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1.
2nd International Conference on Advanced Research in Computing, ICARC 2022 ; : 242-247, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831775

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing and treating lung diseases can be challenging since the signs and symptoms of a wide range of medical conditions can indicate interstitial lung diseases. Respiratory diseases impose an immense worldwide health burden. It is even more deadly when considering COVID-19 in present times. Auscultation is the most common and primary method of respiratory disease diagnosis. It is known to be non-expensive, non-invasive, safe, and takes less time for diagnosis. However, diagnosis accuracy using auscultation is subjective to the experience and knowledge of the physician, and it requires extensive training. This study proposes a solution developed for respiratory disease diagnosis. 'smart Stethoscope' is an intelligent platform for providing assistance in respiratory disease diagnosis and training of novice physicians, which is powered by state-of-the-art artificial intelligence. This system performs 3 main functions(modes). These 3 modes are a unique aspect of this study. The real-time prediction mode provides real-time respiratory diagnosis predictions for lung sounds collected via auscultation. The offline training mode is for trainee doctors and medical students. Finally, the expert mode is used to continuously improve the system's prediction performance by getting validations and evaluations from pulmonologists. The smart stethoscope's respiratory disease diagnosis prediction model is developed by combining a state-of-the-art neural network with an ensembling convolutional recurrent neural network. The proposed convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (C- Bi LSTM) model achieved an accuracy of 98% on 6 class classification of breathing cycles for ICBHF17 scientific challenge respiratory sound database. The novelty of the project lies on the whole platform which provides different functionalities for a diverse hierarchy of medical professionals which supported by a state-of-the-art prediction model based on Deep Learning. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
6th International Conference on Advances in Biomedical Engineering (ICABME) ; : 197-201, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822023

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus sickness (COVID-19) may be a pandemic sickness, that has already caused thousands of casualties and infected many countless individuals worldwide. Whereas most of the individuals infected with the COVID-19 intimate with delicate to moderate respiratory disease, some developed deadly respiratory illness. Any technological tool sanctioning screening of the COVID-19 infection with high accuracy will be crucially useful to the attention professionals. The usage of chest CT scan pictures for classifying and diagnosing COVID-19 respiratory illness has shown an excellent range of exactness and accuracy quite the other tool that lessens the number of deaths within the severe cases. This paper presents a proposed model of convolutional neural network (CNN) with a large multi-national dataset that is able to classify covid-19 pneumonia;lung cancer and the normal lung tissues from chest computed tomography (CT) scans with a classification accuracy of 94.05%.

3.
International Immunopharmacology ; : 108786, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799890

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged, causing a global pandemic called COVID-19. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this emerging disease. Global efforts resulted in developing multiple platforms of COVID-19 vaccines, but their efficacy in humans should be wholly investigated in the long-term clinical and epidemiological follow-ups. Despite the international efforts, COVID-19 vaccination accompanies challenges, including financial and political obstacles, serious adverse effects (AEs), the impossibility of using vaccines in certain groups of people in the community, and viral evasion due to emerging novel variants of SARS-CoV-2 in many countries. For these reasons, passive immunotherapy has been considered a complementary remedy and a promising way to manage COVID-19. These approaches arebased on reduced inflammation due to inhibiting cytokine storm phenomena, immunomodulation,preventing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), viral neutralization, anddecreased viral load. This article highlights passive immunotherapy and immunomodulation approaches in managing and treating COVID-19 patients and discusses relevant clinical trials (CTs).

4.
Mol. Cell. Biol. ; 42(1):19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1790368

ABSTRACT

A subset of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly the aged and those with comorbidities, develop the most severe form of the disease, characterized by acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), coincident with experiencing a "cytokine storm." Here, we demonstrate that cytokines which activate the NF-kappa B pathway can induce activin A. Patients with elevated activin A, activin B, and FLRG at hospital admission were associated with the most severe outcomes of COVID-19, including the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. A prior study showed that activin A could decrease viral load, which indicated there might be a risk to giving COVID-19 patients an inhibitor of activin. To evaluate this, the role for activin A was examined in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, via blockade of activin A signaling. The hamster model demonstrated that use of an anti-activin A antibody did not worsen the disease and there was no evidence for increase in lung viral load and pathology. The study indicates blockade of activin signaling may be beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients experiencing ARDS.

