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1.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834284

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 might have bacterial and fungal superinfections develop. We describe a clinical case of coronavirus disease with pulmonary aspergillosis associated with Bordetella hinzii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient in France. B. hinzii infections are rare in humans and develop secondary to immunosuppression or debilitating diseases.

2.
Postgrad Med J ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1832545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During COVID-19 infection, organ dysfunction such as respiratory failure tends to occur towards the second week of illness;however, in a subset, there may be rapid onset of organ dysfunction as early as symptom onset. We define fulminant onset COVID-19 as rapid onset of organ dysfunction such as acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, acute encephalopathy or shock within 4 days of symptom onset. Fulminant onset COVID-19 has not yet been systematically studied. We aimed to identify predictors and prognosis of fulminant onset COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on patients admitted to a single referral hospital in South India between June 2020 and January 2022. Patients were categorised into fulminant and non-fulminant onset COVID-19. Candidate predictors for fulminant onset were chosen by an intuitive approach and analysed using logistic regression. Then, the outcome of fulminant onset COVID-19 at 30 days was studied. RESULTS: Out of 2016 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 653 (32.4%) had fulminant onset COVID-19. Age>60 years (a-OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.90, p<0.001), hypertension (a-OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.61, p=0.03) and immune-suppressed state (a-OR 5.62, 95% CI 1.7 to 18.7, p=0.005) were significant predictors of fulminant onset COVID-19. Complete vaccination lowered the odds of fulminant onset COVID-19 significantly (a-OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.85, p=0.004). At 30 days, the fulminant onset COVID-19 group had higher odds of mortality and need for organ support. CONCLUSION: Fulminant onset COVID-19 is not uncommon and it carries poor prognosis and deserves recognition as a distinct phenotype of COVID-19.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817900

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic and genomic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with 2 repatriation flights from India to Australia in April 2021 indicated that 4 passengers transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to >11 other passengers. Results suggest transmission despite mandatory mask use and predeparture testing. For subsequent flights, predeparture quarantine and expanded predeparture testing were implemented.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1817483

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases pose a serious threat worldwide, and novel antiviral materials are highly demanded. Photocatalytic nanoparticles have been developed to inhibit indirect transmission of pathogens by acting as surface coating materials. During development of such antiviral materials, researchers use bacteriophages as model viruses due to their safety and experimental efficiency. Screening methods are used to identify potential antiviral materials, and better screening technologies will accelerate the discovery of antiviral treatments. In this study, we constructed a novel platform to evaluate antiviral activity of surface coating materials using the M13 bacteriophage and phagemid system derived from phage display technology. The evaluation results generated by this system for the two tested antiviral materials were comparable to those for the materials tested on the Qβ bacteriophage and influenza virus using traditional screening methods. The experimental system developed in this study provides rapid and effective screening and can be applied to the development of novel antiviral materials.

5.
BMJ Open ; 12(4):e059383, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1816767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, involving several pathophysiological processes. In patients with severe COVID-19 without macrovascular thrombosis, escalating into high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) or therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) could be beneficial in limiting the extension of microvascular thrombosis and forestalling the evolution of lung and multiorgan microcirculatory dysfunction. In the absence of data from randomised trials, clinical practice varies widely. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a French multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial to compare the efficacy and safety of three anticoagulation strategies in patients with COVID-19. Patients with oxygen-treated COVID-19 showing no pulmonary artery thrombosis on computed tomography with pulmonary angiogram will be randomised to receive either low-dose PA, HD-PA or TA for 14 days. Patients attaining the extremes of weight and those with severe renal failure will not be included. We will recruit 353 patients. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1:1 basis, and stratified by centre, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, D-dimer levels and body mass index. The primary endpoint is a hierarchical criterion at day 28 including all-cause mortality, followed by the time to clinical improvement defined as the time from randomisation to an improvement of at least two points on the ordinal clinical scale. Secondary outcomes include thrombotic and major bleeding events at day 28, individual components of the primary endpoint, number of oxygen-free, ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days at day 28, D-dimer and sepsis-induced coagulopathy score at day 7, intensive care unit and hospital stay at day 28 and day 90, and all-cause death and quality of life at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by an ethical committee (Ethics Committee, Ile de France VII, Paris, France;reference 2020-A03531-38). Patients will be included after obtaining their signed informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04808882.

