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1.
Wall Street Journal (Online) ; : N.PAG-N.PAG, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2246285

ABSTRACT

The rare display of public anger, with some protesters directly criticizing Mr. Xi and the Communist Party, alarmed Mr. Xi and his inner circle, the officials and advisers said. Keywords: leder;wsjworld;photo-news;Political/General News;Respiratory Tract Diseases;Global/World Issues;Health;Medical Conditions;Outbreaks/Epidemics;Politics/International Relations EN leder wsjworld photo-news Political/General News Respiratory Tract Diseases Global/World Issues Health Medical Conditions Outbreaks/Epidemics Politics/International Relations N.PAG N.PAG 1 01/11/23 20230105 NES 230105 A wave of protests coupled with urgent pleas from many corners of the government finally prodded the leader to scrap the strict lockdown system he had touted throughout the pandemic BEIJING - By the end of an otherwise triumphant Communist Party Congress for Xi Jinping in October, it was growing harder for China's leader to argue that his zero-Covid policy was working. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Wall Street Journal (Online) is the property of Dow Jones & Company Inc and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Wall Street Journal - Online Edition ; : N.PAG-N.PAG, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2241975
3.
International Immunopharmacology ; 116:109713.0, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2241182

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, and the recently emerging fatal coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), are the leading causes of illness and death worldwide. The increasing incidence and mortality rates have attracted much attention to the prevention and treatment of these conditions. Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring organosulfur compound, is not only essential for mitochondrial aerobic metabolism but also shows therapeutic potential via certain pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects). In recent years, accumulating evidence (animal experiments and in vitro studies) has suggested a role of LA in ameliorating many respiratory diseases (e.g., lung cancer, fibrosis, asthma, acute lung injury and smoking-induced lung injury). Therefore, this review will provide an overview of the present investigational evidence on the therapeutic effect of LA against respiratory diseases in vitro and in vivo. We also summarize the corresponding mechanisms of action to inspire further basic studies and clinical trials to confirm the health benefits of LA in the context of respiratory diseases.

4.
Gondwana Res ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243669

ABSTRACT

Globally, wildfires have seen remarkable increase in duration and size and have become a health hazard. In addition to vegetation and habitat destruction, rapid release of smoke, dust and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere contributes to its short and long-term detrimental effects. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a public health concern worldwide that primarily target lungs and respiratory tract, akin to air pollutants. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated association between air pollution and COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. However, current knowledge on the impact of wildfire-mediated sudden outburst of air pollutants on COVID-19 is limited. In this study, we examined the association of air pollutants and COVID-19 during wildfires burned during August-October 2020 in California, United States. We observed an increase in the tropospheric pollutants including aerosols (particulate matter [PM]), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by approximately 150%, 100% and 20%, respectively, in 2020 compared to the 2019. Except ozone (O3), similar proportion of increment was noticed during the peak wildfire period (August 16 - September 15, 2020) in the ground PM2.5, CO, and NO2 levels at Fresno, Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego and San Francisco, cities with largest active wildfire area. We identified three different spikes in the concentrations of PM2.5, and CO for the cities examined clearly suggesting wildfire-induced surge in air pollution. Fresno and Sacramento showed increment in the ground PM2.5, CO and NO2 levels, while San Diego recorded highest change rate in NO2 levels. Interestingly, we observed a similar pattern of higher COVID-19 cases and mortalities in the cities with adverse air pollution caused by wildfires. These findings provide a logical rationale to strategize public health policies for future impact of COVID-19 on humans residing in geographic locations susceptible to sudden increase in local air pollution.

5.
Pediatrics ; 151(2):1.0, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2227098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical impact of respiratory virus codetections among children hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS During March 2020 to February 2022, the US coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) identified 4372 children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted primarily for fever, respiratory illness, or presumed COVID-19. We compared demographics, clinical features, and outcomes between those with and without codetections who had any non-SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. Among a subgroup of 1670 children with complete additional viral testing, we described the association between presence of codetections and severe respiratory illness using age-stratified multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS Among 4372 children hospitalized, 62% had non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory virus testing, of which 21% had a codetection. Children with codetections were more likely to be <5 years old (yo), receive increased oxygen support, or be admitted to the ICU (P < .001). Among children <5 yo, having any viral codetection (<2 yo: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.0];2–4 yo: aOR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2–3.1]) or rhinovirus/enterovirus codetection (<2 yo: aOR 2.4 [95% CI 1.6–3.7];2-4: aOR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2–4.6]) was significantly associated with severe illness. Among children <2 yo, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) codetections were also significantly associated with severe illness (aOR 1.9 [95% CI 1.3–2.9]). No significant associations were seen among children ≥5 yo. CONCLUSIONS Respiratory virus codetections, including RSV and rhinovirus/enterovirus, may increase illness severity among children <5 yo hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ; 38(3):524-528, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2228299

