 7(2):220-226, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893504

ABSTRACT

Background: Breast milk provides the ideal nutrition for infants. It has a nearly perfect mix of vitamins, protein, and fat. Breastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. The present study aimed to measure aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in breast milk and identify nutritional and socio-demographic factors associated with AFM1 levels.

14.
Scientia Sinica Chimica ; 52(5):721-730, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1892268

ABSTRACT

After the first large-scale outbreak of pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in December 2019, it was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Significant infectivity and lethality rate pose a huge threat to the life and safety of all mankind, and we urgently need to grasp the infection/transmission behavior of the virus at the molecular level. Novel coronavirus and the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) belong to bat SARS-like coronavirus (SARSR-COV) species, and their surface spike glycoproteins are highly homologous. The key step of their invasion into human cells is the binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) part of the surface spike protein and human angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2). Many experimental studies have reported that SARS-CoV-2 possesses a stronger binding ability than SARS-CoV. In order to explain the experimental results, molecular dynamics simulations, steered molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling were performed on the binding of wild-type RBD (RBDWT) of the two viruses and ACE2. The results showed that different behaviors of the β-loop region lead to differences in key residues and interactions, and further result in differences in binding/unbinding mechanisms. The binding affinity of SARS-COV-2RBD and ACE2 is nearly 30 times that of SARS-COV-RBD. © 2022. All rights reserved.

15.
Water ; 14(10):1560, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870966

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), groundwater, irrigated soils, and plants in Amman and Al-Balqa governorates in Jordan. PPCPs were extracted from water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, ceftiofur, diclofenac, erythromycin, lincomycin, ofloxacin, pyrimthamine, spiramycin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, testosterone, trimethoprim, and thiamphenicol were detected in all raw wastewaters in μg/L, whereas 45 PPCPs were below the detection limits (<0.02 μg/L) in all samples. Na`ur and Abu Nuseir WWTPs showed high PPCPs removal efficiencies in comparison with AL-Baqa`a, Salt, and Fuhais-Mahis WWTPs. Boqorreya spring showed signs of contamination by Salt WWTP effluents as a result of mixing. Irrigation with effluents showed higher carbamazepine concentrations in soils at the top soil layers (0 to 20 cm) in all farms than its concentrations at the root zone (20 to 40 cm) by using drip irrigation system with various plants. In plants, carbamazepine concentration was only detected in high concentration level in mint leaves. In the same farm, diclofenac concentration was detected only in olives and not in twigs and leaves, indicating a high rate of plant uptake especially during the olive’s growth period. Furthermore, plant fruits, leaves, and stems left on the farm after harvesting are generally consumed by cattle, which means entering the food chain of humans.

16.
AGROFOR International Journal ; 7(1):72-79, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865640

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged in 2019, is a serious respiratory disease. "Stay at home", "good hygiene" and "social distance" campaigns have been launched to prevent the spread of the virus worldwide. However, these measures were not enough to prevent the devastating effect of the virus, and these new conditions affected the purchasing behavior of consumers. The study, consumers' perspectives on online shopping and food safety during the COVID-19 pandemic were determined. In the study, the sample size was calculated using the proportional sample size formula and was determined as 150. The Covid-19 epidemic has changed the consumption and purchasing attitudes of people in our country as well as in the world. With the change in purchasing behavior, there is an increase in the level of awareness about food safety. According to the results of the research, it has been determined that consumers have a positive attitude towards online shopping and will continue to shop online after the pandemic. In addition, during the pandemic period, consumers should be aware of the expiration date of the food, the hygiene of the place where they buy food, the proper storage of food at home, the reading of the content on the label, gloves, masks, aprons, etc. It has been determined that they pay attention to clothing, brand, additives, food, safety and quality standards, production date, glass packaging. Manufacturers need to pay attention to food safety.

17.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 22(1):1075-1092, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1848276

ABSTRACT

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most well-characterized bacterial foodborne infections worldwide, the species are the most common zoonotic pathogens. Chicken and chicken products are known to be the major sources of Campylobacter infection in humans. Campylobacter species represent one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal illness worldwide, it is the main cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections occurring at any age, but it peaks in children and young adults. This study aims to investigate the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter bacteria in humans and chicken and aims for determination the extent of the contamination of this bacteria. The study involved two parts;the first part designed for isolation Campylobacter species from chickens which were alive, while the second part was about isolation Campylobacter species from human stool samples for different ages. The current study based on analysis of three hundred and fifty (350) stool samples taken from humans with different ages. The patients samples were collected from Al-Batool Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Pediatric, Baquba Teaching Hospital and Central Health Laboratories in Diyala, these patients were had vary clinical aspects like : (diarrhea, Fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and cramp, fatigue and muscle pain). On the other hand, one hundred seventy five (175) stool samples of chicken which they apparently had diarrhea were collected randomly from different areas of Diyala Governorate. The collection of both humans and chicken samples were during 2020 - 2021. The analysis of 350 samples of patients their ages ranged from 3 months to 59 years showed that the mean +or- SD of age was 24.5 +or- 14.3 years. The most predominant age group was 20-29 years (26.9%), while the lowest age group was 50-59 years (4.9%). Regarding the gender, 151 (43.1%) of the included patients were male and 199 (56.9%) were female. Patients included in the current study were collected from four districts of Diyala province. The highest collection rate was from Baquba district 217(62.0%), while the lowest collection rate was from Baladrooz district 18 (5.1%). the distribution of clinical signs and symptoms of included patients. Persistent diarrhea forming the predominance of signs 179 (51.1%), followed by watery diarrhea 55 (15.7%), while the least sign was vomiting 1(3%). Furthermore, 15 (4.3%) of patients showed all that signs and symptoms. The signs and symptoms were : diarrhea was found in 194 (55.4%) patients, followed by watery diarrhea in 77 (22.0%) patients. Fever was found in 30 (8.6%) patients. The least sign was nausea which was found in 15 (4.3%) patients. Abdominal pain and cramps were detected in 22 (6.3%) patients. Out of 350 stool specimens submitted for bacteriological culture, 62 (17.7%) were positive versus 288 (82.3%) were negative. Among the 62-culture positive, 13 specimens yield Campylobacter growth, so the campylobacter detection rate among human specimens was 3.7%. The isolated Campylobacter were as follow;11(3.1%) were Campylobacter jejuni, one (0.3%) was Campylobacter coli, one (0.3%) was undifferentiated campylobacter. On the other hand, 58 (16.6%) of the specimens yield bacterial growth other than Campylobacter, as follows: E. coli was detected in 28 (8.0%), Proteus Spp. was detected in 12 (3.4%), H. pylori was detected in 10 (2.9%) and Klebsiella Spp. was detected in 8 (2.3%). The remaining specimens 279 (79.7%) yield no growth. The results of the PCR technique revealed that 8 (2.38%) specimens were positive for Campylobacter, while the majority 335 (95.7%) were negative and 7(2.0%) of the specimens were not done. While the analysis of 175 chicken fecal samples taken from chickens were mainly suffering from diarrhea showed that the distribution of chickens according to their ages in days showed predominance was those 30-39 (40.6%) days old. It is clear that the majority of specimens (74.3%) were collected from Baquba districts. The results showed that specimens collected Al- Muqdadiya district farms had yielded the high