6.
Tzu Chi Med J ; 34(2):148-159, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1810888

ABSTRACT

Unanticipated pathogenic risk and emerging transmittable diseases can result from interspecies exchanges of viruses among animals and humans. The emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently exemplified this mechanism. Cough, fever, fatigue, headache, sputum production, hemoptysis, dyspnea, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal disorders are the characteristic features of the disease. The most prevalent and serious manifestation of the infection tends to be pneumonia. The new strains of SARS-CoV-2 with more infectivity have been emerging at regular intervals. There is currently no World Health Organization-approved particular drug for COVID-19. Besides, developing novel antivirals would take much time. Thus, repurposing the application of natural products can provide alternatives and can facilitate medication against COVID-19 as well as can slow down the aggressive progression of the disease before the arrival of approved drugs. Probiotics have long been known for their positive effects on the gut microbiome and impact on immune responses. Particularly, their involvement against viral diseases, especially those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, is of current interest for their prospective application against COVID-19. In this review, we comprehensively address the mode of action of probiotics and their possible intervention against coronavirus diseases correlating with their efficacy against viral diseases. In this regard, we explored recently published relevant research and review articles in MEDLINE/PubMed related to COVID-19 and the effects of probiotics on viral infections.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809305

ABSTRACT

Recently, along with increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab, the incidence of immune-related adverse events, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, has become a serious problem. We report a patient who had immune checkpoint inhibitor‒associated type 1 diabetes mellitus that developed after a second mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809302

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance has emerged as a critical monitoring tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Wastewater surveillance has the potential to identify and track SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community, including emerging variants. We demonstrate the novel use of multilocus sequence typing to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater. Using this technique, we observed the emergence of the B.1.351 (Beta) variant in Linn County, Oregon, USA, in wastewater 12 days before this variant was identified in individual clinical specimens. During the study period, we identified 42 B.1.351 clinical specimens that clustered into 3 phylogenetic clades. Eighteen of the 19 clinical specimens and all wastewater B.1.351 specimens from Linn County clustered into clade 1. Our results provide further evidence of the reliability of wastewater surveillance to report localized SARS-CoV-2 sequence information.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1083-1084, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809300
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1083, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809297
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1079-1080, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809294
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1026-1030, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809291

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional survey in Omdurman, Sudan, during March-April 2021, we estimated that 54.6% of the population had detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies. Overall population death rates among those >50 years of age increased 74% over the first coronavirus disease pandemic year.

13.
BMJ Open ; 12(4):e057368, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1807412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with COVID-19 depends on the severity of the pulmonary affection. The most severe cases may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a risk of long-term repercussions on respiratory function and neuromuscular outcomes. The functional repercussions of severe forms of COVID-19 may have a major impact on quality of life, and impair the ability to return to work or exercise. Social inequalities in healthcare may influence prognosis, with socially vulnerable individuals more likely to develop severe forms of disease. We describe here the protocol for a prospective, multicentre study that aims to investigate the influence of social vulnerability on functional recovery in patients who were hospitalised in intensive care for ARDS caused by COVID-19. This study will also include an embedded qualitative study that aims to describe facilitators and barriers to compliance with rehabilitation, describe patients' health practices and identify social representations of health, disease and care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The "Functional Recovery From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Due to COVID-19: Influence of Socio-Economic Status" (RECOVIDS) study is a mixed-methods, observational, multicentre cohort study performed during the routine follow-up of post-intensive care unit (ICU) functional recovery after ARDS. All patients admitted to a participating ICU for PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and who underwent chest CT scan at the initial phase AND who received respiratory support (mechanical or not) or high-flow nasal oxygen, AND had ARDS diagnosed by the Berlin criteria will be eligible. The primary outcome is the presence of lung sequelae at 6 months after ICU discharge, defined either by alterations on pulmonary function tests, oxygen desaturation during a standardised 6 min walk test or fibrosis-like pulmonary findings on chest CT. Patients will be considered to be socially disadvantaged if they have an "Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé" (EPICES) score ≥30.17 at inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and the informed consent form were approved by an independent ethics committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée II) on 10 July 2020 (2020-A02014-35). All patients will provide informed consent before participation. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04556513.