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of patients with COVID-19. Clinical and biological features of the two patients confirm severe form of COVID-19 associated with cytokine storm. High levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were found. Unfortunately the patients died because of the multi-organ failure secondary to the cytokine storm. Cytokine storm is a systemic inflammatory syndrome which leads to aberrant release of cytokines. IL-6 is the most frequently reported cytokine to be increased in COVID-19 patients. Naive T CD4+ cells in the presence of TGF ß and IL-6 will differentiate into T helper 17 cells responsible for secreting IL-17A and 17F, target macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts to increase the production of cytokines. IL-6 and IL-17 have been shown to play a role in increasing risk of airway disease. They synergistically promote viral persistence by protecting virus-infected cells from apoptosis. Immune hyperactivation in cytokine storm amplified levels of cytokines that will have systemic effects and cause collateral damage to vital organ systems. Immunotherapy can play a crucial role in COVID-19 managing. Tocilizumab an anti-IL6 receptor antibody was used with clinical improvement. The possibility of inhibiting IL17 as therapy for COVID-19 should be also considered.

7.
PLOS Water ; 1(6), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2228077

ABSTRACT

Continuity of key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and WASH practices—for example, hand hygiene—are among several critical community preventive and mitigation measures to reduce transmission of infectious diseases, including COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases. WASH guidance for COVID-19 prevention may combine existing WASH standards and new COVID-19 guidance. Many existing WASH tools can also be modified for targeted WASH assessments during the COVID-19 pandemic. We partnered with local organizations to develop and deploy tools to assess WASH conditions and practices and subsequently implement, monitor, and evaluate WASH interventions to mitigate COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and Africa, focusing on healthcare, community institution, and household settings and hand hygiene specifically. Employing mixed-methods assessments, we observed gaps in access to hand hygiene materials specifically despite most of those settings having access to improved, often onsite, water supplies. Across countries, adherence to hand hygiene among healthcare providers was about twice as high after patient contact compared to before patient contact. Poor or non-existent management of handwashing stations and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was common, especially in community institutions. Markets and points of entry (internal or external border crossings) represent congregation spaces, critical for COVID-19 mitigation, where globally-recognized WASH standards are needed. Development, evaluation, deployment, and refinement of new and existing standards can help ensure WASH aspects of community mitigation efforts that remain accessible and functional to enable inclusive preventive behaviors.

8.
Computer Engineering and Applications Journal ; 12(1):1930/11/01 00:00:00.000, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2231793

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a disease of the respiratory tract caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. One way to diagnose Covid-19 can be done by examining lung abnormalities on the results of a Computed Tomography Scan (CT-Scan) of the lungs. However, the determination of the diagnostic results obtained requires high accuracy and quite a long time. For this reason, an automatic system is needed to make it easier for medical personnel to diagnose Covid-19 disease quickly and accurately. One way to do this with the help of a computer is pattern recognition. In this study, pattern recognition techniques were used which were divided into three stages, namely pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. The methods used in the pre-processing stage are grayscale and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) to improve image quality and contrast. The extraction stage uses the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method, because it can reduce data dimensions without eliminating important features in the data. For the classification stage, a deep learning-based method is used, namely the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The CNN architecture used in this study is Resnet-50. The method proposed in this research is evaluated by measuring the performance values of accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score, and Cohen Kappa. The results of the study indicate that the PCA method has worked optimally in dimension reduction, without losing important features on CT-scan images of the lungs. Besides that, the proposed method has succeeded in classifying Covid-19 very well, as seen from the accuracy, Recall, Precision, F1-Score and Cohen Kappa values above 90%.

