Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 243
Filter
1.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14937, 2022 Jan.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically changed the recommended activities and environment for patients worldwide. Our aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric hospitalizations in Kitami, Japan. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on hospitalized patients aged 0-14 years at the Japanese Red Cross Kitami Hospital. We compared the incidence of pediatric patients hospitalized in 2020 with those in 2017-2019. RESULTS: The number of pediatric hospitalized patients dropped significantly in 2020 compared to that in 2017-2019 (median 43.0 vs 78.5 per month, P < 0.001). The patients were significantly older in 2020 (4.3 vs 3.4 years, P < 0.001). Hospitalization from respiratory (8.5 vs 30.5, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal infections (3.0 vs 6.0, P = 0.004) significantly decreased. Admission due to respiratory syncytial virus (0.0 vs 4.0, P < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.005), influenza (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.009), adenovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.003), and rotavirus infection (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.025) also decreased significantly. The <1-5 age groups significantly decreased (<1 year old, 6.5 vs 12.5, P < 0.001; 1-3 years old, 13.0 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; 4-5 years old, 5.5 vs 11.5, P < 0.001). Hospitalization due to foreign body ingestions increased significantly in 2020 (1.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 control measures inadvertently reduced the number of hospitalized pediatric patients, especially younger children with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Curr Health Sci J ; 47(4):507-515, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic initiated officially in October 2020. Since then several observations have been made regarding the disease and its symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included eighty seven in our observational study. Our main aim was to investigate their long term respiratory follow-up in correlation with their initial radiological and laboratory findings and values. The nose swab PCR test for COVID-19 was used for diagnosis. Patients were monitored at 3 and 6 months after their hospital reception whereas basic parameters of health condition (smoking, PO2, SPO2, WBC, CXR, CRP, intercurrent findings, days of nursing, colchicine administration) in joint with gender and age were recorded. RESULTS: Males seem more susceptible to the viral disease than females in a ratio 1,8:1. The parameters FEV1 and FVC (as % relative changes) were not affected, apart from the DLCO to which CRP (in loge+1 transformation) and SPO2 showed a statistically significant effect. CONCLUSION: None of these patients were intubated, or admitted to the intensive care unit. The respiratory function is affected by the virus and the effect is reversed within the first three months. Males are more affected and the radiological and laboratory findings are associated with the respiratory functions.

3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1807446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is increasingly used for clinical decision making in acute care but little is known about frailty after COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate frailty and the CFS for post-COVID-19 follow-up. METHODS: This prospective multicentre cohort study included COVID-19 survivors aged ≥50 years presenting for a follow-up visit ≥3 months after the acute illness. Nine centres retrospectively collected pre-COVID-19 CFS and prospectively CFS at follow-up. Three centres completed the Frailty Index (FI), the short physical performance battery (SPPB), 30 s sit-to-stand test and handgrip strength measurements. Mixed effect logistic regression models accounting for repeated measurements and potential confounders were used to investigate factors associated with post-COVID-19 CFS. Criterion and construct validity were determined by correlating the CFS to other concurrently assessed frailty measurements and measures of respiratory impairment, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 288 participants 65% were men, mean (SD) age was 65.1 (9) years. Median (IQR) CFS at follow-up was 3 (2-3), 21% were vulnerable or frail (CFS ≥4). The CFS was responsive to change, correlated with the FI (r=0.69, p<0.001), the SPPB score (r=-0.48, p<0.001) (criterion validity) and with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (r=0.59, p<0.001), forced vital capacity %-predicted (r=-0.25, p<0.001), 6 min walk distance (r=-0.39, p<0.001) and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) (r=0.59, p<0.001). Dyspnoea was significantly associated with a higher odds for vulnerability/frailty (per one mMRC adjusted OR 2.01 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.58), p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The CFS significantly increases with COVID-19, and dyspnoea is an important risk factor for post-COVID-19 frailty and should be addressed thoroughly.

