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1.
Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research ; 12(1):45-50, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20241845

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been studied in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19). Methods: We studied the utility of treatment with tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients (n=19) with a negative nasopharyngeal swab real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 who had suggestive computed tomography (CT) findings, namely, COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) 4,5. Results: Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that serum IL 6 at a cut-off of >56.9 pg/L was a predictor of mortality in nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR negative patients with suggestive CT findings. Tocilizumab had no significant effect on the mortality. Conclusions: In nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR negative patients with suggestive chest CT findings, elevated serum IL-6 levels > 56.9 pg/L predicted mortality. However, treatment with tocilizumab had no effect on mortality.

2.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(11):1189-1195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238824

ABSTRACT

To develop a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), in this study, specific primers/probes were designed based on the conserved regions of M, M and N gene sequences of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, respectively. After optimization of the reaction conditions, a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV was established. The results of specificity assay showed that the method was positive for detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and negative for detection of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine rotavirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, classical swine fever virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. The results of sensitivity assay showed that the detection limit of this method for PEDV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV plasmids standard was 1.0x101 copies/L, and had a good linear relationship with their Ct values in the range of 101 copies/L to 106 copies/L. The results of repeatability assay showed that the coefficients of variation (CVs) of intra- and inter-assay reproducibility ranged from 0.33% to 2.53%, indicating good repeatability and stability. To evaluate the effects of the developed method, 100 clinical samples collected from different parts of Henan province were used for detection of these three viruses and compared with those of single RT-PCR and standard methods. The results of multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed that the positive rates of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV were 38% (38/100), 14% (14/100) and 5% (5/100), respectively. There was no mixed infection. The coincidence rate with the standard detection methods of PEDV and PDCoV was 100%, and the sensitivity was higher than that of single RT-PCR. In this study, a specific, sensitive and rapid multiplex fluorescent quantitative RTPCR method was established for the first time, which could be used for the differential detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and laid a foundation for the differential diagnosis and control of porcine diarrheal diseases.

3.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 45 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232484

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Compared to nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (N/OPS-VTM), non-invasive saliva samples have enormous potential for scalability and routine population screening of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of saliva samples relative to N/OPS-VTM for use as a direct source for RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 detection. Method(s): We collected paired nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs and saliva samples from suspected positive SARS-CoV-2 patients and tested using RT-PCR. We used generalized linear models to investigate factors that explain result agreement. Further, we used simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of saliva-based screening in restricting the spread of infection in a large campus such as an educational institution. Result(s): We observed a 75.4% agreement between saliva and N/OPS-VTM, that increased drastically to 83% in samples stored for less than three days. Such samples processed within two days of collection showed 74.5% test sensitivity. Our simulations suggest that a test with 75% sensitivity, but high daily capacity can be very effective in limiting the size of infection clusters in a workspace. Guided by these results, we successfully implemented a saliva-based screening in the Bangalore Life Sciences Cluster (BLiSC) campus. Conclusion(s): These results suggest that saliva may be a viable alternate source for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance if samples are processed immediately. Although saliva shows slightly lower sensitivity levels when compared to N/OPS-VTM, saliva collection is logistically advantageous. We strongly recommend the implementation of saliva-based screening strategies for large workplaces and in schools, as well as for population-level screening and routine surveillance as we learn to live with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Copyright © 2023 Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists

4.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(10):1059-1065, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2327435