9.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(1): 19-23, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234303

ABSTRACT

Context: Researchers throughout the world devote enormous efforts to reveal the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, however, it continues to surprise and cause the death of millions of people. Aims: This article aims to study the molecular mechanisms provoked by SARS-CoV-2, the virus-induced changes in Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) functionality, in the vascular homeostasis through CD34 expression, B-cell immunity through the expression of CD20 and CD79α, and adhesion molecules through E-cadherin. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, descriptive, and observational study. Methods and Material: A total of 15 autopsies of patients deceased by COVID-19 infection, confirmed by PCR, were performed. The lungs of all patients were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for ACE2, E-cadherin, CD34, CD20, and CD79α. Results: Immunohistological analysis showed increased ACE2 expression in all lung autopsy material affected by COVID-19 infection and we found a higher intensity of ACE2 expression than that of a healthy lung. CD20 examination reveals total deficiency of B-cells in the pulmonary parenchyma and CD79α is also absent. E-Cadherin is not expressed in the basal cellular sections where the contact elements are missing. CD34 demonstrates a desquamation of the endothelial cells, which indicates a direct damage of the vascular walls. Conclusions: We found that patients who died after severe COVID-19 had high immune deficiency and impaired intercellular communication in the parenchyma and endothelium of lung tissue, leading to severe thromboembolic complications in patients with multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autopsy , Cadherins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells , Lung/pathology , Prospective Studies
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232423

ABSTRACT

In recent years, respiratory diseases have increasingly become a global concern, largely due to the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This inevitably causes great attention to be given to the development of highly efficient and minimal or non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. And electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials show great potential in fulfilling the requirement, not only because of the superior performance of electrochemical analysis, but also given the excellent properties of the carbon nanomaterials. In this paper, we review the most recent advances in research, development and applications of electrochemical biosensors based on the use of carbon nanomaterials for diagnosis of human respiratory diseases in the last 10 years. We first briefly introduce the characteristics of several common human respiratory diseases, including influenza, COVID-19, pulmonary fibrosis, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Then, we describe the working principles and fabrication of various electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials used for diagnosis of these respiratory diseases. Finally, we summarize the advantages, challenges, and future perspectives for the currently available electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials for detecting human respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , Carbon , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nanostructures/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques , COVID-19 Testing
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231438

ABSTRACT

Lung macrophages (Mφs) are essential for pulmonary innate immunity and host defense due to their dynamic polarization and phenotype shifts. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have secretory, immunomodulatory, and tissue-reparative properties and have shown promise in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases and in COVID-19. Many beneficial effects of MSCs are mediated through their interaction with resident alveolar and pulmonary interstitial Mφs. Bidirectional MSC-Mφ communication is achieved through direct contact, soluble factor secretion/activation, and organelle transfer. The lung microenvironment facilitates MSC secretion of factors that result in Mφ polarization towards an immunosuppressive M2-like phenotype for the restoration of tissue homeostasis. M2-like Mφ in turn can affect the MSC immune regulatory function in MSC engraftment and tissue reparatory effects. This review article highlights the mechanisms of crosstalk between MSCs and Mφs and the potential role of their interaction in lung repair in inflammatory lung diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Humans , Macrophages , Macrophages, Alveolar
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1033181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231422

ABSTRACT

Background: Complementary and Integrative Medicine (CIM), including self-care healthy life-style promotion strategies, is widely used in Germany. Aim of this study was to assess the use of self-care and lifestyle interventions as well as mental/emotional state experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional online study was conducted with adults in Germany through an online survey. Custom-developed questions in respiratory disease-status (including COVID-19), CIM-based self-care/lifestyle interventions and dietary patterns, and mental/emotional state as well as parameters for wellbeing (World Health Organization Well-Being Index, WHO-5) and self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Short Scale, GSE-3) were assessed. Data was analyzed using frequency and parametric measures. Results: The online survey was performed from January to March 2021 and included 1,138 participants (81.5% female; mean age: 49.2 ± 13.7 years; 54.9% holding a university degree) living in Germany, of which 62 had had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, 4 an influenza infection and 375 participants other respiratory infections. The following individual health promotion strategies were reported: spending time in nature (90%; n = 1,024), physical activity (69.3%; n = 789), naturopathic remedies (63.1%; n = 718), plant-based diet (56.3%; n = 640), and Mind-Body interventions (54.7%; n = 623). No differences in strategies between individuals with respiratory diseases or the sample overall were found. Well-being had a mean value of 15.2 ± 5 (WHO-5) and self-efficacy 4.1 ± 0.6 (GSE-3). Nearly 8% reported a low mental/emotional state regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Self-care and lifestyle interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic were reported by participants who were predominantly female, middle-aged, and well-educated. Most participants showed an overall balanced mental/emotional state. Further studies should include a representative control group from the general population. Clinical trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT04653727.

13.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 22(6):891-896, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2225883

ABSTRACT

Under the corona virus disease 2019 epidemic situation, it urgently needs epidemic prevention personnel with strong comprehensive theoretical knowledge and practical experience, as well as emergency and rapid response ability. In order to effectively improve the graduates' ability to perform their duties, our university set up the subject of "emergency response drill of sudden respiratory infectious diseases" in the drill of graduates to improve their competency. This paper expounds the necessity and feasibility of the drill, discusses the practical exploration in the implementation process of the drill, and analyzes and thinks about how to further improve the effect of the drill.

14.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 22(6):881-887, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2225882

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus pneumonia is caused by eoronavirus infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COV1D-19) in 2019 were all caused by coronavirus. The prevalence of these diseases has caused great disaster to people all over the world. However, there is no specific drug for the treatment of coronavirus pneumonia. In View of the current worldwide epidemic situation of covid-19, it is particularly urgent to develop effective antiviral drugs. This article reviews the progress in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia, hoping to provide help for the prevention and control of the disease.

15.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series A ; 185(3):1319-1343, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2223519

ABSTRACT

When an epidemic outbreak occurs, the demand for healthcare services may increase because more people may seek medical care regardless of their infection status. On the other hand, it may decrease because of the fear of getting infected while seeking treatment. Moreover, the epidemic may have lasting effects on individuals' healthcare service usage after it ends. Armed with a representative and detailed individual level healthcare usage dataset, we examine the dynamic effect of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak which occurred in South Korea in 2015. To be more specific, we select patients who lived in regions where the MERS outbreak took place as the treatment group, and patients who lived in regions where MERS-related events never occurred as the control group. Using this sample, we apply a difference-in-difference approach with propensity score matching to investigate the effect of epidemic disease on individuals' healthcare service usage. We find that healthcare visits to treat minor diseases during the MERS outbreak showed a significant decrease of 3.7%. This effect was pronounced in large tertiary hospitals (22.7%) and among minors under age 10 (10.1%). We could not find significant changes in visits to treat serious diseases. However, visits to the emergency department showed a temporary but significant decrease (18.1%). After the end of the epidemic, healthcare visits to treat minor diseases significantly increased by 4.0%. This after-effect was pronounced in secondary hospitals (8.7%) and primary healthcare facilities (3.9%) and among minors under age 10. We discuss the implications of our findings for various stakeholders.

16.
Revista Medica de Chile ; 150(3):316-323, 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2218934

ABSTRACT

Background: In a decade, we faced two pandemic viruses, influenza A H1N1pdm09 and SARS CoV-2, whose most serious manifestation is pneumonia. Aim: To compare the clinical, epidemiological and management aspects of pneumonias caused by each pandemic virus in adults requiring hospitalization. Material and methods: Comparative, observational study carried out at a regional Chilean hospital, including 75 patients with influenza A H1N1pdm09 prospectively studied in 2009 and 142 patients with SARS CoV-2 studied in 2020.

17.
Pharmacology Online ; 2:277-285, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2218762

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) stated the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11th March 2020. The virus-infected patients suffered from a respiratory disease called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SAR-CoV-2). A proteinaceous exudate, alveolar edema, and hyperplasia associated with monocytes and lymphocytes alveolar inflammatory infiltration was observed in the affected patient's lungs. Virus broadens a systemic inflammatory reaction with a cytokine release syndrome which is characterized with the aid of using unexpected growth in many pro-inflammatory cytokines especially IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-a through activated M1 macrophage phenotype. Virus block IL-6 with tocilizumab and the usage of respirator device appears to be very vital. Radioactivity is the process by which unstable atomic nucleus losses energy by radiation, mainly using alpha, beta, and gamma rays. SARS-CoV-2 affected lungs can be treated by a low dose of radiotherapy. It was found that minute dose chest radiation therapy can be able to wean patients off a ventilator as it can reduce inflammation inside the lungs of severely infected COVID-19 patients. Numerous such clinical trials are underway and researchers may work to cure the COVID-19 lung infections by radiotherapy.