4.
Mental Health Effects of COVID-19 ; : 187-213, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1803282

ABSTRACT

Nutrition plays a significant role in boosting immune function thereby enabling the body fight infections. The emergence of the novel corona virus, COVID-19, has underscored the need for critical assessment of the contribution of various nutrients in enhancing improved immunity to prevent and treat infected individuals. This review aimed at highlighting how some nutrients aid in boosting immunity. Also, the evidence for incorporating various micronutrients in the treatment regime and the likely role they play in the prevention, the optimization of nutrition for improved mental health and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed. This chapter was developed following a review of existing systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and randomized prospective study literature on the subject of nutrition and infection with special emphasis on respiratory infection and COVID-19. Timely, appropriate, and adequate nutrition provision is paramount to combating the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 778808, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789350

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Overuse of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance are global healthcare problems. In pediatric patients with respiratory infections, viral and bacterial etiologies are challenging to distinguish, leading to irrational antibiotic use. Rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic testing methods for respiratory pathogens has been shown to facilitate effective clinical decision-making and guide antibiotic stewardship interventions in the developed regions, but its impacts on pediatric patient care in the developing countries remain unclear. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective case-control study, we compared demographics, clinical characteristics, especially microbiological findings, and antibiotic usage between pediatric patients with respiratory infection receiving FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) testing and a matched routine testing control group. Our primary outcome was the duration of intravenous antibiotics treatment (DOT) during hospitalization. Results: Each group consisted of 346 children with a respiratory infection. In the FilmArray RP testing group, the DOT was shorter than that in the routine testing group (6.41 ± 3.67 days versus 7.23 ± 4.27 days; p = 0.006). More patients in the FilmArray RP testing group de-escalated antibiotic treatments within 72 hours of hospitalization (7.80%, 27/346 versus 2.60%, 9/346; p = 0.002). By contrast, fewer patients in the FilmArray RP testing group had escalated antibiotic treatments between 72 hours and seven days (7.80% versus 14.16%; p = 0.007). The cost of hospitalization was significantly lower in the FilmArray RP testing group ($ 1413.51 ± 1438.01 versus $ 1759.37 ± 1929.22; p = 0.008). Notably, the subgroup analyses revealed that the FilmArray RP test could shorten the DOT, improve early de-escalation of intravenous antibiotics within 72 hours of hospitalization, decline the escalation of intravenous antibiotics between 72 hours and seven days, and reduce the cost of hospitalization for both patient populations with or without underlying diseases. Conclusions: Molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory pathogens could help to reduce intravenous antibiotic use and health care costs of pediatric patients with respiratory infections in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Child , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Point-of-Care Testing , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785344

ABSTRACT

The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which is widely used to protect children against tuberculosis, can also improve immune response against viral infections. This unicentric, randomized-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of revaccination with BCG Moscow in reducing the positivity and symptoms of COVID-19 in health care workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. HCWs who had negative COVID-19 IgM and IgG and who dedicated at least eight hours per week in facilities that attended to individuals suspected of having COVID-19 were included in the study and were followed for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 180 days by telemedicine. The HCWs were randomly allocated to a revaccinated with BCG group, which received the BCG vaccine, or an unvaccinated group. Revaccination with BCG Moscow was found to be safe, and its efficacy ranged from 30.0% (95.0%CI -78.0 to 72.0%) to 31.0% (95.0%CI -74.0 to 74.0%). Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moscow did not induce NK cell activation at 15-20 days post-revaccination. As hypothesized, revaccination with BCG Moscow was associated with a lower incidence of COVID-19 positivity, though the results did not reach statistical significance. Further studies should be carried out to assess whether revaccination with BCG is able to protect HCWs against COVID-19. The protocol of this clinical trial was registered on August 5th, 2020, at REBEC (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, RBR-4kjqtg - ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-4kjqtg/1) and the WHO (# U1111-1256-3892). The clinical trial protocol was approved by the Comissão Nacional de ética de pesquisa- CONEP (CAAE 31783720.0.0000.5078).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium bovis , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Moscow , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Thorax ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765137

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Persisting respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 survivors may be related to development of pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the proportion of chest CT scans and pulmonary function tests consistent with parenchymal lung disease in the follow-up of people hospitalised with COVID-19 and viral pneumonitis. METHODS: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of proportions using studies of adults hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or influenza pneumonia and followed up within 12 months. Searches performed in MEDLINE and Embase. Primary outcomes were proportion of radiological sequelae on CT scans; restrictive impairment; impaired gas transfer. Heterogeneity was explored in meta-regression. RESULTS: Ninety-five studies (98.9% observational) were included in qualitative synthesis, 70 were suitable for meta-analysis including 60 SARS-CoV-2 studies with a median follow-up of 3 months. In SARS-CoV-2, the overall estimated proportion of inflammatory sequelae was 50% during follow-up (0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.58; I2=95%), fibrotic sequelae were estimated in 29% (0.29; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.37; I2=94.1%). Follow-up time was significantly associated with estimates of inflammatory sequelae (-0.036; 95% CI -0.068 to -0.004; p=0.029), associations with fibrotic sequelae did not reach significance (-0.021; 95% CI -0.051 to 0.009; p=0.176). Impaired gas transfer was estimated at 38% of lung function tests (0.38 95% CI 0.32 to 0.44; I2=92.1%), which was greater than restrictive impairment (0.17; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.23; I2=92.5%), neither were associated with follow-up time (p=0.207; p=0.864). DISCUSSION: Sequelae consistent with parenchymal lung disease were observed following COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitis. Estimates should be interpreted with caution due to high heterogeneity, differences in study casemix and initial severity. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020183139.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