18.
"24th International Symposium ""The Environment and the Industry"", SIMI" ; 24:72-73, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841778

ABSTRACT

In order to highlight the impact of the pandemic phenomenon, especially on the wide use of antibiotics and biocides on bacterial communities, 3 Romanian interest regions were studied during 2019-2020. Every year, three wastewater sampling campaigns were organized from Covid-19 hospitals and WWTPs. The effluents were subjected to quantitative analysis for the determination of fecal coliform bacteria by the MPN (Most Probable Number) method using Colilert-18 medium (Idexx). The positive control (Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090 and Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048) and the negative one (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) were tested. In the same time, a blank control with sterile distilled water was analyzed. Hospital effluents did not show high densities of coliform bacteria at the beginning of the pandemic, but the values of these indicators were high (an average of over 5x105 CFU/100mL) in the WWTP. With the evolution of the pandemic, the treatment plants have streamlined their treatment processes, so that by the end of 2019 the densities of coliform bacteria remained around 5x104 CFU/100mL. While in mid-2020 the density of coliform bacteria decreased in hospital effluents, an increase can be observed in WWTP. In conclusion, the inversely proportional distribution of the densities of coliform bacteria in the hospital compared to WWTP, could be explained by the action of biocides and antibiotics on the microorganisms in the hospital environment that determined their decrease in wastewater.

19.
Foods ; 11(9):1269, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837672

ABSTRACT

Rice is one of the three major staple foods in the world, and the quality and safety of rice are related to the development of human beings. The new crown epidemic, pesticide residues, insect pests, and heavy metal pollution have a certain security impact on the food supply chain. The rice supply chain is characterized by a long life cycle;complex roles in the main links;many types of hazards;and multidimensional, multisource, and heterogeneous information. To strengthen the rice supply chain’s supervision ability under the epidemic situation, a supervision cross-chain model suitable for the complicated data of the rice supply chain based on parallel blockchain theory and smart contract technology was built. Firstly, the data collected in the rice supply chain and different types of data stored in different parallel blockchains were analyzed. Secondly, based on data analysis, a collection/supervision cross-chain mechanism based on “hash lock + smart contract + relay chain”, a concurrency mechanism based on the K-means algorithm and a Bloom filter, and a consensus mechanism suitable for multichain consensus named the Supervision Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (SPBFT) were proposed. Furthermore, a cross-chain model of rice supply chain supervision was constructed. Finally, theoretical verification and simulation experiments were used to analyze the operation process, safety, cross-chain efficiency, and scalability of the model. The results showed that the application of parallel blockchains and smart contracts to supervision of rice supply chain information improved the convenience and security of information interaction between various links in the rice supply chain, the storage cost of supply chain data and the high latency of interaction was reduced, and the refined management of the rice supply chain data and personnel was realized. This research applied new information technology to the coordination and resource sharing of the food supply chain, and provides ideas for the digital transformation of the food industry.

20.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):559, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809678

ABSTRACT

In the study, crop residue burning (CRB) emissions were estimated based on field surveys and combustion experiments to assess the impact of the CRB on particulate matter over South Korea. The estimates of CRB emissions over South Korea are 9514, 8089, 4002, 2010, 172,407, 7675, 33, and 5053 Mg year−1 for PM10, PM2.5, OC, EC, CO, NOx, SO2, and NH3, respectively. Compared with another study, our estimates in the magnitudes of CRB emissions were not significantly different. When the CRB emissions are additionally considered in the simulation, the monthly mean differences in PM2.5 (i.e., △PM2.5) were marginal between 0.07 and 0.55 μg m−3 over South Korea. Those corresponded to 0.6–4.3% in relative differences. Additionally, the △PM10 was 0.07–0.60 μg m−3 over South Korea. In the spatial and temporal aspects, the increases in PM10 and PM2.5 were high in Gyeongbuk (GB) and Gyeongnam (GN) provinces in June, October, November, and December.

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