ABSTRACT

Bovine rhinitis virus (BRV) is an important pathogen responsible for the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) and can be divided into two genotypes (BRAV and BRBV). To establish a duplex quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of BRAV and BRBV, specific primers and TaqMan probes targeting the 5'NTR of BRAV and 3'NTR of BRBV were designed. A duplex quantitative real- time RT- PCR assay for simultaneous detecting BRAV and BRBV was preliminarily established by optimizing reaction conditions for each step. The assay specifically detects BRAV and BRBV, and no crossreaction with other common bovine respiratory pathogens, including IDV, BCoV, BVDV-1, BRSV, BPIV-3, BAdV-3, mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella, was observed. In addition, the sensitivity test showed that the detection limits of this assay were 3.2x101 copies/L for both BRAV and BRBV plasmid standards. Besides, the repeatability test showed that the variation coefficients of this assay were less than 0.05 from both lot-to-lot and intra-lot. These results showed that the assay has high specificity, extreme sensitivity, and good repeatability. Moreover, a total of 43 nasal swabs of BRDC cattle were tested by our assay and four other quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays, including 3 BRAV assays and 4 BRBV assays. The results showed that the detection rates of our assay were 32.56%(14/43) for BRAV and 30.23%(13/43) for BRBV, and the detection rates of other quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays were 0(0/43), 2.33%(1/43), 23.26%(10/43) for BRAV and 27.91% (12/43), 27.91%(12/43), 27.91%(12/43), 27.91%(12/43) for BRBV, indicating that our assay has a more substantial detection capability than other assays. This study firstly established a duplex quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of BRAV and BRBV, and the assay exhibited high specificity, sensitivity, and stability. Moreover, the study firstly confirmed the existence of BRAV in China, contributing to the prevention and control of BRDC.

5.
Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 37(11):1388-1393, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2316627

ABSTRACT

Objective: Epidemiology and genetic variations of the infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) in Fujian province were studied. Method: Two strains of virus isolated from the diseased chickens in Fujian in 2021 were identified by chicken embryo pathogenicity test, electron microscope observation, and RT-PCR. S1 genes of the isolates were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed using biological software. Result: The two IBV strains were code named FJ-NP01 and FJ-FZ01. The full length of S1 of FJ-NP01 was 1 629 nt encoding 543 amino acids, and that of FJ-FZ01, 1 620 nt encoding 540 amino acids. The S1 gene cleavage site of FJ-FZ01 was HRRRR, same as all reference strains of genotype I branch;while that of FJ-NP01 HRRKR differed from the reported site of IBV isolated from genotype IV but same as that of TC07-2 reference strain of genotype VI. The homology of nucleotide and amino acid between the two isolates was 83.2% and 79.6%, respectively, but merely 75.7%-76.3%and 77.1%-83.5% with the Mass-type conventional vaccines H120 and H52, respectively. Further analysis showed that FJ-NP01was from a recombination event between CK CH GD LZ12-4 and L-1148, the homology of nucleotide acid between 1438-1506 nt of FJ-NP01 with CK CH GD LZ12-4 was 97%, and 95.9% between the other nucleotide acid of S1 gene with L-1148. Conclusion: It appeared that the IBV epidemic experienced in the province was complex in nature and that the existing Mass vaccines would not provide sufficient immune protection to deter the spread.

6.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(9):921-926, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2313055

ABSTRACT

In order to perform the isolation of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and study the pathogenicity of IBV isolate, the RT-PCR was used to detect nucleic acid extracted from a clinical sample of chickens, which were suspected to be infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and provided by a farmer in Yuncheng, Shanxi province. And the sample was detected as IBV positive by RT-PCR. Then 9-11-day-old SPF chicken embryonated eggs were inoculated with the sample filtered from the grinding fluid, and the obtained allantoic fluid was blindly passed by three generations (F3) and was also tested as IBV positive;The F11 generation passaged in embryonated eggs caused typical "dwarf embryo" lesions to SPF chicken embryonated eggs, and induced the loss of cilia in tracheal rings. The results showed that an IBV strain was isolated and named as YC181031. The S1 gene amplification and sequencing analysis showed that YC181031 strain belonged to IBV GI-22 genotype, which is also nephropathogenic type IBV. Seven-day-old SPF chicks were used to test the pathogenicity of the isolate. The results showed that several clinical symptoms were showed in chicks infected with YC181031, such as breathing with difficulty, depression, excreting watery droppings and death. The mortality of infected chicks was 20%. Typical pathological changes such as enlargement of kidney and urate deposition in the kidney were observed in infected chicks. The immunohistochemical assay and viral load detection were performed for the tissue samples from infected and dead chicks. The tissue lesions and distribution of virus were observed in the kidney, trachea, lung, glandular stomach, spleen and liver samples of infected chicks. RT-PCR detection of pharyngeal anal swabs showed that the virus shedding by infected chicks could be continuously detected within 14 days of the test period;The viral loads of various tissues were detected by RT-qPCR and the results showed that the viral load from high to low was kidney, trachea, lung, stomach, spleen and liver. The viral load of kidney was significantly higher than that of other tissues (P < 0.05).In this study, the pathogenicity characteristics of GI-22 genotype strain were systematically studied for the first time, providing a reference for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