10.
8th Colombian Congress and International Conference on Air Quality and Public Health, CASAP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746121

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out in order to determine the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air of a home located in the municipality of Tausa and its possible relationship with ARIs (Acute Respiratory Infections), for which a microbiological analysis was carried out in order to identify bacteria that are possibly causing respiratory illnesses in the household. The sampling consisted of the use of a suction equipment (MAS100 Eco), during different time bands and spaces inside and outside the house. Later the respective analysis was carried out in the laboratory and 6 different mesophilic microorganisms were identified, which were: Salmonella tiphy, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Kingella kingae. In addition, each of these bacteria were individually analyzed to understand the dynamics of the pollutant load in the home. Finally, the identified mesophilic microorganisms correspond to bacteria with some degree of pathogenicity and/or health effects, in the same way the morbidity data from the Tausa medical center were analyzed. Here we found that the population under 13 years old is the most affected by ARI, and that the bacteria present more easily affect this type of population, generating a wider perspective on the possibilities of having more patients diagnosed with ARI, as found in the home. The data presented here were affected and biased due to the health emergency caused by COVID19. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-4, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC) have shown conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether COVID-19 infections affect nasal mucociliary activity using the saccharin test to measure nasal MCC time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective comparative investigation included 25 patients with COVID-19 infection and 25 healthy controls. The nasal MCC time was assessed using the saccharin test. Saccharin test was applied to COVID-19 patients between the 10th and 20th days of COVID-19 test positivity. Patients admitted to the otolaryngology outpatient clinic with non-nasal symptoms and no history of COVID-19 infection served as the control subjects. RESULTS: Age, gender distribution, smoking, and alcohol usage, and the existence of other systemic disorders had no statistically significant differences between the groups (p = 0.25, p = 0.77, p = 1.00, p = 0.28, p = 0.54, respectively). The COVID-19 group had a mean nasal MCC time of 12.00 ± 2.51 min, compared to 9.77 ± 2.51 min in the control group. The nasal MCC time in the COVID-19 group was statistically significantly longer (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The COVID-19 infection negatively affects mucociliary activity and causes prolongation of MCC. As the nasal defense mechanism weakens in the early period after COVID-19 infection, susceptibility to respiratory infections may occur.

12.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of respiratory disease due to SARS-CoV-2 has received global attention, and recent studies show various limitations, including treatment. Phytomedicine has played a prominent role in the treatment and prevention of various epidemic and pandemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: Here, we attempt to focus on a safe and feasible approach for Thuja occidentalis to manage and alleviate the panic of respiratory viral infection infections including COVID-19 by strengthening an individual's immunity. The relevant information was collected from the web-based databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE as well as internet sources. CONCLUSION: As an important phytomedicine and king of antipsychotics, T. occidentalis possesses a plethora of immunological properties that not only can be used effectively in the management of respiratory viral infection infections, but also have the potential to prevent the further progression of the disease. Importantly, this is only part of the approach to treatment for the current outbreak that should be considered along with other measures.

13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 sequelae are numerous and multisystemic, and how to evaluate those symptomatic patients is a timely issue. Klok et al proposed the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) Scale as an easy tool to evaluate limitations related to persistent symptoms. Our aim was to analyse PCFS Scale ability to detect functional limitations and its correlation with quality of life in a cohort of patients, 2-9 months after hospitalisation for COVID-19 hypoxemic pneumonia. METHODS: PCFS Scale was evaluated in 121 patients together with quality of life and dyspnoea questionnaires, pulmonary function tests and CT scans. RESULTS: We observed a high correlation with multiple questionnaires (Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, modified Medical Research Council, end Borg Six-Minute Walk Test), making the PCFS Scale a quick and global tool to evaluate functional limitations related to various persistent symptoms following COVID-19 pneumonia. DISCUSSION: The PCFS Scale seems to be a suitable instrument to screen for patients who will require careful follow-up after COVID-19 hypoxemic pneumonia even in the absence of pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/complications , Functional Status , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
15.
Journal of Marine Medical Society ; 23(2):201-204, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1701184