6.
Environment International ; : 107230, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1778115

ABSTRACT

Background Widespread environmental contamination can directly interact with human immune system functions. Environmental effects on the immune system may influence human susceptibility to respiratory infections as well as the severity of infectious diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the efficacy of vaccines to respiratory diseases may be impacted by environmental exposures through immune perturbations. Given the quick pace of research about COVID-19 and associated risk factors, it is critical to identify and curate the streams of evidence quickly and effectively. Objective We developed this systematic evidence map protocol to identify and organize existing human and animal literature on high-priority environmental chemical classes (Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, pesticides, phthalates, quaternary ammonium compounds, and air pollutants) and their potential to influence three key outcomes: (1) susceptibility to respiratory infection, including SARS-CoV-2 (2) severity of the resultant disease progression, and (3) impact on vaccine efficacy. The result of this project will be an online, interactive database which will show what evidence is currently available between involuntary exposures to select environmental chemicals and immune health effects, data gaps that require further research, and data rich areas that may support further analysis. Search and study eligibility We will search PubMed for epidemiological or toxicological literature on select toxicants from each of the chemical classes and each of the three outcomes listed above. Study appraisal and synthesis of methods For each study, two independent reviewers will conduct title and screening as well as full text review for data extraction of study characteristics. Study quality will not be evaluated in this evidence mapping. The main findings from the systematic evidence map will be visualized using a publicly available and interactive database hosted on Tableau Public.

8.
11th Annual IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (IEEE GHTC) ; : 112-118, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1759030

ABSTRACT

A large portion of world's population, especially in developing world, gets affected by the respiratory diseases. Often these patients need a medical device called a ventilator for assistance with their breathing. The ventilator is an expensive and complicated equipment and is often unavailable to patients, leading to severe complications and mortality. In this paper, we present a system that automates the use of a conventional bag valve mask (BVM) and regulates its operation to mimic the response of an ICU Ventilator for life saving applications. The system consists of motorized actuators, sensors, valves and a control system to achieve controlled volume ventilation. This paper presents system design and implementation techniques for this low-cost design. The system has been tested extensively using ventilator testers and is being developed into a product for use in under-resourced settings.

9.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15016, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lasting for more than a year, it is imperative to identify the associated changes in the use of emergency medical care for efficient operation of the pediatric emergency department (PED). This study was conducted to determine the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of PED visits. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of visits to the PED of six hospitals, between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020. We compared changes in the characteristics of patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 245 022 visits were included in this analysis. After the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Korea, we observed a significant decrease (54.2%) in PED visits compared with the annual average number of visits in the previous 3 years. Since then, the weekly number of PED visits decreased by 11.9 person/week (95% CI: -15.3--8.4, P < 0.001), which included an increase of 0.21% (95% CI: 0.15%-0.26%, P < 0.001) per week in high acuity patients. From 2017 to 2020, the proportion of infectious respiratory diseases by year was 25.9%, 27.0%, 28.6%, and 16.3%, respectively, demonstrating a significant decrease in 2020 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patient visits to PEDs continues to decline, especially among those with infectious diseases. However, the disease severity of patients has gradually increased. There has been a change in the characteristics of visits to PEDs after COVID-19 which will require an appropriate response from a long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Population Medicine ; 4(January), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1754073

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to plague every part of the world. The effect of the current pandemic continues to threaten livelihoods through social, cultural, economic, and physical instability. Confirmed active cases have nearly reached 280 million, and unfortunately almost 5.4 million deaths due to COVID-191. On a positive note, nearly 250 million recoveries have been recorded1. © 2022 Suleman Μ. Η. and Lucero-Prisno D. E. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0)

11.
Molecular Frontiers Journal ; 5(1n02), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1752914

ABSTRACT

Dry air alters salt and water balance in the upper airways and increases the risks of COVID-19 among other respiratory diseases. We explored whether such upper airway variations in salt and water balance might alter respiratory droplet generation and potentially contribute to observed impacts of airway hydration on respiratory disease. In a randomized 4-arm study of 21 healthy human subjects we found that the breathing of humid air, the wearing of cotton masks, and the delivery of (sodium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) salt droplets sized to deposit in the nose, trachea, and main bronchi similarly reduce the exhalation of respiratory droplets by approximately 50% (P < 0.05) within 10 minutes following hydration. Respiratory droplet generation returns to relatively high baseline levels within 60–90 minutes on return to dry air in all cases other than on exposure to divalent (calcium and magnesium) salts, where suppression continues for 4–5 hours. We also found via a preliminary ecological regression analysis of COVID-19 cases in the United States between January 2020 and March 2021 that exposure to elevated airborne salt on (Gulf and Pacific) US coastlines appears to suppress by approximately 25%–30% (P < 0.05) COVID-19 incidence and deaths per capita relative to inland counties — accounting for ten potential confounding environmental, physiological, and behavioral variables including humidity. We conclude that the hydration of the upper airways by exposure to humidity, the wearing of masks, or the breathing of airborne salts that deposit in the upper airways diminish respiratory droplet generation and may reduce the risks of COVID-19 incidence and symptoms.

12.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753676

ABSTRACT

For healthcare providers, specifically military and federal public health personnel, prompt and accurate diagnosis and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus patients provide a two-fold benefit: (1) directing appropriate treatment to the infected patient as early as possible in the progression of the disease to increase survival rates and minimize the devastating sequelae following recovery and remission of symptoms;(2) provide critical information requirements that enable commanders and public health officials to best synchronize policy, regulations, and troop movement restrictions while best allocating scarce resources in the delicate balance of risk mitigation versus mission readiness. Simple personal protective measures and robust testing and quarantine procedures, instituted and enforced aggressively by senior leaders, physicians, and healthcare professionals at all levels are an essential aspect of the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic that will determine the success or failure of the overall effort. As consideration, the authors respectfully submit this vignette of the first confirmed positive COVID-19 case presenting to the Emergency Department at Winn Army Community Hospital, Fort Stewart, Georgia.

13.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753669

ABSTRACT

In response to the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vascular surgeons in the Veteran Affairs Health Care System have been undertaking only essential cases, such as advanced critical limb ischemia. Surgical risk assessment in these patients is often complex, considers all factors known to impact short- and long-term outcomes, and the additional risk thatCOVID-19 infection could convey in this patient population is unknown. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published risk factors (ECDC-RF) implicated in increased COVID-19 hospitalization and case-fatality which have been further evidenced by initial reports from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC reports additionally indicate that African American (AA) patients have incurred disparate infection outcomes in the United States. We set forth to survey the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database over a nearly 20 year span to inform ongoing risk assessment with an estimation of the prevalence of ECDC-RF in our veteran critical limb ischemia population and investigate whether an increased COVID-19 comorbidity burden exists for AA veterans presenting for major non-traumatic amputation.

14.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753602

ABSTRACT

U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center (CCDC CBC) scientists completed an evaluation of the human performance factors related to the execution of COVID-19 testing using the SARS-CoV-2 Test Kit including (1) ease of use, (2) workflow development and assessment, and (3) time to results and sample throughput. The assay was found to require a fairly complex laboratory in order to safely process the samples due to the need for a biosafety cabinet to contain any SARS-CoV-2 containing aerosols. The workflow required nearly 3.5 h to complete 7 extractions, set up the seven RT-PCR reactions plus the two control RT-PCR reactions, run the RT-PCR on the Biomeme Franklin thermocycler, and interpret results. Therefore, throughput was estimated at 42 samples per 24 period on a single Franklin thermocycler.

15.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753588

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While much of the focus has been on the cardiac and pulmonary complications, there are several important dermatologic components that clinicians must be aware of. Objective: This brief report summarizes the dermatologic manifestations and complications associated with COVID-19 with an emphasis on Emergency Medicine clinicians. Discussion: Dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly recognized within the literature. The primary etiologies include vasculitis versus direct viral involvement. There are several types of skin findings described in association with COVID-19. These include maculopapular rashes, urticaria, vesicles, petechiae, purpura, chilblains, livedo racemosa, and distal limb ischemia. While most of these dermatologic findings are self-resolving, they can help increase one's suspicion for COVID-19. Conclusion: It is important to be aware of the dermatologic manifestations and complications of COVID-19.Knowledge of the components is important to help identify potential COVID-19 patients and properly treat complications.

16.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753580

ABSTRACT

The lack of widespread COVID-19 testing and the prevalence of asymptomatic infections have been major factors in the current pandemic. Despite the improvements in clinical testing, as we move toward reopening USA, widespread surveillance testing becomes critical. Academic (nonmedical) labs can help provide such testing;the CDC-approved guidelines for COVID-19 testing require routine equipment and protocols that are commonly used in academic research labs around the country. Faculty at the authors institution were successfully able to test asymptomatic students for COVID-19. By empowering nonmedical academic scientists with preexisting knowledge, expertise with the protocols, and access to the instruments, an additional 1.23.5 million COVID-19 tests could be processed each day at local universities and academic labs.

17.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753457

ABSTRACT

We modeled the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on personal protective equipment (PPE) commonly worn in hospitals when carrying out high-risk airway procedures. Evaluated PPE included the visors and hoods of two brands of commercially available powered air purifying respirators, a disposable face shield, and Tyvek coveralls. Following an exposure to 4.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of SARS-CoV-2, all materials displayed a reduction in titer of > 4.2 log10 by 72 hours postexposure, with detectable titers at 72 hours varying by material (1.12.3 log10 PFU/mL). Our results highlight the need for proper doffing and disinfection of PPE, or disposal, to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contact or fomite transmission.

18.
Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742342

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, a better understanding of the genetic and molecular alterations underlying several respiratory diseases has encouraged the development of new therapeutic strategies. Gene therapy offers new therapeutic alternatives for inherited and acquired diseases by delivering exogenous genetic materials into cells or tissues to restore physiological protein expression and/or activity. In this review, we review (1) different types of viral and non-viral vectors as well as gene-editing techniques; and (2) the application of gene therapy for the treatment of respiratory diseases and disorders, including pulmonary arterial hypertension, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, non-small-cell lung cancer, and COVID-19. Further, we also provide specific examples of lung-targeted therapies and discuss the major limitations of gene therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cystic Fibrosis , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism
19.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742341

ABSTRACT

The mucosal immune system of the respiratory tract possesses an effective "defense barrier" against the invading pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the lungs of healthy organisms are considered to be sterile for a long time according to the strong pathogens-eliminating ability. The emergence of next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the studies about the microbial communities and immune regulating functions of lung microbiota during the past two decades. The acquisition and maturation of respiratory microbiota during childhood are mainly determined by the birth mode, diet structure, environmental exposure and antibiotic usage. However, the formation and development of lung microbiota in early life might affect the occurrence of respiratory diseases throughout the whole life cycle. The interplay and crosstalk between the gut and lung can be realized by the direct exchange of microbial species through the lymph circulation, moreover, the bioactive metabolites produced by the gut microbiota and lung microbiota can be changed via blood circulation. Complicated interactions among the lung microbiota, the respiratory viruses, and the host immune system can regulate the immune homeostasis and affect the inflammatory response in the lung. Probiotics, prebiotics, functional foods and fecal microbiota transplantation can all be used to maintain the microbial homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and lung microbiota. Therefore, various kinds of interventions on manipulating the symbiotic microbiota might be explored as novel effective strategies to prevent and control respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Probiotics , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lung , Microbiota/physiology , Probiotics/therapeutic use
20.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) can actively affect the maintenance and optimal functioning of immune cells. The metabolites of both omega-3 and omega-6 play an important role in the synthesis of different mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, protectins, and resolvins, that can interfere with the virus and modulate inflammation. SUMMARY: In this narrative review, we aim to identify whether LCPUFA supplementation may be effective in protecting the population against respiratory tract infections. We included only randomized controlled trials performed in both pediatric and adult subjects. Eight papers were selected: five trials were conducted in a pediatric population and three in adults. Different concentrations of fatty acids supplementation were associated with a lower incidence of common respiratory symptoms, except for two studies that did not provide significant results. Most of the studies are of low quality, and respiratory infections were assessed as secondary or even safety outcomes. KEY MESSAGES: No data were available on the role of LCPUFAs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although these data showed that LCPUFAs may be effective in preventing respiratory tract infections, future studies are still needed to clarify their possible co-adjuvant role in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.

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