14.
BMJ Open ; 12(4):e055565, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1807406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common, usually self-limiting, but responsible for considerable work sickness absence, reduced quality of life, inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and healthcare costs. Patients who experience recurrent RTIs and those with certain comorbid conditions have higher personal impact and healthcare costs and may be more likely to suffer disease exacerbations, hospitalisation and death. We explored how these patients experience and perceive their RTIs to understand how best to engage them in prevention behaviours. DESIGN: A qualitative interview study. SETTING: Primary care, UK. METHODS: 23 participants who reported recurrent RTIs and/or had relevant comorbid health conditions were interviewed about their experiences of RTIs. Interviews took place as the COVID-19 pandemic began. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were developed: Understanding causes and vulnerability, Attempting to prevent RTIs, Uncertainty and ambivalence about prevention, along with an overarching theme;Changing experiences because of COVID-19. Participants' understandings of their susceptibility to RTIs were multifactorial and included both transmission via others and personal vulnerabilities. They engaged in various approaches to try to prevent infections or alter their progression yet perceived they had limited personal control. The COVID-19 pandemic had improved their understanding of transmission, heightened their concern and motivation to avoid RTIs and extended their repertoire of protective behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experience frequent or severe RTIs are likely to welcome and benefit from advice and support regarding RTI prevention. To engage people effectively, those developing interventions or delivering health services must consider their beliefs and concerns about susceptibility and prevention.

15.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151:105163, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1804469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We systematically survey respiratory and gastrointestinal infections of viral origin in samples sent to our university hospital institute in Marseille, southern France. Here, we evaluated whether the measures implemented to fight COVID-19 had an effect on the dynamics of viral respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. METHODS: We analysed PCR performed and positive for the diagnoses of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections over five years (January 2017-February 2021). Data were collected from our epidemiological surveillance system (MIDaS). Dates and contents of French measures against SARS-CoV-2 were collected from: https://www.gouvernement.fr/info-coronavirus/les-actions-du-gouvernement. RESULTS: Over the 2017-2021 period, 990,364 analyses were carried out for respiratory infections not including SARS-CoV-2, 510,671 for SARS-CoV-2 and 27,719 for gastrointestinal infections. During winter 2020-2021, when the most restrictive lockdown measures were in place in France, a marked decrease of infections with influenza viruses (one case versus 1,839-1,850 cases during 2017-2020 cold seasons) and with the RSV (56 cases versus 988-1,196 cases during 2017-2020 cold seasons) was observed, demonstrating the relative effectiveness of these measures on their occurrence. SARS-CoV-2 incidence seemed far less affected. Rhinoviruses, parainfluenza 3 virus, and the coronavirus NL63 remained at comparable levels. Also, the norovirus winter season positivity rates decreased continuously and significantly over time from 9.3% in 2017-2018 to 2.0% in 2020-2021. CONCLUSION: The measures taken to control COVID-19 were effective against lower respiratory tract infections viruses and gastroenteritis agents, but not on the agents of the common winter cold and SARS-CoV-2. This suggests that more specific measures to prevent COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections need to be discovered to limit the spread of this epidemic.

16.
Environmental Research ; 212:113319, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796870

ABSTRACT

Objective This study evaluated the association of the short-term exposure to environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, NO2, SO2, O3, PM10, and CO) with hospital admissions due to acute viral lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children under two years before the COVID-19 era. Methods We performed a bidirectional case-crossover study in 30,445 children with ALRI under two years of age in the Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) from 2013 to 2015. Environmental data were obtained from Spain's State Meteorological Agency (AEMET). The association was assessed by conditional logistic regression. Results Lower temperature one week before the day of the event (hospital admission) (q-value = 0.012) and higher relative humidity one week (q-value = 0.003) and two weeks (q-value<0.001) before the day of the event were related to a higher odds of hospital admissions. Higher NO2 levels two weeks before the event were associated with hospital admissions (q-value<0.001). Moreover, higher concentrations on the day of the event for SO2 (compared to lag time of 1-week (q-value = 0.026) and 2-weeks (q-value<0.001)), O3 (compared to lag time of 3-days (q-value<0.001), 1-week (q-value<0.001), and 2-weeks (q-value<0.001)), and PM10 (compared to lag time of 2-weeks (q-value<0.001)) were related to an increased odds of hospital admissions for viral ALRI. Conclusion Short-term exposure to environmental factors (climatic conditions and ambient air contaminants) was linked to a higher likelihood of hospital admissions due to ALRI. Our findings emphasize the importance of monitoring environmental factors to assess the odds of ALRI hospital admissions and plan public health resources.

17.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1):108, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1793987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During pandemic situations, many guidelines recommend that surgical masks be worn by both healthcare professionals and infected patients in healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to clarify the levels and changes of oxygen concentration over time while oxygen was administered over a surgical mask. METHODS: Patients scheduled to undergo general anesthesia (n = 99) were enrolled in this study. First, patients were administered oxygen at 6 L/min via an oxygen mask over a surgical mask for 5 min. The patients removed the surgical mask and then took a 3-min break;thereafter, the same amount of oxygen was administered for another 5 min via the oxygen mask. We measured the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), the end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)), and respiratory frequency every minute for 5 min, both while administering oxygen with and without a surgical mask. The FiO(2) was measured at the beginning of inspiration and the EtCO(2) was measured at the end of expiration. RESULTS: The FiO(2) at 5 min was significantly lower when breathing with a surgical mask than that without it (mean difference: 0.08 [95% CI: 0.067-0.10];p <  0.001). In contrast, the EtCO(2) at 5 min was significantly higher when breathing with a surgical mask than that without it (mean difference: 11.9 mmHg [95% CI: 10.9-12.9];p <  0.001). CONCLUSION: The FiO(2) was lower when oxygen was administered over surgical masks than when patients did not wear surgical masks. Oxygen flow may need to be adjusted in moderately ill patients requiring oxygen administration.

18.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056706, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the causes of lobar pneumonia in rural Gambia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based pneumonia surveillance at seven peripheral health facilities and two regional hospitals in rural Gambia. 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced routinely in August 2009 and replaced by PCV13 from May 2011. METHODS: Prospective pneumonia surveillance was undertaken among all ages with referral of suspected pneumonia cases to the regional hospitals. Blood culture and chest radiographs were performed routinely while lung or pleural aspirates were collected from selected, clinically stable patients with pleural effusion on radiograph and/or large, dense, peripheral consolidation. We used conventional microbiology, and from 8 April 2011 to 17 July 2012, used a multiplex PCR assay on lung and pleural aspirates. We calculated proportions with pathogens, associations between coinfecting pathogens and PCV effectiveness. PARTICIPANTS: 2550 patients were admitted with clinical pneumonia; 741 with lobar pneumonia or pleural effusion. We performed 181 lung or pleural aspirates and multiplex PCR on 156 lung and 4 pleural aspirates. RESULTS: Pathogens were detected in 116/160 specimens, the most common being Streptococcus pneumoniae(n=68), Staphylococcus aureus (n=26) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (n=11). Bacteria (n=97) were more common than viruses (n=49). Common viruses were bocavirus (n=11) and influenza (n=11). Coinfections were frequent (n=55). Moraxella catarrhalis was detected in eight patients and in every case there was coinfection with S. pneumoniae. The odds ratio of vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia in patients with two or three compared with zero doses of PCV was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Lobar pneumonia in rural Gambia was caused primarily by bacteria, particularly S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Coinfection was common and M. catarrhalis always coinfected with S. pneumoniae. PCV was highly efficacious against vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789326

ABSTRACT

We report 25 cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant containing spike protein L452R mutation in northern Lombardy, Italy. Prevalence of this variant was >30% in this region, compared with <0.5% worldwide. Many laboratories are using previously developed L452R-specific PCRs to discriminate Omicron from Delta mutations, but these tests may be unreliable.

20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6)2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789325

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the longitudinal dynamics of antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac and the effect of a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. We found a robust antibody response after the second dose of CoronaVac that wanes over time. The response was recovered by BNT162b2, which boosted anti-spike antibody titers.

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