ABSTRACT

Background: As the world battles the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, rapid detection is the key to contain the spread of the disease. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it demands specialized equipment and technical expertise. SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen detection test (RAT) is the user-friendly alternative, which needs evaluation in the hospital setting. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Indian Council of Medical Research approved COVID-19 diagnostic molecular laboratory between November and December 2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs in viral transport medium (VTM) were received from suspected SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals were processed for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and a rapid antigen detection test, COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip. Results: A total of 342 samples were assessed for this study by RT-PCR and Rapid Antigen Test. The sensitivity of RAT was found to be 41% at an RT-PCR cycle threshold of 35 or below. Sensitivity of RAT improved to 81.2% when a RT-PCR cycle threshold of 25 or below was considered as positive. Specificity of RAT was 99% to 100%. Conclusion: Rapid antigen test is a cost-effective alternative for screening of symptomatic individuals in the hospital setting. However, due to low sensitivity, the negative results need to be interpreted with caution.

16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690896

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children is difficult to estimate because they are typically treated in outpatient settings and the majority of epidemiological data originate from hospital settings and refer to the most severe illnesses. Therefore, the incidence of ARTIs in a real-world setting remains largely unexplored. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the incidence of ARTIs, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children aged 0-5 years in an outpatient setting. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Lombardy, Italy, from October 1st, 2019, to March 31st, 2021, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic that began in March 2020. Caucasian healthy children aged 0-5 years were recruited from 69 Family Pediatricians (FP) and followed-up in an outpatient setting. Data were collected whenever a child was referred to FP and ARTI was diagnosed (Covid-19 related ARTI were excluded). The primary outcome was an estimate of the incidence of ARTIs. The incidence of ARTIs in different age groups and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of ARTIs were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 484 children, 249 male (51.8%), mean age of 2.39 ± 1.68 years. The mean estimated incidence of ARTIs was 12.1/100 children × 30 days (95% CIs: 9.5-12.9), with the highest value observed in infants aged 1-12 months (24.9/100 children × 30 days; 95% CIs: 17.6-28.9). The mean estimated incidence of URTIs was higher than that of LRTIs (8.3 - CIs: 7.6-8.9 vs 3.8/100 children × 30 days - CIs: 6.4-4.3, respectively). The comparison of ARTIs, which occurred in the pre-pandemic winter, to those measured during the COVID-19 pandemic, revealed an impressive 82.1% drop in the incidence rate (CIs: 77.8-85.7). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that infants aged 1-12 months are more likely to develop ARTIs than older children and that COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered the epidemiology of ARTIs in children aged 0-5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Thorax ; 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a worldwide threat and effective antiviral drugs and vaccines are being developed in a joint global effort. However, some elderly and immune-compromised populations are unable to raise an effective immune response against traditional vaccines. AIMS: We hypothesised that passive immunity engineered by the in vivo expression of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), an approach termed vectored-immunoprophylaxis (VIP), could offer sustained protection against COVID-19 in all populations irrespective of their immune status or age. METHODS: We developed three key reagents to evaluate VIP for SARS-CoV-2: (i) we engineered standard laboratory mice to express human ACE2 via rAAV9 in vivo gene transfer, to allow in vivo assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, (ii) to simplify in vivo challenge studies, we generated SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors as a simple mimic of authentic SARS-CoV-2 that could be used under standard laboratory containment conditions and (iii) we developed in vivo gene transfer vectors to express anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs. CONCLUSIONS: A single intranasal dose of rAAV9 or rSIV.F/HN vectors expressing anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 mimic infection in the lower respiratory tract of hACE2-expressing mice. If translated, the VIP approach could potentially offer a highly effective, long-term protection against COVID-19 for highly vulnerable populations; especially immune-deficient/senescent individuals, who fail to respond to conventional SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The in vivo expression of multiple anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs could enhance protection and prevent rapid mutational escape.