7.
Annals of International Medical and Dental Research ; 8(5):27-33, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2303072

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge for healthcare systems worldwide. Earlier to SARS-CoV pandemic, coronaviruses were only thought to cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans. COVID 19 presents across a spectrum of symptoms. WHO recommends detection of unique sequences of virus RNA by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) such as real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The aim of this cross sectional study was analysis and confirmation of Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab specimen by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study that reviewed records of samples collected from June 2021 to March 2022. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab specimen were collected from suspected COVID-19 subjects of various districts of Punjab and referred to Viral Research Diagnostic Laboratory [VRDL], Government Medical College [GMC], Amritsar for laboratory analysis and confirmation by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: During the present study, a total of 11,27,005 samples were analyzed from June 2021 to March 2022 for SARS-CoV-2 detection by ICMR approved COVID-19 RT-PCR kits. Out of total 11,27,005 cases, 24,466 cases (2.17%) were found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive while 11,02,539 cases (97.83%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. Conclusions: Ever since the COVID-19 global pandemic emerged, the developing countries are facing challenges regarding its diagnosis. Isolation of the infected person will eventually decrease the Reproduction number i.e Ro which will further interrupt the transmission cycle leading to decrease in community spread.

8.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(23):3643-3647, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2270082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze multiple detection of 13 kinds of viruses in 500 children with acute respiratory tract infection in Hami of Xinjiang. METHODS: A total of 500 children with acute respiratory tract infection treated in the hospital between Jan 2018 and Jan 2021 were enrolled. Thirteen kinds of respiratory infection viruses including human respiratory syncytial virus(RSV), human rhinovirus(hRV), respiratory adenovirus(AdV), influenza A and B viruses(Inf A, Inf B), parainfluenza virus(PIV 1/2/3), human enterovirus(hEV), human metapneumovirus(hMPV), human coronavirus(hCoV 229E/OC43) and human Boca virus(hBoV) were detected by multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) amplification and capillary electrophoresis. And the results were compared with those by direct sequencing method. RESULTS: Of the 500 samples, 379 samples were positive(75.80%), and the top three detection rates were RSV(19.40%), hRV(16.00%) and Inf B(12.60%). The differences in positive rates of the respiratory virus among <1 year group, 1-3 years group and >3 years group were significant(84.97%, 77.47%, 65.45%)(P<0.05). The detection rate of RSV was the highest in <1 year group, and the detection rates of Inf A and Inf B were the highest in >3 years group. The differences in positive rates of respiratory viruses among the spring group, summer group, autumn group and winter group were significant(74.05%, 63.73%, 77.24%, 84.03%)(P<0.05). The detection rates of RSV, PIV 3, and hMPV were the highest in the winter group, and detection rate of AdV was the highest in spring group. CONCLUSION: RSV is the main infection virus in children with acute respiratory infection in Hami of Xinjiang. The distribution of respiratory viruses is related to age and onset season in children.

9.
Veterinarstvi ; 72(11):638-642, 2022.
Article in Czech | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2269523

ABSTRACT

Infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease in cats. This virus occurs both in cats bred in households with optimal welfare and outdoor cats. Feline patients with the effusive form of disease usually survive a few days to weeks from the appearance of the first clinical signs. Cats with the non- effusive form survive for weeks to months. FIPV is caused by a mutation from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). In our study, we diagnosed feline coronavirus from the feces of 82% of the tested cats. The persistence of the feline coronavirus in the organism is influenced by environmental factors, the genome of the host and the causative agent. Negative environmental conditions that increase the likelihood of FIPV disease are long-term stress, mainly more labile individuals and a high concentration of domesticated cats in one place. In the host, there are important factors such as immune system performance, age, breed and genetic background. In our study, we primarily verified the real time RT-PCR method for identifying the virus from the feces of 71 cats and subsequently gaine the valuable data on the dynamics of feline coronavirus excretion, primarily for epizootological purposes and for the purposes of genetic analyzes of susceptibility to infection.

10.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(7):984-988, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2268061

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess role of HRCT, RT-PCR in the evaluation of COVID-19 symptomatic patients. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the department of Radiology and Microbiology at Aarupadaiveedu Meddical College and Hospital . Eighty- five clinically suspects of COVID-19 patients of either gender was enrolled in the study and underwent RT-PCR test and HRCT Thorax . HRCT images were studied by Three radiologists independently. CURB- 65 and SOFA was recorded. Results: There were 50 males and 35 females in our study. Disease severity CURB was 1 and SOFA was 3. Chest CT had suspicious for COVID-19 in 45 and RT-PCR SARS-CoV2 positive in 40.42 had no comorbidity, 8 had peripheral vascular disease, 12 had cerebrovascular disease 13 had hypertension and 10 had diabetes mellitus. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). In all 40 patients of PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive, 35 HRCT were judged as suspicious for COVID-19. In 45 cases of PCR SARS-CoV-2 negative, 10 HRCT scans were judged as not suspicious for COVID-19. HRCT Thorax had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 77.8%, PPV of 77% and NPV of 87.5%. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of HRCT Thorax in symptomatic patients is good, but not good enough to safely diagnose or exclude COVID-19 patients. RT- PCR is useful in addition with HRCT in diagnosis of COVID-19 patients.

11.
Bulletin of Russian State Medical University ; 2022(6):119-125, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2266624

ABSTRACT

It has been proven that mRNA vaccines are highly effective against the COVID-19 outbreak, and low prevalence of side effects has been shown. However, there are still many gaps in our understanding of the biology and biosafety of nucleic acids as components of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) most often used as a system for inctracellular delivery of mRNA-based vaccines. It is known that LNPs cause severe injection site inflammation, have broad biodistribution profiles, and are found in multiple tissues of the body, including the brain, after administration. The role of new medications with such pharmacokinetics in inflammation developing in inaccessible organs is poorly understood. The study was aimed to assess the effects of various doses of mRNA-LNP expressing the reporter protein (0, 5, 10, and 20 microg of mRNA encoding the firefly luciferase) on the expression of neuroinflammation markers (Tnfalpha, Il1beta, Gfap, Aif1) in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus of laboratory animals 4, 8, and 30 h after the intramuscular injection of LNP nanoemulsion. It was shown that mRNA-LNP vaccines in a dose of 10-20 microg of mRNA could enhance Aif1 expression in the hypothalamus 8 h after vaccination, however, no such differences were observed after 30 h. It was found that the Gfap, l11beta, Tnfalpha expression levels in the hypothalamus observed at different times in the experimental groups were different. According to the results, mRNA-LNPs administered by the parenteral route can stimulate temporary activation of microglia in certain time intervals in the dose-dependent and site specific manner.Copyright © 2022 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University. All rights reserved.

12.
Acta Agriculturae Shanghai ; 38(5):84-88, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2283579

ABSTRACT

From 2017 to 2020, 1 078 piglet diarrhea samples were collected from 6 pig farms in different districts of Shanghai. Multiple RT-PCR method was used for detection and analysis to study the infection status of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in swinery in Shanghai. The results showed that the overall detection rate of BVDV in swinery in Shanghai was 7.14% (77/1 078), and showed an increasing trend year by year. The mixed infection rate of BVDV and other diarrhea pathogens was high, with the highest dual infection rate (65%, 26/40), mainly BVDV/PASTV (61.54%, 16/26). On this basis, the triple infection rate was 25% (10/40), mainly BVDV/PAStV/PKoV (40%, 4/10) infection mode;The quadruple infection rate was 10% (4/40), which was dominated by BVDV/PAStV/PEDV/PSV (50%, 2/4) infection. The BVDV prevalence in swinery was seasonal, and the prevalence in spring (10.36%) and autumn (13.59%) was higher than that in summer (6.8%) and winter (2.66%). The positive rate of BVDV in different pig farms was significantly different by 0-24.07%. In view of the detection rate of diarrhea virus dominated by PEDV in pig farm 2 had been high in recent years, this study further monitored the infection of BVDV in this pig farm, and found that the detection rate of BVDV in this pig farm was increasing year by year from 2017 to 2019, with the highest detection rate in 2019 (8.61%, 42/488);The mixed infection of BVDV and other diarrhea pathogens was also serious, with the dual infection rate of 57.58% (19/32), triple infection rate of 21.21% (7/32), quadruple infection rate of 21.21% (7/32), respectively. This study enriched the epidemic data of BVDV in swinery in Shanghai, and could provide reference for the prevention and control of pig epidemics.

13.
Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine ; 13(11):1201-1204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2261560

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 infection has affected the whole world. It has been speculated that the virus might hold on to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) surfaces of type 2 alveolar cells. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARBs) are essential antihypertensive and cardiac failure drugs in the guidelines. In this study, we aimed to find the effect of these drugs on clinical, laboratory courses, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Material(s) and Method(s): We included 109 patients in this study. There were 43 patients in the ACE/ARB group and 66 patients in the non-ACE/ARB group. The mean age was 60 years in the ACE/ARB group and 52 years old in the non-ACE/ARB group. Basal symptoms, hemogram, CRP, D-dimer, LDH, Ferritin, AST, duration of hospitalization, percentage of intensive care unit (ICU) need, length of stay in ICU were compared between the groups. Result(s): The mean age in the ACE/ARB group was higher than in the other group and was statistically significant (p=.027). The initial symptoms were not different. There were no differences between the laboratory results of the groups. The ICU need was higher in the patients who do not use the drug than in the users (p<.020). Discussion(s): ACE/ARB usage in COVID-19 patients did not worsen the course of the disease. However, ACE/ARB users before COVID-19 pandemic were taken to ICU at a low rate.Copyright © 2022, Derman Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

14.
African Journal of Microbiology Research ; 16(11):334-342, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2260281

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the PanbioTM Covid-19 Ag Rapid Test (Abbott) in a medical center in Ouagadougou. The PanbioTM COVID-19 Ag test was evaluated from January 26 to March 31, 2021 in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in the medical Centre of Kossodo. A total of 268 individuals were tested by both SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, and antigen RDT. Of these 268 individuals, 52 were positive and 216 were negative for COVID-19 RT-PCR. The performance parameters of the test and its Kappa agreement with the RT-PCR were calculated according to the presence or absence of symptoms in the patients on one hand, and according to the time onset of symptoms on the other hand. The sensitivity of the PanbioTM COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test ranged from 29.63% (95% CI: 13.75 to 50.18) among COVID-19 asymptomatic patients, to 87.5% (95% CI: 52.91 to97.76) among symptomatic patients with symptom onset time of 1-5 days. Similarly, the PanbioTM COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test specificity was 97.3% (95% CI: 90.58 to 99.67) and 96.4% (95% CI: 91.81 to 98.82) in symptomatic and asymptomatic RT PCR negative patients. The PanbioTM COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test shows good performance in detecting COVID-19 cases in patients with a symptom onset time of less than seven (7) days. This performance is even better when the symptom onset is reduced to five (5) days. The results show that the antigen RDT is not suitable for COVID-19 detection among asymptomatic patients.

15.
Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine ; 14(2):181-185, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2258373

ABSTRACT

Aim: Recent research have shown that immature granulocytes (IG) can be utilized to predict severe infection, inflammation, and sepsis. As a result, the ability of IG levels to predict the severity of severe COVID-19 and its association with prognosis were studied in our study. Material and Mthods: A total of 317 patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 in the emergency department were analyzed retrospectively. IGC and IG% levels were compared statistically between patient groups (survivors and non-survivors, those who received and did not get mechanical ventilation (MV) assistance, patients who required and did not require vasopressors, and hospital stays >=10 and <10 days). Result(s): When compared to patients who survived but did not get treatment, non-survivors who got MV and vasopressor support had substantially higher IGC and IG% values (for all p<0.001). Additionally, it was shown that the IG% of patients with hospital stays of >=10 days was substantially greater than that of patients with hospital stays of <10 days (p<0.001). While the IG% cut-off value was >0.45, it reached 75.5% sensitivity, 81.9% specificity, 87.6% NPV and 66.4% PPV for predicting mortality (AUC:0.86, p<0.001). Discussion(s): IG levels are a low-cost, easily accessible, and strong marker that may be used to predict mortality and prognosis in COVID-19 patients.Copyright © 2023, Derman Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

16.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(12) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2257887

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory viruses play important roles in respiratory tract infections;they are the major cause of diseases such as the common cold, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, etc., in humans that circulate more often in the cold seasons. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many strict public health measures, such as hand hygiene, the use of face masks, social distancing, and quarantines, were implemented worldwide to control the pandemic. Besides controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, these introduced measures might change the spread of other common respiratory viruses. Moreover, with COVID-19 vaccination and reducing public health protocols, the circulation of other respiratory viruses probably increases in the community. Objective(s): This study aims to explore changes in the circulation pattern of common respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pan-demic. Method(s): In the present study, we evaluated the circulation of seven common respiratory viruses (influenza viruses A and B, rhi-novirus, and seasonal human Coronaviruses (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1) and their co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in suspected cases of COVID-19 in two time periods before and after COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical nasopharyngeal swabs of 400 suspected cases of COVID-19 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and seven common respiratory viruses by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. Result(s): Our results showed common respiratory viruses were detected only in 10% and 8% of SARS-CoV-2-positive samples before and after vaccination, respectively, in which there were not any significant differences between them (P-value = 0.14). Moreover, common viral respiratory infections were found only in 12% and 32% of SARS-CoV-2-negative specimens before and after vaccination, respectively, in which there was a significant difference between them (P-value = 0.041). Conclusion(s): Our data showed a low rate of co-infection of other respiratory viruses with SARS-CoV-2 at both durations, before and after COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, the circulation of common respiratory viruses before the COVID-19 vaccination was lower, probably due to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI), while virus activity (especially influenza virus A) was significantly in-creased after COVID-19 vaccination with reducing strict public health measures.Copyright © 2023, Author(s).

17.
Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine ; 13(9):959-962, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2250880

ABSTRACT

Aim: Healthcare workers are an occupational group that is at the forefront of a pandemic process, where morbidity and mortality are intense. Deaths due to COVID-19 among workers in our country and in the world are reported mostly in healthcare workers. In this study, we aimed to analyze the rate of contracting COVID-19 among healthcare workers after vaccination and the clinical features of the disease. Material(s) and Method(s): Between January 14, 2021 and June 29, 2021, the diagnosis of COVID-19 in healthcare workers who had clinical complaints after a single dose and two doses of vaccination was made as a result of the evaluation of the patients' throat and nose swab samples by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The disease table of the positive patients was grouped as home treatment and hospital treatment by accessing clinical and laboratory records from electronic medical records. Result(s): At least one dose of vaccine was given to 11,540 (79.62%) of a total of 14,461 healthcare workers. COVID-19 positivity was detected in the PCR test performed on 51 single-dose vaccinated healthcare workers and 177 double-dose vaccinated healthcare workers with clinical complaints. While all patients vaccinated with a single dose were treated at home, 176 of the patients vaccinated with two doses were treated at home and 1 was treated in the hospital. Discussion(s): It has been seen that if countermeasures against COVID-19 are not taken, it could be a great disaster for the whole world, that the most important defense against this pandemic is vaccination, and that those who have COVID-19 after vaccination have a mild illness even if they have the disease.Copyright © 2022, Derman Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

18.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):2110-2116, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2249089

ABSTRACT

Like elsewhere around the globe, SARS-CoV-2 infection is spreading in rural Egypt. Due to high sensitivity and specificity, the gold standard of diagnostics is reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction PCR (RT-PCR). Rural areas without access to certified laboratories cannot take advantage of RT-PCR testing, and thus are dependent upon rapid antigen testing, a point-of-care test that requires less training and can produce results within 15 minutes. Rapid antigen testing can give an advantage to medical teams in rural settings by affording effective and early control of SARS-CoV-2 infection spread. We sought to assess the contribution of different COVID-19 testing procedures in rural Egypt. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a rural lab in Giza, Egypt. Approximately 223 individuals with potential SARS-CoV-2 infection were involved in the study during the pandemic peak in Giza, Egypt, from March 4 - May 30, 2021. Subjects were subjected to RT-PCR and rapid antigen testing, and the performance of each testing procedure was compared. Between March 4 - May 30, 2021, approximately 223 symptomatic individuals were included in this study. 190 patients (85.2%) were indicated as PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2, while 33 (14.8%) were PCR negative. In comparison, a rapid antigen test showed 178 out of 223 patients (79.8%) were indicated as positive, or 94% of the PCR-positive individuals. In Giza, a rural area of Egypt, RT-PCR had an optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity, however, the turnaround time was a limiting factor. Antigen testing, performed as a rapid point-of-care test, can play an effective role in rural outbreak control due to its ease of use and rapid results.

19.
Annals of International Medical and Dental Research ; 8(4):33-39, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2279685

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARSCoV-2 virus. After a December 2019 outbreak in China, the World Health Organization identified SARS-CoV-2 as a new type of coronavirus. Currently, WHO recommends detection of unique sequences of virus RNA by rRT-PCR. ICMR also recommends use of CBNAAT using Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV2. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 detected through CBNAAT. Material & Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from July 2020 to December 2021 at VRDL, GMC, Amritsar. The study group consisted of all the patients presenting with symptoms of Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) who presented to hospital. The data was collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: During the present study, a total of 1,259 samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by CBNAAT from July 2020 to December 2021. Out of total 1,259 cases which were included in the study, 327 cases (25.97%) were found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive while 870 cases (69.10%) were SARSCoV-2 negative and 62 cases were found to be inconclusive. 62 inconclusive samples were further tested by RT-PCR. Out of which, 15 were RT-PCR positive and 47 were RT-PCR negative. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has put forward unprecedented challenge to the public health system across countries to prepare themselves for this current crisis which included isolation, contact tracing, quarantine and enforcement of a nation wide lockdown starting 25th March, 2020.

20.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology ; 20(4):394-401, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2278218

ABSTRACT

Considering the increasing prevalence and burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and false-negative results in routine reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, additional diagnostic methods are needed to diagnose active cases of this disease. This prospective study was conducted on patients, in whom clinical and radiological symptoms/signs were in favor of COVID-19 while their first PCR test was negative. Later on, a second RT-PCR was performed and serological evaluation was carried out and results were compared with each other. Out of 707 patients who had been referred to the hospital and were clinically and radiologically suspicious of disease, 137 patients with negative RT-PCR tests entered the study. RT-PCR assay became positive for the second time in 45 (32.8%). Anti-COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibodies were positive in 83 (60.6%) and 86 (62.8%) patients, respectively. Finally, it was determined that serological test was diagnostic in 73% of patients and the diagnostic yield of serology was significantly higher after the first week of illness (54.8% in the first week and 88% after that). Taking advantage of both serological tests and RT-PCR helps in diagnosing 83.9% of cases. Based on the present study, the serology may be useful as a complementary test and in parallel to RT-PCR assay for diagnosis of COVID-19 among admitted symptomatic cases.

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