18.
Health Science Journal ; 17(1):1-4, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2218590

ABSTRACT

The nutritional supplementation for COVID-19 patients' needs to account for the sleep, stress level, anxiety, depression, as well as body mass index of the individual. [...]the main objective of this review was to clearly show the role of nutrition during COVID-19, symptoms of COVID-19 with nutrition implications, micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) for Covid-19, the nutrients needed for improving mental well-being during COVID-19 response, and to find out the common brain chemicals that can be affected during stressful conditions like COVID-19. The nutritional supplementation for COVID-19 patients' needs to account for sleep, stress level, anxiety, depression, as well as body mass index of the individual. [...]foods containing serotonin, melatonin, amino acid, and tryptophan are crucial for addressing sleep, anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms associated with COVID-19 infections. Low vitamin A diets might compromise the effectiveness of inactivated bovine coronavirus vaccines and render calves more susceptible to infectious disease. [...]vitamin A could be a promising option for the treatment of this novel coronavirus and the prevention of lung infection [13]. Both struggling with adapting to the new challenges associated with the pandemic as well as the psychological distress due to COVID-19 are linked to an increased risk of developing an imbalance in brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) which in turn increases the risk of mental health problems. [...]getting foods containing important neurotransmitters is a very important component of the management of patients with COVID-19.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 217, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing benefits of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for respiratory infectious diseases in China are still unclear. We aimed to explore the changes in seven respiratory infectious diseases before, during, and after COVID-19 in China from 2010 to 2021. METHODS: The monthly case numbers of seven respiratory infectious diseases were extracted to construct autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Eight indicators of NPIs were chosen from the COVID-19 Government Response Tracker system. The monthly case numbers of the respiratory diseases and the eight indicators were used to establish the Multivariable generalized linear model (GLM) to calculate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs). RESULTS: Compared with the year 2019, the percentage changes in 2020 and 2021 were all below 100% ranging from 3.81 to 84.71%. Pertussis and Scarlet fever started to increase in 2021 compared with 2020, with a percentage change of 183.46 and 171.49%. The ARIMA model showed a good fit, and the predicted data fitted well with the actual data from 2010 to 2019, but the predicted data was bigger than the actual number in 2020 and 2021. All eight indicators could negatively affect the incidence of respiratory diseases. The seven respiratory diseases were significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 compared with 2019, with significant estimated IRRs ranging from 0.06 to 0.85. In the GLM using data for the year 2020 and 2021, the IRRs were not significant after adjusting for the eight indicators in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the incidence of the seven respiratory diseases decreased rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. At the end of 2021, we did see a rising trend for the seven respiratory diseases compared to the year 2020 when the NPIs relaxed in China, but the rising trend was not significant after adjusting for the NPIs indicators. Our study showed that NPIs have an effect on respiratory diseases, but Relaxation of NPIs might lead to the resurgence of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 751929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215298

ABSTRACT

Fever remains an integral part of acute infectious diseases management, especially for those without effective therapeutics, but the widespread myths about "fevers" and the presence of confusing guidelines from different agencies, which have heightened during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and are open to alternate interpretation, could deny whole populations the benefits of fever. Guidelines suggesting antipyresis for 37.8-39°C fever are concerning as 39°C boosts the protective heat-shock and immune response (humoral, cell-mediated, and nutritional) whereas ≥40°C initiates/enhances the antiviral responses and restricts high-temperature adapted pathogens, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), strains of influenza, and measles. Urgent attention is accordingly needed to address the situation because of the potential public health consequences of the existence of conflicting guidelines in the public domain. We have in this article attempted to restate the benefits of fever in disease resolution, dispel myths, and underline the need for alignment of national treatment guidelines with that of the WHO, to promote appropriate practices and reduce the morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, such as COVID-19.

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