18.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13328, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673239

ABSTRACT

Early initiation of breastfeeding, within 1 h of birth, is vital for the health of newborns and reduces morbidity and mortality. Secondary analysis of the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) showed that early initiation of breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 2 years. Early initiation of breastfeeding requires maternal proximity. Separation of infant and mother inhibits early initiation of breastfeeding and increases the risk that infants will suffer from ARIs. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, guidance varied, with some recommending that infants and mothers with SARS-CoV-2 be isolated from one another. Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population recommended nonseparation, but the adherence to this guidance was inconsistent. Maternal proximity, nonseparation and early initiation of breastfeeding should be promoted in all birthing facilities.

19.
Clinical Laboratory ; : 9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667675

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most common infectious disease in all ages and genders worldwide. Respiratory microorganisms such as respiratory viruses, are commonly responsible for causing ARI. COVID-19 is still prevalent in Korea. The implementation of lockdown and strict control measures, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing are critical steps for controlling the risk of COVID-19 spread. This study was conducted to find out how these changes in daily lives impacted the distribution of respiratory microorganisms. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to identify the incidence and distribution patterns of ARI-causing respiratory microorganisms before (Period.) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Period.) in terms of detection method, age, month, and season. In particular, data in Periods. and. were compared for eight major kinds of respiratory microorganisms: adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus/enterovirus (Rhino/Entero), influenza virus (Flu) A, Flu B, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: A total of 27,191 respiratory specimens were tested, of which 5,513 were obtained from children and adolescents (age groups 1. 5) and 21,678 from adults (age group 6). The overall positive rates for at least one respiratory microorganism in Periods. and. were 23.1% (1,199/5,193) and 4.9% (1,070/21,998), respectively (p < 0.001). The overall positive rates in male and female patients were significantly different (8.7% vs. 7.9%;p = 0.016). On the FilmArray (TM) RP assay, positive rates in all age groups decreased significantly in Period. compared with Period.. AdV, Rhino/Entero, and Flu A were detected in all four seasons, but HMPV and HPIV3 were not detected. The overall positive rates on FilmArray and the Flu antigen test in Period. were significantly decreased. In the COVID-19 test, the positive rates were high in March and April 2020, and decreased thereafter, but these increased again in the winter of 2020/2021. Conclusions: Life changes due to COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant impact on the distribution of respiratory microorganisms;our study results might provide useful information on respiratory virus epidemiology.

20.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(1): e29889, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in childhood is common, but more knowledge on the burden and natural history of ARI in the community is required. A better understanding of ARI risk factors, treatment, and outcomes will help support parents to manage their sick child at home. Digital health tools are becoming more widely adopted in clinical care and research and may assist in understanding and managing common pediatric diseases, including ARI, in hospitals and in the community. We integrated 2 digital tools-a web-based discharge communication system and the REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) platform-into the Pragmatic Adaptive Trial for Acute Respiratory Infection in Children to enhance parent and physician engagement around ARI discharge communication and our patient registry. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and usability of digital tools integrated into a pediatric patient registry for ARI. METHODS: Semistructured interviews and software interface usability testing were conducted with 11 parents and 8 emergency department physicians working at a tertiary pediatric hospital and research center in Perth, Western Australia, in 2019. Questions focused on experiences of discharge communication and clinical trial engagement. Responses were analyzed using the qualitative Framework Method. Participants were directly observed using digital interfaces as they attempted predetermined tasks that were then classified as success, failure, software failure, or not observed. Participants rated the interfaces using the System Usability Scale (SUS). RESULTS: Most parents (9/11, 82%) indicated that they usually received verbal discharge advice, with some (5/11, 45%) recalling receiving preprinted resources from their physician. Most (8/11, 73%) would also like to receive discharge advice electronically. Most of the physicians (7/8, 88%) described their usual practice as verbal discharge instructions, with some (3/8, 38%) reporting time pressures associated with providing discharge instructions. The digital technology option was preferred for engaging in research by most parents (8/11, 73%). For the discharge communication digital tool, parents gave a mean SUS score of 94/100 (SD 4.3; A grade) for the mobile interface and physicians gave a mean usability score of 93/100 (SD 4.7; A grade) for the desktop interface. For the research data management tool (REDCap), parents gave a mean usability score of 78/100 (SD 11.0; C grade) for the mobile interface. CONCLUSIONS: Semistructured interviews allowed us to better understand parent and physician experiences of discharge communication and clinical research engagement. Software interface usability testing methods and use of the SUS helped us gauge the efficacy of our digital tools with both parent and physician users. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining qualitative research methods with software industry interface usability testing methods to help determine the efficacy of digital tools in a pediatric clinical research setting.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL