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1.
Vaccines ; 10(4):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820428

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

2.
Diagnostics ; 12(4):16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820199

ABSTRACT

In lung ultrasound (LUS), the interactions between the acoustic pulse and the lung surface (including the pleura and a small subpleural layer of tissue) are crucial. Variations of the peripheral lung density and the subpleural alveolar shape and its configuration are typically connected to the presence of ultrasound artifacts and consolidations. COVID-19 pneumonia can give rise to a variety of pathological pulmonary changes ranging from mild diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by peripheral bilateral patchy lung involvement. These findings are well described in CT imaging and in anatomopathological cases. Ultrasound artifacts and consolidations are therefore expected signs in COVID-19 pneumonia because edema, DAD, lung hemorrhage, interstitial thickening, hyaline membranes, and infiltrative lung diseases when they arise in a subpleural position, generate ultrasound findings. This review analyzes the structure of the ultrasound images in the normal and pathological lung given our current knowledge, and the role of LUS in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19 lung involvement.

3.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820162

ABSTRACT

Studies on droplet transmission are needed to understand the infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. This research investigated the effects of coughing intensity and wind direction on respiratory droplets transportation using the Euler-Lagrange method. The results revealed that both coughing intensity and wind conditions considerably influence the transmission of small and medium droplets but had little effect on large droplets. A stronger coughing intensity resulted in small and medium droplets traveling farther in a calm wind and spreading widely and rapidly in a windy environment. The droplets do not travel far in the absence of ambient wind, even with stronger coughing. Medium droplets spread in clusters, and small droplets drifted out of the domain in the band area in different wind conditions except for 60 degrees and 90 degrees wind directions, in which cases, the droplets were blown directly downstream. In 0 degrees wind direction, many droplets were deposited on the human body. The fast and upward movement of particles in 60 degrees and 90 degrees directions could cause infection risk with short exposure. In 180 degrees wind direction, droplets spread widely and traveled slowly because of the reverse flow downstream, prolonged exposure can result in a high risk of infection.

4.
Current Womens Health Reviews ; 18(4):24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820137

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women are a vulnerable group in viral outbreaks, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify maternal and neonatal outcomes in available articles on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Methods: The articles that had assessed outcomes of pregnancy and perinatal of women with COVID-19 between Oct 2019 and Aug 2020 without language limitation were considered. We searched databases, selected relevant studies and extracted data regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes from each article. Results: Data of 11078 pregnant women with COVID-19 of 23 countries were assessed from 77 articles between December 8, 2019 and Aug 18, 2020. Most pregnant women reported in their third trimester, out of which 6229 (56.22%) cases were symptomatic at the time of admission. Common onset symptoms, abnormal laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography pattern were cough (40.88%%), lymphocytopenia (43.38%), and multiple ground-glass opacities (4.42%), respectively. 51.37% of all deliveries were done through cesarean section. 158 maternal mortality and 4.2% ICU admission were reported. Vertical transmission was not reported, but its possibility was suggested in thirty-two neonates. Ten neonatal deaths, thirteen stillbirths, and nineteen abortions were reported. 60% of newborns were not breastfed. Conclusion: This review showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comparison with previous coronavirus outbreak infection in pregnancy. Limited data are available regarding the possibility of virus transmission in utero, during vaginal childbirth and breastfeeding. The effect of COVID-19 on the first and second trimesters and ongoing pregnancy outcomes in infected mothers is still questionable.

5.
Indoor and Built Environment ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819962

ABSTRACT

The novel corona respiratory viruses usually leave the host via droplets and float in the air or settle down. Medically, the decay characteristics of aerosolized viruses have been simulated and measured by atomizing suspensions into air, but there has been no systematic study on the effect of ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, we collected experimental data from existing medical studies, then introduced and calculated the initial decay constant (k(1)) and the secondary decay constant (k(2)) based on these data as a unified standard to quantify the decay process of the aerosolized viruses. Additionally, the influence of various factors on the decay constant of respiratory viruses in the air was statistically analyzed. The results showed that the phase decay of aerosolized viruses was very evident, and k(1) (0.1 similar to 50) was usually one order of magnitude higher than k(2) (0.005 similar to 3.2). Furthermore, the relationship between the decay constant and the survival rate of viruses, representing the risk of virus transmission, and the decay time constants, reflecting the effective period of prevention and control, was discussed. According to the decay law, the main contradiction between virus transmission and epidemic prevention and control at different time nodes was pointed out, and scientific measures to reduce the transmission risk in the built environment were recommended.

7.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819915

ABSTRACT

Background Adaptive mutations of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virus have emerged throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The characterization of outcomes in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe respiratory distress from COVID-19 during the peak prevalence of different variants is not well known. Methods There were 131 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection supported by ECMO at two referral centers within a large healthcare system. Three predominant variant phase time windows (Pre-Alpha, Alpha, and Delta) were determined by a change-point analyzer based on random population sampling and viral genome sequencing. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared. Results The average age of patients was 46.9?±?10.5 years and 70.2% (92/131) were male. Patients cannulated for ECMO during the Delta variant wave were younger compared to earlier Pre-Alpha (39.3?±?7.8 vs. 48.0?±?11.1 years) and Alpha phases (39.3?±?7.8 vs. 47.2?±?7.7 years) (p?<?.01). The predominantly affected race in the Pre-Alpha phase was Hispanic (52.2%;47/90), while in Alpha (61.5%;16/26) and Delta (40%;6/15) variant waves, most patients were White (p?<?.01). Most patients received a tracheostomy (82.4%;108/131) with a trend toward early intervention in later phases compared to Pre-Alpha (p?<?.01). There was no significant difference between the duration of ECMO, mechanical support, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), or hospital LOS over the three variant phases. The in-hospital mortality was overall 41.5% (54/131) and was also similar. Six-month survival of patients who survived to discharge was 92.2% (71/77). Conclusions There was no significant difference in survival or time on ECMO support in patients during the peak prevalence of the three variants.

8.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819875

ABSTRACT

Introduction The association between preeclampsia and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is under study. Previous publications have hypothesized the existence of shared risk factors for both conditions or a deficient trophoblastic invasion as possible explanations for this association. The primary aim of this study was to examine baseline risk factors measured in the first-trimester combined screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women with COVID-19 compared with the general population. A secondary aim of this study was to compare risk factors among patients with mild and severe COVID-19. Material and Methods This was an observational retrospective study conducted at Vall d'Hebron Hospital Campus (Catalonia, Spain). Study patients were 231 pregnant women undergoing the first-trimester screening for preeclampsia and positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between February 2020 and September 2021. The reference cohort were 13?033 women of the general population from six centers across Catalonia from May 2019 to June 2021. Based on the need for hospitalization, patients were classified in two groups: mild and severe COVID-19. First-trimester screening for preeclampsia included maternal history, mean arterial blood pressure, mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI), placental growth factor (PlGF), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Results The proportion of cases at high risk for preeclampsia was significantly higher among the COVID-19 group compared with the general population (19.0% and 13.2%, respectively;p =?0.012). When analyzing risk factors for preeclampsia individually, women with COVID-19 had higher median body mass index (25.2 vs. 24.5, p =?0.041), higher UtAPI multiple of the median (MoM) (1.08 vs. 1.00, p <?0.001), higher incidence of chronic hypertension (2.8% vs. 0.9%, p =?0.015), and there were fewer smokers (5.7% vs. 11.6%, p =?0.007). The MoMs of PlGF and PAPP-A did not differ significantly between both groups (0.96 vs. 0.97, p =?0.760 and 1.00 vs. 1.01, p =?0.432;respectively). Conclusions In patients with COVID-19, there was a higher proportion of women at high risk for preeclampsia at the first-trimester screening than in the general population, mainly because of maternal risk factors, rather than placental signs of a deficient trophoblastic invasion.

9.
IEEE URUCON Conference (IEEE URUCON) ; : 368-371, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819857

ABSTRACT

The differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases is usually a challenge for medical specialists in the first line of care, increased under the current COVID-19 pandemic. A Clinical Decision Support System -CDSS- is being developed using Bayesian Networks - BNs - to help physicians diagnose respiratory diseases, including those related to COVID-19. Network structure has been elicited from expert physicians, and network parameters (diseases prevalence, symptoms, findings, and lab results conditional probabilities) were extracted from relevant bibliography or currently standard global information sources. The CDSS is being tested using case studies taken from real situations, provided and validated by physicians. The resulting system demonstrates the suitability and flexibility of BNs for diagnosis support and healthcare training.

10.
International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics ; 35(9):778-797, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819698

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has inspired several studies on the fluid dynamics of respiratory events. Here, we propose a computational approach in which respiratory droplets are coarse-grained into an Eulerian liquid field advected by the fluid streamlines. A direct numerical simulation is carried out for a moist cough using a closure model for space-time dependence of the evaporation time scale. Stokes-number estimates are provided, for the initial droplet size of 10 mu m, which are found to be MUCH LESS-THAN1, thereby justifying the neglect of droplet inertia, over the duration of the simulation. Several important features of the moist-cough flow reported in the literature using Lagrangian tracking methods have been accurately captured using our scheme. Some new results are presented, including the evaporation time for a 'mild' cough, a saturation-temperature diagram and a favourable correlation between the vorticity and liquid fields. The present approach can be extended for studying the long-range transmission of virus-laden droplets.

11.
Pneumologie ; 76(04):1, 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819644
12.
Pneumologie ; 76(04):1, 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819643
13.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 48:102348, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted stringent public health measures such as hand hygiene, face mask wearing, and physical distancing to contain the spread of the viral infection. In this retrospective study, the secondary outcomes of those public health measures on containing other respiratory infections among the Thai population were investigated. Hospitalization data spanning from 2016 to 2021 of six respiratory infectious diseases, namely influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis (TB), were examined. First, the expected respiratory infectious cases where no public health measures are in place are estimated using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Then the expected number of cases and the observed cases were compared. The results showed a significant drop in the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases by an average of 61%. The reduction in hospitalization is significant for influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever (p < 0.05), while insignificant for TB (p = 0.54). The notable decrease in the incidence of cases is ascribed to the implementation of public health measures that minimized the opportunity for spread of disease. This decline in cases following relaxation of pandemic countermeasure is contingent on its scope and nature, and it is proof that selective physical distancing, hand hygiene, and use of face masks in public places is a viable route for mitigating respiratory morbidities.

14.
Gondwana Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819496

ABSTRACT

Globally, wildfires have seen remarkable increase in duration and size and have become a health hazard. In addition to vegetation and habitat destruction, rapid release of smoke, dust and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere contributes to its short and long-term detrimental effects. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a public health concern worldwide that primarily target lungs and respiratory tract, akin to air pollutants. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated association between air pollution and COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. However, current knowledge on the impact of wildfire-mediated sudden outburst of air pollutants on COVID-19 is limited. In this study, we examined the association of air pollutants and COVID-19 during wildfires burned during August-October 2020 in California, United States. We observed an increase in the tropospheric pollutants including aerosols (particulate matter [PM]), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by approximately 150%, 100% and 20%, respectively, in 2020 compared to the 2019. Except ozone (O3), similar proportion of increment was noticed during the peak wildfire period (August 16 – September 15, 2020) in the ground PM2.5, CO, and NO2 levels at Fresno, Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego and San Francisco, cities with largest active wildfire area. We identified three different spikes in the concentrations of PM2.5, and CO for the cities examined clearly suggesting wildfire-induced surge in air pollution. Fresno and Sacramento showed increment in the ground PM2.5, CO and NO2 levels, while San Diego recorded highest change rate in NO2 levels. Interestingly, we observed a similar pattern of higher COVID-19 cases and mortalities in the cities with adverse air pollution caused by wildfires. These findings provide a logical rationale to strategize public health policies for future impact of COVID-19 on humans residing in geographic locations susceptible to sudden increase in local air pollution.

15.
Pulmonary Circulation ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819392

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), was the third leading cause of death in the US in 2020 and has caused more than 6 million deaths worldwide in the last two years This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education ; 37(1):1-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1819218

ABSTRACT

Résumé: En réponse à la pandémie de COVID, les cours universitaires ont dû être réalisés en ligne partout dans le monde. La littérature sur l'apprentissage en ligne a traditionnellement concerné les étudiants qui avaient choisi l'apprentissage en ligne. À la lumière des récents changements ayant eu lieu dans l'éducation, l'apprentissage en ligne continue de croÎtre dans l'éducation de tous les étudiants, incluant ceux qui n'auraient traditionnellement pas choisi ce médium. Dans cette recherche, nous explorons les expériences des étudiants dans l'apprentissage en ligne d'urgence dans deux cours de commerce de premier cycle. Grâce à l'utilisation des métadonnées de la plateforme d'apprentissage et des réponses des étudiants à l'enquête, cette recherche examine l'impact des diverses techniques pédagogiques utilisées dans la classe en ligne et leur capacité à maintenir la motivation des étudiants à s'engager dans le contenu de l'apprentissage. Finalement, nous concluons que l'offre de multiples possibilités d'engagement par l'utilisation d'outils synchrones et asynchrones est cruciale pour promouvoir la motivation des étudiants, l'apprentissage et la réussite du cours. Les incidences sur l'enseignement en classe et les recherches futures sont également discutées.Alternate :In response to the COVID pandemic, university classes across the world were forced online. The literature on online learning has traditionally focused on students who choose online learning. In light of recent shifts in education, online learning continues to increase its prevalence in the education of all students, including those who would not have traditionally chosen this medium. In this research, we explore students' experiences in emergency online learning in two undergraduate business classes. Through the use of the learning platform metadata and student survey responses, this research examines the impact of various pedagogical techniques used in the online classroom and their ability to maintain high student motivation to engage with the learning content. Ultimately, we conclude that providing multiple opportunities for engagement through the use of both synchronous and asynchronous tools is crucial to promoting student motivation, learning, and course success. Implications for classroom instruction and further research is also discussed.

17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):476-478, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819187

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 epidemic, many variables affected the severity of infection, including age, gender, and chronic conditions. In this study, we compared the levels of some immunological parameters (IL6, IFNγ) in Covid 19 patients and diabetic patients with Covid 19 across age groups and gender. Where the levels of interleukin-6 are higher than the normal range when infected with COVID-19 in all age groups and increased in patients without diabetes, where their levels are (210.04 ± 135.44). An increase in the level of IL6 indicates a severe infection with the COVID-19 virus, and this indicates transmission from moderate to severe or severe, as the results of the study did not show any significant differences at P>0.5, and IL6 levels increase in females than in males. Where it reaches (146.105±149.75) The high rate of IFNγ production also indicates support for immunity against infection with the Covid-19 virus, and the equation of its production indicates a low survival rate for patients, as it is produced by helper T cells. JPY 0.009 Where the levels of IFNγ increase significantly in middle ages, reaching (157.64 ± 158.54), and the levels of IFNγ are close between females and males, as they are (102.7 ± 130.27) (102.2 ± 93.12), respectively.

18.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):393-395, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819184

ABSTRACT

Background: In covid-19 related ARDS patients, early approach to proper health care facility and non-invasive ventilation lead to better outcome. Objective: To determine the outcome of covid-19 related ARDS patients at a tertiary care hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. Methodology: This retrospective study was carried out at department of ICU & anesthesiology in collaboration with department of Pulmonology, Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. A total of 74 (confirmed positive PCR) covid-19 ARDS patients with age of 18-90 years of either sex were admitted in covid ICU from June – December 2020. Patients with negative PCR for covid-19 or who presented in gasping condition or received dead were excluded from the study. Outcomes were labelled as recovered (survivors) or died (non-survivors) and treatment outcome was observed in both groups those who were on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23.0 Results: Out of 74 patients, 60 (81.08%) were male and 14 (18.02%) were female. Middle and old age patients were more affected as compared to young age group (p-value 0.01) and more than half 41 (55.40%) patients went in to severe ARDS. Regarding treatment outcome 44 (59.5%) patients received NIV and 30 (40.5%) patients received IMV. Survival rate better (35.4%) among the patients on NIV as compared to those on IMV (6.7%) respectively. Conclusion: Survival was better among the covid-19 ARDS patients who received NIV as compared to those on IMV. Keeping an eye on respiratory rate and SpO2 is the main factor for the early recognition of ARDS development and severity.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):387-390, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819183

ABSTRACT

Objective: The characteristics of the novel corona virus ailment 2019 (COVID-19) vs influenza were not described, such as blood test data. As a result, we compared the diagnostic features of COVID-19 and flu, along with blood test data. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. We enrolled individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020, and had they undergo blood tests. In comparing, we enlisted an equal percentage of participants who'd been identified with flu that had blood tests. Results: During the course of the study, 228 people were identified of COVID-19 (men:women ratio, 123 [54.0 percent]:105 [46.0 percent];age, 54.68 18.98 years). We also enlisted the help of 228 flu clients (male:female, 129 [56.6 percent ]:99 [43.4 percent ];age, 69.6 21.25 years). Clients with COVID-19 had a vastly greater age range of 15 to 70 years (vs. 71 years), respiratory problems, as well as ennui than someone with flu. Nevertheless, discomfort, a body temperature greater than 38.1oC, as well as a white blood cell count greater than 9000/lL were far more prevalent in flu patient populations. Conclusions: Our findings are helpful in distinguishing COVID-19 from flu, so they'll be remarkably helpful for future practice as we understand to interoperate with COVID-19.

20.
Kuwait Journal of Science ; : 12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819170

ABSTRACT

The world is under siege from a global pandemic caused by a novel class of coronaviruses called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). These viruses cause severe respiratory illness leading to death. Molecular studies reveal that SARS CoV-2 proteases are involved in the processing of viral polyproteins. This study was conducted to obtain antiviral agents for SARS CoV-2 proteases. An extensive library of antiviral medicinal compounds was scrutinized to determine the probable interaction with both main and 3-chymotrypsin like proteases. Six antiviral compounds (Abietic Acid, Gallic Acid, Piceatannol, Piperine, Sinomenine, and Triptolide) were capable of establishing hydrogen bonds with the active pocket residues of the viral proteases, with appreciable binding energy. These compounds were subjected to root mean square analysis and tested not only for acute toxicity, but also for absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Results were favourable for use in the treatment of SARS COV-2 infection.

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